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26,434 full-text articles. Page 6 of 613.

Standing For Nothing, Robert A. Mikos 2019 Vanderbilt University Law School

Standing For Nothing, Robert A. Mikos

Notre Dame Law Review

A growing number of courts and commentators have suggested that states have Article III standing to protect state law. Proponents of such “protective” standing argue that states must be given access to federal court whenever their laws are threatened. Absent such access, they claim, many state laws might prove toothless, thereby undermining the value of the states in our federal system. Furthermore, proponents insist that this form of special solicitude is very limited—that it opens the doors to the federal courthouses a crack but does not swing them wide open. This Essay, however, contests both of these claims, and ...


An Organizational Account Of State Standing, Katherine M. Crocker 2019 William and Mary Law School

An Organizational Account Of State Standing, Katherine M. Crocker

Notre Dame Law Review

Again and again in regard to recent high-profile disputes, the legal community has tied itself in knots over questions about when state plaintiffs should have standing to sue in federal court, especially in cases where they seek to sue federal-government defendants. Lawsuits challenging everything from the Bush administration’s environmental policies to the Obama administration’s immigration actions to the Trump administration’s travel bans have become mired in tricky and technical questions about whether state plaintiffs belonged in federal court.

Should state standing cause so much controversy and confusion? This Essay argues that state plaintiffs are far more like ...


The Private Rights Of Public Governments, Seth Davis 2019 University of California, Berkeley School of Law

The Private Rights Of Public Governments, Seth Davis

Notre Dame Law Review

This Essay charts the analytical and doctrinal confusion arising from the category of “proprietary” interests in state standing law. This category might be taken literally to include only the ownership of property and interests that stem from it. It might refer to interests that are analogous to those that a private corporation might litigate, or instead to any type of financial injury a state might suffer. Other possibilities would limit “proprietary” interests to those interests recognized under the common law, or only those interests recognized under private law. Perhaps the most that can be said is that “proprietary” interests should ...


State Standing's Uncertain Stakes, Aziz Z. Huq 2019 University of Chicago Law School

State Standing's Uncertain Stakes, Aziz Z. Huq

Notre Dame Law Review

I offer a quite modest contribution to debates on state standing. I do not offer “right answers.” Rather, I posit that it is useful to understand the “stakes” of state standing. By “stakes,” I mean the practical consequences of resolving, one way or another, the unsettled doctrinal choices respecting the ability of states to initiate a matter in federal courts. Why, that is, does state standing matter? An inquiry into stakes can usefully proceed stepwise. A first task is to identify the subset of state standing cases that presently elicit division among the Justices. A second task is to articulate ...


Grinding Down The Edges Of The Free Expression Right In Hong Kong, Stuart Hargreaves 2019 Brooklyn Law School

Grinding Down The Edges Of The Free Expression Right In Hong Kong, Stuart Hargreaves

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

In the liberal-democratic tradition limits on speech must be clear, precise, and subject to justification within the particular constitutional framework of a given jurisdiction. In the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR), the Court of Final Appeal has developed a line of jurisprudence that explains under which circumstances the Government of Hong Kong (Government) may seek to limit the free speech provisions contained within the Basic Law, Hong Kong's quasi-constitution. In its fight against ‘localists,’ however, rather than legislating a clear speech restriction that is consistent with this jurisprudence, the Government has instead attempted to suppress unwelcome political speech ...


Forging Taiwan’S Legal Identity, Margaret K. Lewis 2019 Brooklyn Law School

Forging Taiwan’S Legal Identity, Margaret K. Lewis

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

The legal system in Taiwan is undergoing a transformation. Over a hundred years since the founding of the Republic of China and over thirty years since the end of martial law on Taiwan, a new legal identity is being forged. Public criticism of “dinosaur” judges and esoteric debates among law-trained elites have galvanized efforts to create a more inclusive discussion surrounding legal reforms. Taiwan is facing the challenge of moving from dinosaurs to dynamism. This Article argues that transparency, clarity, and participation both are animating principles of the current reform debate and are beginning to emerge as characteristics of Taiwan ...


Roots Of Revolution: The African National Congress And Gay Liberation In South Africa, Joseph S. Jackson 2019 Brooklyn Law School

Roots Of Revolution: The African National Congress And Gay Liberation In South Africa, Joseph S. Jackson

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

South Africa’s post-apartheid constitutions were the first in the world to contain an explicit prohibition of discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation, and that prohibition established the foundation for marriage equality and broad judicial and legislative protection of gay rights in South Africa. The source of this gay rights clause in the South African Constitution can be found in the African National Congress’s decision to include such a clause in the ANC’s A Bill of Rights for a New South Africa, published when the apartheid government of South Africa was still in power. This article traces the ...


Safeguarding Democracy In Europe: A Bulwark Against Hungary’S Subversion Of Civil Society, Hannah J. Sarokin 2019 Brooklyn Law School

Safeguarding Democracy In Europe: A Bulwark Against Hungary’S Subversion Of Civil Society, Hannah J. Sarokin

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

Spurred in large part by a mounting humanitarian crisis in Syria, the 2015 migrant crisis exposed deeply rooted fractures within the European Union regarding refugee resettlement. While the European Union worked to develop a synchronized response to the influx of refugees and asylees, Hungary defiantly sought to close its borders. In doing so, the Hungarian government targeted not only those seeking refuge, but its own civil society. In a series of opaque and overtly punitive legislative acts passed in the summer of 2018, Hungary criminalized any civil society activities that facilitate or assist with immigration. This Note will analyze the ...


Adjudicating Dignity: Judicial Motivations And Justice Kennedy’S Jurisprudence Of Dignity, Allyson C. Yankle, Daniel Tagliarina 2019 University of California, Hastings College of the Law

Adjudicating Dignity: Judicial Motivations And Justice Kennedy’S Jurisprudence Of Dignity, Allyson C. Yankle, Daniel Tagliarina

Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly

Drawing primarily on scholarship concerning legal motivation and the decisionmaking of Supreme Court median justices, we use Justice Kennedy’s opinions as a case study to examine how institutional position on the Supreme Court allows median justices to look beyond policy goals and consider legal goals and motivations in their decision-making. We argue that Kennedy’s unique position on the Court as the median justice allows him to pursue legal considerations, including his seemingly idiosyncratic conception of dignity. Kennedy provides an example of how median justices can use their position to not only pursue policy and political outcomes, but also ...


British Impeachments (1376 - 1787) And The Preservation Of The American Constitutional Order, Frank O. Bowman III 2019 University of California, Hastings College of the Law

British Impeachments (1376 - 1787) And The Preservation Of The American Constitutional Order, Frank O. Bowman Iii

Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly

Impeachment is a British invention. It arose as one of a set of tools employed by Parliament in its long contest with the Crown over the reach of the monarch’s authority. British impeachment practice matters to Americans because the Founders’ understanding of British history influenced their decision to include impeachment in the American constitution and their conception of how impeachment fit in a balanced system of ostensibly co-equal branches. The Article traces the evolution of Parliament’s use of impeachment and of the categories of behavior it designated as impeachable. These included: armed rebellion and other overt treasons; common ...


Abandoned Or Unattended? The Outer Limit Of Fourth Amendment Protection For Homeless Persons’ Property, Tim Donaldson 2019 University of California, Hastings College of the Law

Abandoned Or Unattended? The Outer Limit Of Fourth Amendment Protection For Homeless Persons’ Property, Tim Donaldson

Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly

Homelessness in America has become an epidemic problem. Homeless encampments can be found in public areas of almost every major city, and the resulting accumulation of waste, debris, and other items in those areas presents public health and safety concerns. Many cities have responded to those challenges by periodically clearing or cleaning campsites and must determine, often among tons of materials, what may be collected and discarded. This article reviews the constitutional treatment of abandoned property versus unabandoned property. It proposes guidelines for determining when unattended property left in public areas by homeless persons may be considered abandoned and beyond ...


Protecting Native Women From Violence: Fostering State-Tribal Relations And The Shortcomings Of The Violence Against Women Act Of 2013, Dayna Olson 2019 University of California, Hastings College of the Law

Protecting Native Women From Violence: Fostering State-Tribal Relations And The Shortcomings Of The Violence Against Women Act Of 2013, Dayna Olson

Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly

Native American women face violence at astronomically high rates compared to any other ethnic group in the United States. These staggering statistics are laregly the result of conflicting criminal jurisdiction between tribal, state, and federal prosecutors. As a result, crimes of intimate partner violence that take place on tribal reservations often go unpunished, leaving these women with little to no recourse. In 2013, President Obama signed the reauthorization of the Violence Against Women Act. This landmark legislation created the Special Domestic Violence Criminal Jurisdiction, which gave Native American tribes the authority to prosecute a narrow set of non-tribal members for ...


Legislative Design And The Controllable Costs Of Special Legislation, Evan C. Zoldan 2019 University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law

Legislative Design And The Controllable Costs Of Special Legislation, Evan C. Zoldan

Maryland Law Review

Legislation that singles out an identifiable individual for benefits or harms that do not apply to the rest of the population is called “special legislation.” In previous work, I have argued that special legislation is constitutionally suspect. In this Article, I explore the normative consequences of special legislation, assessing both the costs it imposes and the benefits that it can provide. Drawing on constitutional theory, public choice theory, and the history of special legislation, I argue that the enactment of special legislation is costly when it reflects the corruption of the legislative process and leads to low-quality legislation, unjustifiably unequal ...


British Impeachments (1376-1787) And The Preservation Of The American Constitutional Order, Frank O. Bowman III 2019 University of Missouri School of Law

British Impeachments (1376-1787) And The Preservation Of The American Constitutional Order, Frank O. Bowman Iii

Faculty Publications

Impeachment is a British invention, employed by Parliament beginning in 1376 to resist the general tendency of the monarchy to absolutism and to counter particularly obnoxious royal policies by removing the ministers who implemented them. The invention crossed the Atlantic with the British colonists who would one day rebel against their mother country and create an independent United States of America. During the Constitutional Convention of 1787, the delegates decided that presidents and other federal officers could be impeached, but they recoiled from the severe and occasionally fatal punishments imposed by Parliament, and they wrestled over what conduct should be ...


Masterpiece Cakeshop And The Future Of Religious Freedom, Mark L. Movsesian 2019 St. John's University School of Law

Masterpiece Cakeshop And The Future Of Religious Freedom, Mark L. Movsesian

Faculty Publications

Last term, the Supreme Court decided Masterpiece Cakeshop, one of several recent cases in which religious believers have sought to avoid the application of public accommodations laws that ban discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. The Court’s decision was a narrow one that turned on unique facts and did relatively little to resolve the conflict between anti-discrimination laws and religious freedom. Yet Masterpiece Cakeshop is significant, because it reflects broad cultural and political trends that drive that conflict and shape its resolution: a deepening religious polarization between the Nones and the Traditionally Religious; an expanding conception of equality ...


The Sickness Unto Death Of The First Amendment, Marc O. DeGirolami 2019 St. John's University School of Law

The Sickness Unto Death Of The First Amendment, Marc O. Degirolami

Faculty Publications

The sickness unto death, in Søren Kierkegaard’s work of the same name, is the anxiety and despair an individual experiences in recognizing that the self is separated from what is collective, extrinsic, or transcendent. Something like this condition now afflicts the First Amendment. The sickness unto death of the First Amendment is that the spectacular success of free speech and religious freedom as American constitutional rights on premises of liberal, individual autonomy has been the very cause of mounting and powerful collective anxiety. The impressive growth of these rights has rendered them fragile, if not actually unsustainable, in their ...


Recommendations For Improving Firearms Vetting In Massachusetts, Robert C. Devine 2019 University of Massachusetts School of Law

Recommendations For Improving Firearms Vetting In Massachusetts, Robert C. Devine

University of Massachusetts Law Review

The United States is in a state of conflict over the ability to obtain firearms as well as their use in highly publicized mass shootings. On December 14, 2012, Adam Lanza obtained several firearms that were lawfully owned by his mother, but were improperly secured. Lanza killed his mother that morning and then drove a short distance to the Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut where he murdered twenty-six people, many of whom were small children. Lanza eventually turned a gun on himself before being confronted by responding officers. Though mass shootings are often headlines in this country, the ...


The Commerce Clause, The Preposition, And The Rational Basis Test, James M. McGoldrick Jr. 2019 University of Massachusetts School of Law

The Commerce Clause, The Preposition, And The Rational Basis Test, James M. Mcgoldrick Jr.

University of Massachusetts Law Review

In Gonzales v. Raich, the United States Supreme Court upheld the application of the federal Controlled Substances Act to bar the use of state-grown marijuana for instate personal medical use. In so doing, the Court ratified the expansion of Congress’ commerce power beyond any known limits. It abandoned the “substantial effects” test that it had used since 1937 and applied the “rational basis” test. This Article traces the historical development of Congress’ enumerated powers from the earliest cases, emphasizing the expansive view of commerce power found in Gibbons v. Ogden. From that strong beginning for the commerce power, the Article ...


The Death Penalty And The Fundamental Right To Life, Kevin M. Barry 2019 Quinnipiac University School of Law

The Death Penalty And The Fundamental Right To Life, Kevin M. Barry

Boston College Law Review

For over forty years, the Supreme Court has held that the death penalty is not invariably cruel and unusual in violation of the Eighth Amendment. But the Court has never addressed—let alone decided—whether the death penalty per se deprives the fundamental right to life in violation of substantive due process. The legal literature has followed suit, scarcely addressing the issue. This Article makes the case for why the death penalty violates the fundamental right to life. It first argues that the condemned have a fundamental right to life based on a history and tradition of diminished support for ...


The Declaration Of Independence And Constitutional Interpretation, Alexander Tsesis 2019 Loyola University Chicago, School of Law

The Declaration Of Independence And Constitutional Interpretation, Alexander Tsesis

Alexander Tsesis

This Article argues that the Reconstruction Amendments incorporated the human dignity values of the Declaration of Independence. The original Constitution contained clauses, which protected the institution of slavery, that were irreconcilable with the normative commitments the nation had undertaken at independence. The Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments set the country aright by formally incorporating the Declaration of Independence's principles for representative governance into the Constitution.

The Declaration of Independence provides valuable insights into matters of human dignity, privacy, and self-government. Its statements about human rights, equality, and popular sovereignty establish a foundational rule of interpretation. While the Supreme Court ...


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