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Full-Text Articles in Urban Studies and Planning

Global Cities Are Coastal Cities Too: Paradox In Sustainability?, Herman L. Boschken Jul 2013

Global Cities Are Coastal Cities Too: Paradox In Sustainability?, Herman L. Boschken

Herman L. Boschken

Worldwide, most global cities are located in coastal zones, but a paradox of sustainability is especially striking for American global cities. This article examines such paradox drawn between globalization-induced development and coastal ecosystems. It focuses on two developmental components found principally in global cities: (1) the agglomeration of foreign waterborne commerce and global business services and (2) the accelerated activity and mobility habits of a global professional class. Despite formidable gaps in research, some anecdotal evidence suggests unique hazards exist for the coastal ecology as globalization pressures expand a global city’s urban footprint.


The Role Of Canids In Ritual And Domestic Contexts: New Ancient Dna Insights From Complex Hunter-Gatherer Sites In Prehistoric Central California, Alan M. Leventhal, Brian F. Byrd, Anna Cornellas, Jelmer W. Eerkens, Jeffrey Rosenthal, Tim R. Carpenter, Jennifer A. Leonard Jan 2013

The Role Of Canids In Ritual And Domestic Contexts: New Ancient Dna Insights From Complex Hunter-Gatherer Sites In Prehistoric Central California, Alan M. Leventhal, Brian F. Byrd, Anna Cornellas, Jelmer W. Eerkens, Jeffrey Rosenthal, Tim R. Carpenter, Jennifer A. Leonard

Alan M. Leventhal

This study explores the interrelationship between the genus Canis and hunter–gatherers through a case study of prehistoric Native Americans in the San Francisco Bay-Sacramento Delta area. A distinctive aspect of the region's prehistoric record is the interment of canids, variously classified as coyotes, dogs, and wolves. Since these species are difficult to distinguish based solely on morphology, ancient DNA analysis was employed to distinguish species. The DNA study results, the first on canids from archaeological sites in California, are entirely represented by domesticated dogs (including both interments and disarticulated samples from midden deposits). These results, buttressed by stable ...


Brief Communication: Evolution Of A Specific O Allele (O1vg542a) Supports Unique Ancestry Of Native Americans, Fernando A. Villanea, Deborah A. Bolnick, Cara Monroe, Rosita Worl, Rosemary Cambra, Alan M. Leventhal, Brian M. Kemp Jan 2013

Brief Communication: Evolution Of A Specific O Allele (O1vg542a) Supports Unique Ancestry Of Native Americans, Fernando A. Villanea, Deborah A. Bolnick, Cara Monroe, Rosita Worl, Rosemary Cambra, Alan M. Leventhal, Brian M. Kemp

Alan M. Leventhal

In this study, we explore the geographic and temporal distribution of a unique variant of the O blood group allele called O1vG542A, which has been shown to be shared among Native Americans but is rare in other populations. O1vG542A was previously reported in Native American populations in Mesoamerica and South America, and has been proposed as an ancestry informative marker. We investigated whether this allele is also found in the Tlingit and Haida, two contemporary indigenous populations from Alaska, and a pre-Columbian population from California. If O1vG542A is present in Na-Dene speakers (i.e., Tlingits), it would indicate that Na-Dene ...


Low-Stress Bicycling And Network Connectivity, M. Mekuria, P. Furth, Hilary Nixon May 2012

Low-Stress Bicycling And Network Connectivity, M. Mekuria, P. Furth, Hilary Nixon

Hilary Nixon

For a bicycling network to attract the widest possible segment of the population, its most fundamental attribute should be low-stress connectivity, that is, providing routes between people’s origins and destinations that do not require cyclists to use links that exceed their tolerance for traffic stress, and that do not involve an undue level of detour. The objective of this study is to develop measures of low-stress connectivity that can be used to evaluate and guide bicycle network planning. We propose a set of criteria by which road segments can be classified into four levels of traffic stress (LTS). LTS ...


Neighborhood Crime And Travel Behavior: An Investigation Of The Influence Of Neighborhood Crime Rates On Mode Choice – Phase Ii, Christopher Ferrell, Shishir Mathur Jan 2012

Neighborhood Crime And Travel Behavior: An Investigation Of The Influence Of Neighborhood Crime Rates On Mode Choice – Phase Ii, Christopher Ferrell, Shishir Mathur

Shishir Mathur

No abstract provided.


A Decision-Support Framework For Using Value Capture To Fund Public Transit: Lessons From Project-Specific Analyses, Shishir Mathur, Adam Smith Jan 2012

A Decision-Support Framework For Using Value Capture To Fund Public Transit: Lessons From Project-Specific Analyses, Shishir Mathur, Adam Smith

Shishir Mathur

No abstract provided.


What Do Americans Think About Federal Tax Options To Support Public Transit, Highways, And Local Streets And Roads? Results From Year 3 Of A National Survey, Asha Weinstein Agrawal, Hilary Nixon, Vinay Murthy Jan 2012

What Do Americans Think About Federal Tax Options To Support Public Transit, Highways, And Local Streets And Roads? Results From Year 3 Of A National Survey, Asha Weinstein Agrawal, Hilary Nixon, Vinay Murthy

Hilary Nixon

This report summarizes the results of a national random-digit-dial public opinion poll that asked 1,519 respondents if they would support various tax options for raising federal transportation revenues, with a special focus on understanding support for increasing revenues for public transit. Eleven specific tax options tested were variations on raising the federal gas tax rate and creating a new mileage tax, and creating a new federal sales tax. Other questions probed various perceptions related to public transit, including knowledge and opinions about federal taxes to support transit. In addition, the survey collected data on standard socio-demographic factors, travel behavior ...


An Examination Of Women’S Representation And Participation In Bicycle Advisory Committees In California, Hilary Nixon, C. Deluca Jan 2012

An Examination Of Women’S Representation And Participation In Bicycle Advisory Committees In California, Hilary Nixon, C. Deluca

Hilary Nixon

In the United States, women bicycle at significantly lower rates than men. One method of remedying this disparity is to ensure that women are engaged in bicycle planning and policy making through, for example, participation in bicycle advisory committees (BACs). No research has been conducted on women’s representation and participation in these committees. This study attempts to fill that gap by examining women’s membership levels in and experiences serving on California bicycle advisory committees and bicycle/pedestrian advisory committees. In addition, we explore some of the barriers to participation faced by female cyclists. A survey of 42 committees ...


Reliability Testing Of The Pabs (Pedestrian And Bicycling Survey) Method, Asha W. Agrawal, Ann Forsyth, Kevin J. Krizek, Eric Stonebraker Jan 2012

Reliability Testing Of The Pabs (Pedestrian And Bicycling Survey) Method, Asha W. Agrawal, Ann Forsyth, Kevin J. Krizek, Eric Stonebraker

Asha W. Agrawal

The Pedestrian and Bicycling Survey (PABS) is a questionnaire designed to be economical and straightforward to administer so that it can be used by local governments interested in measuring the amount and purposes of walking and cycling in their communities. In addition, it captures key sociodemographic characteristics of those participating in these activities. Methods: In 2009 and 2010 results from the 4-page mail-out/mail-back PABS were tested for reliability across 2 administrations (test-retest reliability). Two versions--early and refined--were tested separately with 2 independent groups of university students from 4 universities (N = 100 in group 1; N = 87 in group 2 ...


What Do Americans Think About Federal Transportation Tax Options? Results From Year 2 Of A National Survey, Asha W. Agrawal, Hilary Nixon May 2011

What Do Americans Think About Federal Transportation Tax Options? Results From Year 2 Of A National Survey, Asha W. Agrawal, Hilary Nixon

Hilary Nixon

This report summarizes the results of a national random-digit-dial public opinion poll that asked 1,516 respondents if they would support various tax options for raising federal transportation revenues. The 11 specific tax options tested were variations on raising the federal gas tax rate, creating a new mileage tax, and creating a new federal sales tax. In addition, the survey collected standard socio-demographic data, some minimal travel behavior data, and attitudinal data about how respondents view the quality of their local transportation system and their priorities for government spending on transportation in their state. All of this information is used ...


Understanding Household Preferences For Alternative-Fuel Vehicles Technologies, Hilary Nixon, J. D. Saphores Jan 2011

Understanding Household Preferences For Alternative-Fuel Vehicles Technologies, Hilary Nixon, J. D. Saphores

Hilary Nixon

This report explores consumer preferences among four different alternative-fuel vehicles (AFVs): hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles, hydrogen fuel cell (HFC) vehicles, and electric vehicles (EVs). Although researchers have been interested in understanding consumer preferences for AFVs for more than three decades, it is important to update our estimates of the trade-offs people are willing to make between cost, environmental performance, vehicle range, and refueling convenience. We conducted a nationwide, Internet-based survey to assess consumer preferences for AFVs. Respondents participated in a stated-preference ranking exercise in which they ranked a series of five vehicles (four AFVs and ...


Mothers And Infants In The Prehistoric Santa Clara Valley: What Stable Isotopes Tell Us About Ancestral Ohlone Weaning Practices, Alan M. Leventhal, Karen S. Gardner, Rosemary Cambra, Eric J. Bartelink, Antoinette Martinez Jan 2011

Mothers And Infants In The Prehistoric Santa Clara Valley: What Stable Isotopes Tell Us About Ancestral Ohlone Weaning Practices, Alan M. Leventhal, Karen S. Gardner, Rosemary Cambra, Eric J. Bartelink, Antoinette Martinez

Alan M. Leventhal

Breast-feeding and weaning are a part of childhood in all human populations, but the exact timing of these milestones varies between groups. As infants incorporate the nutrients from breast milk into their growing bones, chemical evidence is captured in the form of higher stable nitrogen (δ15N) isotope values. This study interprets δ15N values in the bone collagen of children (n = 24) buried at the Yukisma Mound (CA-SCL-38), in Santa Clara County, California. Radiocarbon dates for this site span 2200-250 B.P., but primarily fall during the Late period (740-230 B.P.). In the one probable mother-infant pair available for study ...


What Do Americans Think About Federal Transportation Tax Options? Results From A National Survey, Asha W. Agrawal, Hilary Nixon Jun 2010

What Do Americans Think About Federal Transportation Tax Options? Results From A National Survey, Asha W. Agrawal, Hilary Nixon

Hilary Nixon

No abstract available.


Roads: Leading Indicators Show Ramp-Up In Activity, Shishir Mathur, Kunal Katara Jan 2010

Roads: Leading Indicators Show Ramp-Up In Activity, Shishir Mathur, Kunal Katara

Shishir Mathur

No abstract provided.


Spanning Policy Silos In Urban Development And Environmental Management: When Global Cities Are Coastal Cities Too, Herman L. Boschken Sep 2009

Spanning Policy Silos In Urban Development And Environmental Management: When Global Cities Are Coastal Cities Too, Herman L. Boschken

Herman L. Boschken

No abstract provided.


Paleoepidemiological Patterns Of Interpersonal Aggression In A Prehistoric Central California Population From Ca-Ala-329, Alan M. Leventhal, Robert Jurmain, Eric Bartelink, Viviana Bellifemine, Irina Nechayev, Melinda Atwood, Diane Digiuseppe Aug 2009

Paleoepidemiological Patterns Of Interpersonal Aggression In A Prehistoric Central California Population From Ca-Ala-329, Alan M. Leventhal, Robert Jurmain, Eric Bartelink, Viviana Bellifemine, Irina Nechayev, Melinda Atwood, Diane Digiuseppe

Alan M. Leventhal

Interpersonal aggression is assessed paleoepidemiologically in a large skeletal population from the CA-ALA-329 site located on the southeastern side of San Francisco Bay, California. This comprehensive analysis included all currently recognized skeletal criteria, including craniofacial fracture, projectile injury, forearm fracture, and perimortem bone modification. Craniofacial injury is moderately common, showing an adult prevalence of 9.0% with facial lesions accounting for >50% of involvement. Clinical studies suggest that such separate evaluation of facial involvement provides a useful perspective for understanding patterns of interpersonal aggression. In this group male facial involvement is significantly greater than in females, paralleling the pattern found ...


Green Transportation Taxes And Fees: A Survey Of Californian, Asha W. Agrawal, Jennifer Dill, Hilary Nixon Jun 2009

Green Transportation Taxes And Fees: A Survey Of Californian, Asha W. Agrawal, Jennifer Dill, Hilary Nixon

Hilary Nixon

This report explores public opinion on a new and promising concept—green transportation taxes and fees. These are taxes and fees set at variable rates, with higher rates for more polluting vehicles and lower rates for those that pollute less. This approach to transportation taxes and fees adapts the traditional transportation finance system to achieve two critical public benefits at once: encouraging drivers to choose more environmentally-friendly transportation options and raising revenue for needed transportation programs. To test public support for green transportation taxes and fees, the authors conducted a random telephone survey of 1,500 Californians that asked respondents ...


Effect Of Suburban Transit Oriented Developments On Residential Property Values, Shishir Mathur, Christopher Ferrell Jan 2009

Effect Of Suburban Transit Oriented Developments On Residential Property Values, Shishir Mathur, Christopher Ferrell

Shishir Mathur

No abstract provided.


Linking Highway Improvements To Changes In Land Use With Quasi-Experimental Research Design: A Better Forecasting Tool For Transportation Decision-Making, R. G. Funderburg, Hilary Nixon, M. G. Boarnet Jan 2009

Linking Highway Improvements To Changes In Land Use With Quasi-Experimental Research Design: A Better Forecasting Tool For Transportation Decision-Making, R. G. Funderburg, Hilary Nixon, M. G. Boarnet

Hilary Nixon

An important issue for future improvement and extensions of highways will be the ability of projects to sustain challenges to Environmental Impact Statements based upon forecasts of regional growth. A legal precedent for such challenges was established in 1997 when a U.S. District Court judge ruled that the EIS for a proposed Illinois toll road was deficient because the growth projections were the same in the build and no-build scenarios. This paper incorporates popular regional growth forecasting models into a quasi-experimental research design that directly relates new highway investments in three California counties to changes in population and employment ...


A Multiple-Perspectives Construct Of The American Global City, Herman L. Boschken Jan 2008

A Multiple-Perspectives Construct Of The American Global City, Herman L. Boschken

Herman L. Boschken

PAPER ARGUES AND TESTS THE PROPOSITION THAT THE GLOBAL CITY IS BEST DESCRIBED AND ANALYZED FROM A HOLISTIC CONSTRUCT OF COMPETING PERSPECTIVES. IT EMPLOYES FACTOR AND K-MEANS CLUSTER ANALYSIS TO DIFFERENTIATE 53 US URBANIZED AREAS.


Neighborhood Crime And Non-Auto Mode Choice, Shishir Mathur, Christopher Ferrell, Emy Mendoza Jan 2008

Neighborhood Crime And Non-Auto Mode Choice, Shishir Mathur, Christopher Ferrell, Emy Mendoza

Shishir Mathur

No abstract provided.


Housing Silicon Valley: A 20 Year Plan To End The Affordable Housing Crisis, Shishir Mathur, Alicia Parker Jan 2007

Housing Silicon Valley: A 20 Year Plan To End The Affordable Housing Crisis, Shishir Mathur, Alicia Parker

Shishir Mathur

No abstract provided.


High-Speed Rail Projects In The United States: Identifying The Elements Of Success Part 2, Allison Decerreno, Shishir Mathur Jan 2007

High-Speed Rail Projects In The United States: Identifying The Elements Of Success Part 2, Allison Decerreno, Shishir Mathur

Shishir Mathur

No abstract provided.


Social Class, Politics, And Urban Markets: The Makings Of Bias In Policy Outcomes, Herman L. Boschken Jan 2002

Social Class, Politics, And Urban Markets: The Makings Of Bias In Policy Outcomes, Herman L. Boschken

Herman L. Boschken

No abstract provided.


Chapter 10: Upper-Middle-Class Politics And Policy Outcomes: Does Class Identity Matter?, Herman L. Boschken Jan 2001

Chapter 10: Upper-Middle-Class Politics And Policy Outcomes: Does Class Identity Matter?, Herman L. Boschken

Herman L. Boschken

This chapter in Clark and lipset's book on class in American politics resulted from a multi-day workshop at the Woodrow Wilson Center for International Scholars in the summer of 1999. The piece reverses the normal causality of class politics. It does not analyze citizens in elections, but government officials creating policies. It asks why policies differ across localities (specifically public transit decisions in 42 U.S. metropolitan areas). It probes how some government officials work with an "upper-middle-class" citizenry in mind, while others do so less. The chapter then tests for differences across localities and finds quite distinct patterns ...


Institutionalism: Intergovernmental Exchange, Administration-Centered Behavior, And Policy Outcomes In Urban Agencies, Herman L. Boschken Oct 1998

Institutionalism: Intergovernmental Exchange, Administration-Centered Behavior, And Policy Outcomes In Urban Agencies, Herman L. Boschken

Herman L. Boschken

This article inquires about the sufficiency of institutional exchange theory in explaining the impacts of intergovernmental power structure on agency policy making. Based on rational behavior, transactional exchange, and game playing, this so called new institutionalism points to the degree of autonomy held by an agency in its collaboration with other government jurisdictions as a principal determinant of a patterned bias in agency policy outcomes. The author first summarizes theory arguments and derives hypotheses about agency outcomes that are skewed to favor some interests over others. He then reports results of a multiple regression analysis of a sample of forty-two ...


Global Shift In Container Traffic And Its Implications For Economic Development Along The American Land Bridge, Herman L. Boschken Apr 1998

Global Shift In Container Traffic And Its Implications For Economic Development Along The American Land Bridge, Herman L. Boschken

Herman L. Boschken

Since the “container revolution” in the 1970s, seaports on the Pacific Coast have been the engines of economic development, regionally, nationally and globally. But circumstances continue to change that threaten the long-term viability of the intermodal “land bridge” system that emerged from that revolution. These circumstances include railroads not maintaining rail lines critical to transcontinental container traffic and the shift in the locus of global production that raises the question of obsolescence for the existing infrastructure moving trade West to East from the Pacific Rim. The implications are enormous, especially for policy makers at the regional and local levels as ...


Analyzing Performance Skewness In Public Agencies: The Case Of Urban Mass Transit, Herman L. Boschken Jul 1992

Analyzing Performance Skewness In Public Agencies: The Case Of Urban Mass Transit, Herman L. Boschken

Herman L. Boschken

Previous studies of public organizational performance have focused mostly on operating efficiency, without dealing with the complex accountability problems associated with plural public interests. The fact that an agency exhibits multiple and often paradoxical performances has not been of comparable concern. This failure to account for performance in a multiple-constituencies context has led to a narrow view of how well agencies do. To broaden the research on agency performance, a multiple-constituencies model is introduced and tested for statistically significant variances. The findings confirm the model's robustness in structuring a dependent variable for empirical research on why agencies perform toward ...


Turbulent Transition And Organizational Change: Relating Policy Outcomes To Strategic Administrative Capacities, Herman L. Boschken Jan 1988

Turbulent Transition And Organizational Change: Relating Policy Outcomes To Strategic Administrative Capacities, Herman L. Boschken

Herman L. Boschken

A competitive public economy places greater burden on agencies to cope with uncertainty and change, especially in periods of "turbulent transition." As transition provides new opportunity, we find great variance in the ability of agencies to defend, enlarge or change their public domains. Administrative adroitness seems to be related to both adequate perception concerning change and the capacity to process reliable information, plan innovative programs, and manage conflicting demands. This article looks at critical variables which show promise in explaining how public organizations enlarge their discretion in policy formulation and service delivery during transitional periods. It assesses them empirically using ...


Strategic Planning Of Seaport Development In A Global Economy: Observations Of An Executive Port Director, Herman L. Boschken Jan 1986

Strategic Planning Of Seaport Development In A Global Economy: Observations Of An Executive Port Director, Herman L. Boschken

Herman L. Boschken

Seaport management is central both to the use of coastal resources and to the needs of a global economy. As a major point of supply-chain activity along the coast and as a source of pollution, ports need to be administered strategically to provide the greatest benefit according to economic and environmental demands. This article is an annotated conversation that provides a practitioner's insight into the management of change along the coastal zone. To address the problem, we probe organization theory for new insight and attempt to apply concepts to practice.