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Equal Protection Supreme Court Appellate Division Third Department, 2019 Touro College Jacob D. Fuchsberg Law Center

Equal Protection Supreme Court Appellate Division Third Department

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Due Process Supreme Court Appellate Division Third Department, 2019 Touro College Jacob D. Fuchsberg Law Center

Due Process Supreme Court Appellate Division Third Department

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Due Process Supreme Court Appellate Division Second Department, 2019 Touro College Jacob D. Fuchsberg Law Center

Due Process Supreme Court Appellate Division Second Department

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Police Union Contracts, Stephen Rushin 2019 Loyola University Chicago School of Law

Police Union Contracts, Stephen Rushin

Stephen Rushin

This Article empirically demonstrates that police departments' internal disciplinary procedures, often established through the collective bargaining process, can serve as barriers to officer accountability.

Policymakers have long relied on a handful of external legal mechanisms like the exclusionary rule, civil litigation, and criminal prosecution to incentivize reform in American police departments. In theory, these external legal mechanisms should increase the costs borne by police departments in cases of officer misconduct, forcing rational police supervisors to enact rigorous disciplinary procedures. But these external mechanisms have failed to bring about organizational change in local police departments. This Article argues that state labor ...


Choosing Medical Malpractice, Nadia N. Sawicki 2019 Loyola University Chicago, School of Law

Choosing Medical Malpractice, Nadia N. Sawicki

Nadia N. Sawicki

Modern principles of patient autonomy and health care consumerism are at odds with medical malpractice law's traditional skepticism towards the defenses of contractual waiver and assumption of risk. Many American courts follow a patient-protective view, exemplified by the reasoning in the seminal Tunkl case, rejecting any attempts by physicians to relieve themselves of liability on the grounds of a patient's agreement to assume the risk of malpractice. However, where patients pursue unconventional treatments that satisfy their personal preferences but that arguably fall outside the standard of care, courts have good reason to be more receptive to such defenses ...


Problem With Your Bank Account? Tell It To The... Arbitrator?, Michael Koch 2019 Boston College Law School

Problem With Your Bank Account? Tell It To The... Arbitrator?, Michael Koch

Boston College Law Review

An increasing number of consumer financial products have begun to come pre-packaged with binding individual arbitration agreements. The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau’s rule forbidding these agreements sought to ensure that consumers damaged by their banks’ actions could have their day in court. When Congress chose to repeal the so called “Arbitration Rule” in 2017, it dealt a serious blow to consumers’ rights. Consumers are nearly universally precluded from joining class action claims against large financial institutions due to the widespread and largely unfettered use of class-action waivers in arbitration agreements. This Note argues that class-action waivers should be regulated ...


Modernizing Informed Consent: Expanding The Boundaries Of Materiality, Nadia N. Sawicki 2019 Loyola University Chicago, School of Law

Modernizing Informed Consent: Expanding The Boundaries Of Materiality, Nadia N. Sawicki

Nadia N. Sawicki

Informed consent law’s emphasis on the disclosure of purely medical information – such as diagnosis, prognosis, and the risks and benefits of various treatment alternatives – does not accurately reflect modern understandings of how patients make medical decisions. Existing common law disclosure duties fail to capture a variety of non-medical factors relevant to patients, including information about the physician’s personal characteristics; the cost of treatment; the social implications of various health care interventions; and the legal consequences associated with diagnosis and treatment. Although there is a wealth of literature analyzing the merits of such disclosures in a few narrow contexts ...


A Commercial Law For Software Contracting, Michael L. Rustad, Elif Kavusturan 2019 Suffolk University Law School

A Commercial Law For Software Contracting, Michael L. Rustad, Elif Kavusturan

Washington and Lee Law Review

Since the 1980s, software is at the core of most modern organizations, most products and most services. Part II of this Article examines how the U.C.C. evolved as the primary source of law for the first generation of computer contracts during the mainframe computer era. Part III examines how courts have overextended U.C.C. Article 2, as the main source of law for software licensing, to the limits. Part IV argues that the ALI and the NCCUSL should propose a new Article 2B for software licensing. Part V recommends a new Article 2C for “software as a ...


A New Look At Contract Mistake Doctrine And Personal Injury Releases, Grace M. Giesel 2019 University of Louisville

A New Look At Contract Mistake Doctrine And Personal Injury Releases, Grace M. Giesel

Grace M. Giesel

One might expect a court to look very skeptically when a party to a personal injury release asks a court to set aside the release. But many courts have reacted atypically when injured parties who have settled their claims have sought to have those releases set aside on the basis of a lack of understanding or knowledge about the injury. Absent facts supporting a claim of fraud or duress, injured parties have turned to the mistake doctrine for relief.


Liquidated Damages: An Analysis Of Their Use And Effectiveness, Alfredo N. Aragon 2019 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Liquidated Damages: An Analysis Of Their Use And Effectiveness, Alfredo N. Aragon

Construction Management

A construction company’s success and/or failure is dependent upon project completion with respect to time and budget. Failure to meet the contract completion date results in a loss of profit for owners and contractors alike. In order to help mitigate project delays, liquidated damage clauses have been included into construction contracts. Incorporating provisions within the construction contracts in the form of liquidated damages aims to help shift the financial burden when there is a failure to meet contractual obligations, hopefully offering quick compensation for delays. Unlike general or actual damages, liquidated damages are pre-defined and agreed upon prior ...


Impact Transaction - Using Collective Impact Relational Contracts To Redefine Social Change In The Urban Core, Patience A. Crowder 2019 University of Denver Sturm College of Law

Impact Transaction - Using Collective Impact Relational Contracts To Redefine Social Change In The Urban Core, Patience A. Crowder

Tennessee Journal of Race, Gender, & Social Justice

Called a “protest anthem” for urban America, Inner City Blues, the final single from R&B artist Marvin Gaye’s award-wining album What’s Going On, documents American urban life by detailing the systemic barriers to economic independence and social equality that plagued urban residents and the impact of these barriers on their daily lives. The song (and album) were released in 1971 as Gaye’s journalistic exploration of the poverty-induced challenges and frustrations of urban life. Almost fifty years later, unfortunately, not much has changed. This is because the operation of law in urban communities historically not been designed ...


Apple V. Pepper: Rationalizing Antitrust’S Indirect Purchaser Rule, Herbert J. Hovenkamp 2019 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Apple V. Pepper: Rationalizing Antitrust’S Indirect Purchaser Rule, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In Apple v. Pepper the Supreme Court held that consumers who allegedly paid too much for apps sold on Apple’s iStore could sue Apple for antitrust damages because they were “direct purchasers.” The decision reflects some bizarre complexities that have resulted from the Supreme Court’s 1977 decision in Illinois Brick, which held that only direct purchasers could sue for overcharge injuries under the federal antitrust laws. The indirect purchaser rule was problematic from the beginning. First, it was plainly inconsistent with the antitrust damages statute, which gives an action to “any person who shall be injured in his ...


Preface, Peter L. Strauss 2019 Columbia Law School

Preface, Peter L. Strauss

Chicago-Kent Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Use Of Soft Law In The Creation Of Legal Norms In International Commercial Law: How Successful Has It Been?, Henry Deeb Gabriel 2019 Elon University

The Use Of Soft Law In The Creation Of Legal Norms In International Commercial Law: How Successful Has It Been?, Henry Deeb Gabriel

Michigan Journal of International Law

In this Article, I examine several interrelated points. After defining soft law in Part II, I briefly set out some of the assumed advantages soft law instruments may have over legislation and regulations in Part III. In Part IV, I examine why some soft law instruments in international commercial law have been successful in creating international legal norms. In this Part, I specifically examine the UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts to show how one might gauge success by looking beyond the express purpose of the instrument. I also compare the UNIDROIT Principles of Commercial Contracts with the American Law ...


Offshore Drilling: Combating Regulatory Uncertainty With Contract Law Protection, Jordan M. Steele 2019 Brooklyn Law School

Offshore Drilling: Combating Regulatory Uncertainty With Contract Law Protection, Jordan M. Steele

Brooklyn Journal of Corporate, Financial & Commercial Law

Offshore drilling accounts for billions of dollars in tax revenue every year. It is a pillar of the energy industry and is crucial to the economy. A recent flurry of deregulation, accelerating with the arrival of the Trump administration, highlights the tremendous impact politics has upon the profitability of this sector. The Secretary of the Interior, under the direction of the President, wields the power to regulate and make determinations into where, when, and how private companies can drill offshore. These private companies have contracts with the government for the opportunity to produce and develop oil or gas on the ...


The Visual Artists Rights Act's "Recognized Stature" Provision: A Case For Repeal, Drew Thornley 2019 Stephen F. Austin State University

The Visual Artists Rights Act's "Recognized Stature" Provision: A Case For Repeal, Drew Thornley

Cleveland State Law Review

Using as a case study the recent “5Pointz” litigation, a case involving visual artists’ moral-rights claims to graffiti they drew on a piece of private property in Queens, New York, this article examines the threat that Visual Artists Rights Act (VARA)’s grant to visual artists of the right “to prevent any destruction of a work of recognized stature” poses to common-law property and contract rights. This article advances the argument that the default legal rule should be that the rights of property owners (real or personal), including the right to destroy such properties, trump any moral rights that visual ...


Online Terms As In Terrorem Devices, Colin P. Marks 2019 University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law

Online Terms As In Terrorem Devices, Colin P. Marks

Maryland Law Review

Online shopping has quickly replaced the brick-and-mortar experience for a large portion of the consuming public. The online transaction itself is rote: browse items, add them to your cart, and check out. Somewhere along the way, the consumer is likely made aware of (or at least exposed to) the merchant’s terms and conditions, via either a link or a pop-up box. Such terms and conditions have become so ubiquitous that most consumers would be hard-pressed to find a merchant that doesn’t try to impose them somewhere on their website. Though such terms and conditions are pervasive, most consumers ...


Say On Purpose: Lessons From Chinese Corporate Charters, Li-Wen Lin 2019 Allard School of Law at the University of British Columbia

Say On Purpose: Lessons From Chinese Corporate Charters, Li-Wen Lin

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Toward A Fairer Model Of Consumer Assent To Standard Form Contracts: In Defense Of Restatement Subsection 211(3), Wayne R. Barnes 2019 Selected Works

Toward A Fairer Model Of Consumer Assent To Standard Form Contracts: In Defense Of Restatement Subsection 211(3), Wayne R. Barnes

Wayne R. Barnes

Standard form contracts permeate our very existence, and now even include contracts we assent to online by way of "clickwrap" and "browsewrap" methods. Notwithstanding the ever-increasing presence and complexity of such standard form contracts, both offline and online, the law of contracts in this area has remained fairly static since before the nineteenth century. The only meaningful salve to the problem of misinformed assent to onerous clauses in standard form contracts thus far has been the unconscionability doctrine, but that doctrine tends to be reserved for the harshest and severest terms. Therefore, a new tool is needed for courts to ...


Toward A Fairer Model Of Consumer Assent To Standard Form Contracts: In Defense Of Restatement Subsection 211(3), Wayne R. Barnes 2019 Selected Works

Toward A Fairer Model Of Consumer Assent To Standard Form Contracts: In Defense Of Restatement Subsection 211(3), Wayne R. Barnes

Wayne R. Barnes

Standard form contracts permeate our very existence, and now even include contracts we assent to online by way of "clickwrap" and "browsewrap" methods. Notwithstanding the ever-increasing presence and complexity of such standard form contracts, both offline and online, the law of contracts in this area has remained fairly static since before the nineteenth century. The only meaningful salve to the problem of misinformed assent to onerous clauses in standard form contracts thus far has been the unconscionability doctrine, but that doctrine tends to be reserved for the harshest and severest terms. Therefore, a new tool is needed for courts to ...


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