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Selected Works

Dennis P. Culhane

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Articles 1 - 30 of 49

Full-Text Articles in Urban Studies and Planning

Book Review: How To House The Homeless. Edited By Ingrid Gould Ellen And Brendan O'Flaherty. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2010, Dennis P. Culhane Aug 2015

Book Review: How To House The Homeless. Edited By Ingrid Gould Ellen And Brendan O'Flaherty. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2010, Dennis P. Culhane

Dennis P. Culhane

No abstract provided.


The Finnish Homelessness Strategy: An International Review, Nicholas Pleace, Dennis P. Culhane, Riitta Granfelt, Marcus Knutagard Dec 2014

The Finnish Homelessness Strategy: An International Review, Nicholas Pleace, Dennis P. Culhane, Riitta Granfelt, Marcus Knutagard

Dennis P. Culhane

The review covered the whole of the programme to reduce long-term homelessness implemented during 2008–2011 and 2012–2015, Paavo I and Paavo II. The review focused on the programme as a whole as well as its different aspects from the point of view of implementing the Housing First model in Finnish society. The review report described work on homelessness done in the United Kingdom, Sweden and the USA, focusing particularly on operating practices that could be used in work on homelessness in Finland. The review is based on the background materials collected for the evaluation team as well as ...


Homelessness Research: Shaping Policy And Practice, Now And Into The Future, Dennis P. Culhane, Vince R. Kane, Mark Johnston Nov 2013

Homelessness Research: Shaping Policy And Practice, Now And Into The Future, Dennis P. Culhane, Vince R. Kane, Mark Johnston

Dennis P. Culhane

As this special issue of the journal well reflects, much progress has been made in homelessness research. That progress has been matched with advances in homelessness policy and programming, nearly all of it informed by the contributions of the research community. While the imperatives of policy-making have required decisions to be made with imperfect knowledge, a substantial enough convergence of theory and evidence has enabled policymakers to shift homelessness policy and practice in important ways. Those shifts have also prefigured some of policymakers’ needs from the research community in the future.


Housing Chronically Homeless Veterans: Evaluating The Efficacy Of A Housing First Approach To Hud-Vash, Ann Elizabeth Montgomery, Lindsay L. Hill, Vincent Kane, Dennis P. Culhane Feb 2013

Housing Chronically Homeless Veterans: Evaluating The Efficacy Of A Housing First Approach To Hud-Vash, Ann Elizabeth Montgomery, Lindsay L. Hill, Vincent Kane, Dennis P. Culhane

Dennis P. Culhane

Rapidly placing homeless Veterans with severe mental illness into permanent housing is one important goal of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development-Veterans Affairs Supportive Housing (HUD-VASH) program; however, no research has tested whether an explicit organizational alignment of this goal with revised practices could improve outcomes. A demonstration project initiated in 2010 to reform housing placement practices in a metropolitan area enabled researchers to compare an explicit “Housing First” program—offering immediate permanent housing without requiring treatment compliance, abstinence, or “housing readiness”—with a treatment-first program for 177 homeless Veterans. The Housing First initiative successfully reduced time ...


The Age Structure Of Contemporary Homelessness: Evidence And Implications For Public Policy, Dennis P. Culhane, Stephen Metraux, Thomas Byrne, Magdi Steno, Jay Bainbridge Jan 2013

The Age Structure Of Contemporary Homelessness: Evidence And Implications For Public Policy, Dennis P. Culhane, Stephen Metraux, Thomas Byrne, Magdi Steno, Jay Bainbridge

Dennis P. Culhane

Amidst concern about the implications of an aging U.S. population, recent evidence suggests that there is a unique aging trend among the homeless population. Building on this, we use data from New York City and from the last three decennial Census enumerations to assess how the age composition of the homeless population—both single adults and adults in families—has changed over time. Findings show diverging trends in aging patterns for single adults and adults in families over the past 20 years. Among single adults, the bulk of the sheltered population is comprised of persons born during the latter ...


The Aging Of Contemporary Homelessness, Dennis P. Culhane, Stephen Metraux, Thomas Byrne, Magdi Stino, Jay Bainbridge Dec 2012

The Aging Of Contemporary Homelessness, Dennis P. Culhane, Stephen Metraux, Thomas Byrne, Magdi Stino, Jay Bainbridge

Dennis P. Culhane

Homelessness is currently at a demographic crossroad. This presents a unique opportunity for hastening its demise. In the thirty years since homelessness first manifested itself in American cities in its contemporary form, it has ascended to one of the most prominent American social problems. Despite the current push by advocacy organizations to end homelessness, many expect it will always be with us. In its longevity, however, lies the potential for its decline, provided we do not repeat this cycle with a new generation of homeless.


Rethinking Homelessness Prevention Among Persons With Serious Mental Illness, Ann Elizabeth Montgomery, Stephen Metraux, Dennis P. Culhane Dec 2012

Rethinking Homelessness Prevention Among Persons With Serious Mental Illness, Ann Elizabeth Montgomery, Stephen Metraux, Dennis P. Culhane

Dennis P. Culhane

During recent years, the need to consider effective and innovative ways to prevent and end homelessness among individuals with serious mental illness has been abetted by an increased and more sophisticated understanding of the composition of the homeless population, the emergence of evidence-based practicess to address homelessness, and the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. This article summarizes the evolving understanding of the role that serious mental illness plays in homelessness, as well as the interventions that are effective at preventing and ending homelessness among persons with serious mental illness. This summary contextualizes a discussion of the ...


The 2012 Point-In-Time Estimate Of Homelessness: Volume I Of The 2012 Annual Homelessness Assessment Report, Alvaro Cortes, Meghan Henry, Rj De La Cruz, Scott Brown, Jill Khadduri, Dennis P. Culhane Dec 2012

The 2012 Point-In-Time Estimate Of Homelessness: Volume I Of The 2012 Annual Homelessness Assessment Report, Alvaro Cortes, Meghan Henry, Rj De La Cruz, Scott Brown, Jill Khadduri, Dennis P. Culhane

Dennis P. Culhane

On a single night in 2012 there were 633,782 homeless people in the United States, including 394,379 who were homeless as individuals and 239,403 people who were homeless in families.


The Unique And Combined Effects Of Homelessness And School Mobility On The Educational Outcomes Of Young Children, John W. Fantuzzo, Whitney A. Leboeuf, Chin-Chih Chen, Heather Rouse, Dennis P. Culhane Nov 2012

The Unique And Combined Effects Of Homelessness And School Mobility On The Educational Outcomes Of Young Children, John W. Fantuzzo, Whitney A. Leboeuf, Chin-Chih Chen, Heather Rouse, Dennis P. Culhane

Dennis P. Culhane

This study examined the unique and combined associations of homelessness and school mobility with educational well-being indicators, as well as the mediating effect of absenteeism, for an entire cohort of third-grade students in Philadelphia. Using integrated archival administrative data from the public school district and the municipal Office of Supportive Housing, multilevel linear models were estimated to test these associations while adjusting for nesting of students within schools. Findings demonstrated that homelessness had a unique association with problems in classroom engagement, school mobility was uniquely related to both academic achievement and problems in classroom engagement, and experiencing both homelessness and ...


New Perspectives On Community-Level Determinants Of Homelessness, Thomas Byrne, Ellen Munley, Jamison D. Fargo, Anne Elizabeth Montgomery, Dennis P. Culhane Nov 2012

New Perspectives On Community-Level Determinants Of Homelessness, Thomas Byrne, Ellen Munley, Jamison D. Fargo, Anne Elizabeth Montgomery, Dennis P. Culhane

Dennis P. Culhane

Understanding the root causes of homelessness is important for developing effective solutions to the problem. This fact has not gone unnoticed by researchers, who have made numerous attempts to identify the underlying structural determinants of homelessness by modeling inter-community variation in the rate of homelessness as a function of community-level variables. Yet, prior studies in this area have a number of serious limitations, principally their reliance on methodologically flawed estimates of the size of the homeless population. The present study addresses this and other limitations by using newly available and more reliable estimates from the U.S. Department of Housing ...


The 2011 Annual Homeless Assessment Report To Congress, Alvaro Cortes, Louise Rothschild, Rj De La Cruz, Meghan Henry, Claudia Solari, Jill Khadduri, Dennis P. Culhane Oct 2012

The 2011 Annual Homeless Assessment Report To Congress, Alvaro Cortes, Louise Rothschild, Rj De La Cruz, Meghan Henry, Claudia Solari, Jill Khadduri, Dennis P. Culhane

Dennis P. Culhane

Between 2007 and 2011, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) has released an annual report on the extent of homelessness in the United States—the Annual Homeless Assessment Report (AHAR). The report documents how many people are using shelter programs for homeless people, and how many people are in unsheltered locations that are often called “the streets.” The AHAR is delivered each year to the U.S. Congress, and its contents are used to inform Federal, State, and local policies to prevent and end homelessness. This 2011 AHAR presents the most recent national estimates of homelessness ...


Understanding Multisystem Youth And Their Patterns Of Services Use, Dennis P. Culhane, Steven Metraux, Jung Min Park, Chin-Chih Chen Jul 2012

Understanding Multisystem Youth And Their Patterns Of Services Use, Dennis P. Culhane, Steven Metraux, Jung Min Park, Chin-Chih Chen

Dennis P. Culhane

This study integrates data from public schools (absenteeism/truancy), foster care, juvenile justice, homelessness and behavioral health services, to better understand the prevalence and types of multisystem services use in Philadelphia. Results suggest that some multisystem services use is intentional, such as transfers from juvenile justice to mental health residential treatment, whereas other patterns reflect the complex and overlapping needs of youth moving among service sectors. Results may suggest areas of collaborative service planning and integrated service strategies, to improve outcomes and reduce costs and duplication of services.


Los Angeles County's Enterprise Linkages Project: An Example Of The Use Of Integrated Data Systems In Making Data-Driven Policy And Program Decisions, Thomas Byrne, Stephen Metraux, Manuel Moreno, Dennis P. Culhane, Halil Toros, Max Stevens May 2012

Los Angeles County's Enterprise Linkages Project: An Example Of The Use Of Integrated Data Systems In Making Data-Driven Policy And Program Decisions, Thomas Byrne, Stephen Metraux, Manuel Moreno, Dennis P. Culhane, Halil Toros, Max Stevens

Dennis P. Culhane

Governments at all levels are tasked with administering public programs that serve large numbers of people. The use of integrated data systems (IDS), which can be used to link administrative records from multiple public agencies into one database, offer a unique mechanism for providing the type of comprehensive information that is important for understanding the complex needs of vulnerable populations and for making data-based policy and program decisions that translate into more effective and efficient policies. In this paper, we draw on recent efforts to restructure Los Angeles County’s General Relief (GR) Program – a cash assistance program for indigent ...


Prevalence And Risk Of Homelessness Among Us Veterans, Jamison Fargo, Stephen Metraux, Thomas Byrne, Ellen Munley, Ann Elizabeth Montgomery, Harlan Jones, George Sheldon, Vincent Kane, Dennis P. Culhane Jan 2012

Prevalence And Risk Of Homelessness Among Us Veterans, Jamison Fargo, Stephen Metraux, Thomas Byrne, Ellen Munley, Ann Elizabeth Montgomery, Harlan Jones, George Sheldon, Vincent Kane, Dennis P. Culhane

Dennis P. Culhane

Introduction

Understanding the prevalence of and risk for homelessness among veterans is prerequisite to preventing and ending homelessness among this population. Homeless veterans are at higher risk for chronic disease; understanding the dynamics of homelessness among veterans can contribute to our understanding of their health needs.

Methods

We obtained data on demographic characteristics and veteran status for 130,554 homeless people from 7 jurisdictions that provide homelessness services, and for the population living in poverty and the general population from the American Community Survey for those same jurisdictions. We calculated prevalence of veterans in the homeless, poverty, and general populations ...


Helping L.A.'S Foster Kids Grow Up, Byrne Thomas, Dennis P. Culhane, Stephen Metraux Jan 2012

Helping L.A.'S Foster Kids Grow Up, Byrne Thomas, Dennis P. Culhane, Stephen Metraux

Dennis P. Culhane

No abstract provided.


The 2011 Point-In-Time Estimate Of Homelessness: Supplement To The Annual Homelessness Assessment Report, Alvaro Cortes, Meghan Henry, Josh Leopold, Larry Buron, Jill Khadduri, Dennis P. Culhane Nov 2011

The 2011 Point-In-Time Estimate Of Homelessness: Supplement To The Annual Homelessness Assessment Report, Alvaro Cortes, Meghan Henry, Josh Leopold, Larry Buron, Jill Khadduri, Dennis P. Culhane

Dennis P. Culhane

This report outlines the key findings of the 2011 Point-In-Time (PIT) counts conducted in January 2011. Specifically, this report provides 2011 PIT estimates and national PIT estimates of homelessness, as well as national estimates of homelessness by state, estimates of chronic homelessness, and estimates of homeless veterans. In addition, this report provides the national inventory of beds for homeless people in 2011.

In 2011, the PIT estimates of both homeless people and beds were reported by 432 Continuums of Care (CoC) nationwide, covering virtually the entire United States. CoCs reported their estimates to the U.S. Department of Housing and ...


Homelessness And Children's Use Of Mental Health Services: A Population-Based Study, Jung Min Park, Stephen Metraux, Dennis P. Culhane, David Mandell Nov 2011

Homelessness And Children's Use Of Mental Health Services: A Population-Based Study, Jung Min Park, Stephen Metraux, Dennis P. Culhane, David Mandell

Dennis P. Culhane

This study examined whether children who become homeless differ from other low-income children in their mental health service use before and after their first homeless episode, and to what extent homelessness is associated with an increased likelihood of mental health service use. Differences between children with and without new onset of sheltered homelessness in the use of mental health services emerged following homelessness and widened over time. Sheltered homelessness and foster care placement history were associated with increased odds of receiving inpatient and ambulatory mental health services. Findings underscore the importance of collaborations between homeless assistance, foster care, and mental ...


Young Adult Outcomes Of Youth Exiting Dependent Or Delinquent Care In Los Angeles County, Dennis P. Culhane, Thomas Byrne, Stephen Metraux, Manuel Moreno, Halil Toros, Max Stevens Oct 2011

Young Adult Outcomes Of Youth Exiting Dependent Or Delinquent Care In Los Angeles County, Dennis P. Culhane, Thomas Byrne, Stephen Metraux, Manuel Moreno, Halil Toros, Max Stevens

Dennis P. Culhane

This report investigates the young adult outcomes of youth who age-out of or otherwise exit Los Angeles County’s child welfare supervised foster care system and/or juvenile probation system. Two cohorts of young adults from both systems were selected for analysis. Within the two cohorts, this study focuses on three groups of youth exiters: (i) The child welfare (CW) group is comprised of youth who exited from a child welfare out-of-home placement between the ages of 16 and 21; (ii) the juvenile probation (JP) group is made up of youth who exited from any type of juvenile probation supervision ...


Veteran Homelessness: A Supplemental Report To The 2010 Annual Homelessness Assessment Report To Congress, Dennis P. Culhane, Jill Khadduri, Alvaro Cortes, Meghan Henry, Ann Elizabeth Montgomery, Thomas Byrne, Ellen Munley Oct 2011

Veteran Homelessness: A Supplemental Report To The 2010 Annual Homelessness Assessment Report To Congress, Dennis P. Culhane, Jill Khadduri, Alvaro Cortes, Meghan Henry, Ann Elizabeth Montgomery, Thomas Byrne, Ellen Munley

Dennis P. Culhane

The Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)and the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) are pleased to present Veteran Homelessness: A Supplemental Report to the 2010 Annual Homeless Assessment Report to Congress. This second annual supplemental report is intended to provide policymakers, practitioners, and the general public with information about the extent and nature of veteran homelessness. The information provided in this report advances the federal effort to end homelessness among veterans in 5 years—as described in the 2010 Federal Strategic Plan to End Homelessness and the VA’s plan to end veteran homelessness—through the collection of ...


The Right To Housing: An Effective Means For Addressing Homelessness?, Thomas Byrne, Dennis P. Culhane Jul 2011

The Right To Housing: An Effective Means For Addressing Homelessness?, Thomas Byrne, Dennis P. Culhane

Dennis P. Culhane

A number of international human rights instruments and national constitutions establish a right to housing. In addition, a few countries, most notably England and France, have enacted legislation guaranteeing a legally enforceable right to housing. In this paper we provide an overview of the concept of a “right to housing,” and discuss its implications for efforts intended to reduce and end homelessness both in the European and American contexts.


Prevalence And Risk Of Homelessness Among Us Veterans: A Multisite Investigation, Jamison Fargo, Stephen Metraux, Thomas Byrne, Ellen Munley, Ann Elizabeth Montgomery, Harlan Jones, George Sheldon, Dennis P. Culhane Jul 2011

Prevalence And Risk Of Homelessness Among Us Veterans: A Multisite Investigation, Jamison Fargo, Stephen Metraux, Thomas Byrne, Ellen Munley, Ann Elizabeth Montgomery, Harlan Jones, George Sheldon, Dennis P. Culhane

Dennis P. Culhane

This study analyzes HMIS and American Community Survey data from seven jurisdictions to assess the prevalence and relative risk for homelessness among veterans by race, sex, age and poverty status. Results show that among the homeless population, approximately 14% of adult males and 2% of adult females are veterans. For males, this proportion is about 30% greater than the proportion of Veterans in the general population, and twice as large as the proportion of veterans in the population living below the poverty threshold. Similarly among the female homeless population, veterans are overrepresented compared to the general population by a factor ...


The Impact Of Shelter Use And Housing Placement On Mortality Hazard For Unaccompanied Adults And Adults In Family Households Entering New York City Shelters: 1990-2002, Stephen Metraux, Nicholas Eng, Jay Bainbridge, Dennis P. Culhane Jul 2011

The Impact Of Shelter Use And Housing Placement On Mortality Hazard For Unaccompanied Adults And Adults In Family Households Entering New York City Shelters: 1990-2002, Stephen Metraux, Nicholas Eng, Jay Bainbridge, Dennis P. Culhane

Dennis P. Culhane

This study examines mortality among New York City (NYC) homeless shelter users, assessing the relationships between mortality hazard and time in shelter, patterns of homelessness, and subsequent housing exits for both adults in families and single adults. Administrative records from the NYC shelter system were matched with death records from the Social Security Administration for 160,525 persons. Crude mortality rates and life tables were calculated, and survival analyses were undertaken using these data. Life expectancy was 64.2 and 68.6 years for single adult males and single adult females, respectively, and among adults in families, life expectancy was ...


The 2010 Annual Homeless Assessment Report To Congress, Alvaro Cortes, Josh Leopold, Louise Rothschild, Larry Buron, Jill Khadduri, Dennis P. Culhane Jun 2011

The 2010 Annual Homeless Assessment Report To Congress, Alvaro Cortes, Josh Leopold, Louise Rothschild, Larry Buron, Jill Khadduri, Dennis P. Culhane

Dennis P. Culhane

The 2010 Annual Homeless Assessment Report (AHAR) represents the sixth in a series of reports on homelessness in the U.S. It responds to a congressional directive that the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) provide an annual report to Congress on the extent and nature of homelessness. As in past years, the AHAR provides the results of local counts of people homeless on a single night in January, as well as estimates of the number, characteristics, and service patterns of all people who used residential programs for homeless people during the 2010 federal Fiscal Year (October 2009-September 2010 ...


Book Review: How To House The Homeless. Edited By Ingrid Gould Ellen And Brendan O'Flaherty. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2010, Dennis P. Culhane May 2011

Book Review: How To House The Homeless. Edited By Ingrid Gould Ellen And Brendan O'Flaherty. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2010, Dennis P. Culhane

Dennis P. Culhane

No abstract provided.


A Prevention-Centered Approach To Homelessness Assistance: A Paradigm Shift?, Dennis P. Culhane, Stephen Metraux, Thomas Byrne Apr 2011

A Prevention-Centered Approach To Homelessness Assistance: A Paradigm Shift?, Dennis P. Culhane, Stephen Metraux, Thomas Byrne

Dennis P. Culhane

Prevention has long been cited as an important part of any strategy to end homelessness. Nonetheless, effective prevention initiatives have proven difficult to implement in practice. The lack of a prevention-oriented policy framework has resulted in responses to homelessness that focus primarily on assisting those who have already lost their housing and, consequently, to the institutionalization of homelessness. Recent Federal legislation, however, signals an emergent paradigm shift towards prevention-based approaches to homelessness. This paper explores the conceptual underpinnings of successful prevention initiatives and reviews practice-based evidence from several successful prevention-oriented approaches to homelessness in the United States and Europe. We ...


Veteran Homelessness: A Supplemental Report To The 2009 Annual Homeless Assessment Report To Congress, Dennis P. Culhane, Jill Khadduri, Alvaro Cortes, Larry Buron, Joshua Leopold, Ann Elizabeth Montgomery, Ellen Munley, Thomas Byrne, John Kuhn Feb 2011

Veteran Homelessness: A Supplemental Report To The 2009 Annual Homeless Assessment Report To Congress, Dennis P. Culhane, Jill Khadduri, Alvaro Cortes, Larry Buron, Joshua Leopold, Ann Elizabeth Montgomery, Ellen Munley, Thomas Byrne, John Kuhn

Dennis P. Culhane

The Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) are pleased to present Veteran Homelessness: A Supplemental Report to the 2009 Annual Homeless Assessment Report to Congress. This report is the result of ongoing collaboration between HUD and the VA to understand the extent and nature of homelessness among veterans in the United States. The information presented in this report is intended to inform public policymakers, local practitioners and the general public about veteran homelessness. It also advances the goals of the nation’s federal strategic plan to prevent and end homelessness (Opening Doors ...


Homelessness And Housing Exclusion In Europe: Challenges And Opportunities For Research And Policy, Dennis P. Culhane, Thomas Byrne Dec 2010

Homelessness And Housing Exclusion In Europe: Challenges And Opportunities For Research And Policy, Dennis P. Culhane, Thomas Byrne

Dennis P. Culhane

The European Parliament recently passed a Written Declaration “calling for an ambitious EU homelessness strategy and support to Member States in their efforts towards ending homelessness” (FEANTSA, December 21, 2010). The Written Declaration comes on the heels of a consensus conference on homelessness held in Brussels, in which researchers from the European Observatory (some featured in this volume) made the moral and empirical case for urgent and strategic action by all member countries of the EU. This leadership has proven to be critically influential as the European Commission moves forward with its antipoverty goals for 2020. This timely volume will ...


The Patterns And Costs Of Services Use Among Homeless Families, Dennis P. Culhane, Jung Min Park, Stephen Metraux Dec 2010

The Patterns And Costs Of Services Use Among Homeless Families, Dennis P. Culhane, Jung Min Park, Stephen Metraux

Dennis P. Culhane

This study examines families’ use of behavioral health hospitalization and foster care placement prior to, during and following shelter use, comparing families based on shelter pattern and type of housing exit. Results show that inpatient and foster care services use drops in the homelessness period, but rebounds following exit, regardless of pattern of shelter use, and type of housing exit. Results suggest that shelters supplant use of services, but not on a sustained basis. Despite declines in concurrent services use, the homelessness period is overall more costly for episodically and long-term shelter users, primarily owing to the high costs of ...


Service Use And Costs For Persons Experiencing Chronic Homelessness In Philadelphia: A Population-Based Study, Stephen R. Poulin, Marcella Maguire, Stephen Metraux, Dennis P. Culhane Oct 2010

Service Use And Costs For Persons Experiencing Chronic Homelessness In Philadelphia: A Population-Based Study, Stephen R. Poulin, Marcella Maguire, Stephen Metraux, Dennis P. Culhane

Dennis P. Culhane

Objective: This study is the first to examine the distribution of service utilization and costs with a population-based sample that experienced chronic homelessness in sheltered and unsheltered locations in a large U.S. city. Methods: This study used shelter and street outreach records from a large U.S. city to identify 2,703 persons who met federal criteria for chronic homelessness during a three-year period. Identifiers for these persons were matched to administrative records for psychiatric care, substance abuse treatment, and incarceration. Results: Twenty percent of the persons who incurred the highest costs for services ccounted for 60% of the ...


To Fight Homelessness, Turn Project 50 Into Project 10,000, Dennis P. Culhane Aug 2010

To Fight Homelessness, Turn Project 50 Into Project 10,000, Dennis P. Culhane

Dennis P. Culhane

The pilot program that puts the 50 most chronically homeless into supportive housing is a success. L.A. should follow New York's lead and turn Project 50 into real policy.