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No. 27: Food Security In Africa's Secondary Cities: No. 1 Mzuzu, Malawi, Liam Riley, Emmanuel Chilanga, Lovemore Zuze, Amanda Joynt Jan 2018

No. 27: Food Security In Africa's Secondary Cities: No. 1 Mzuzu, Malawi, Liam Riley, Emmanuel Chilanga, Lovemore Zuze, Amanda Joynt

African Food Security Urban Network

This report marks the first stage of AFSUN’s goal of expanding knowledge about urban food systems and experiences of household food insecurity in secondary African cities. It contributes to an understanding of poverty and sustainability in Mzuzu, Malawi, through the lens of household food security. The focus on food as an urban issue not only speaks to the development challenges presented by urbanization, but it also brings a fresh perspective to debates about food security in Malawi. The urban setting highlights the changing food system in Malawi where people in rural and urban areas are increasingly reliant on cash ...


No. 25: Food Insecurity In Informal Settlements In Lilongwe, Malawi, Emmanuel Chilanga, Liam Riley, Juliana Ngwira, Chisomo Chalinda, Lameck Masitala Jan 2017

No. 25: Food Insecurity In Informal Settlements In Lilongwe, Malawi, Emmanuel Chilanga, Liam Riley, Juliana Ngwira, Chisomo Chalinda, Lameck Masitala

African Food Security Urban Network

Although there is widespread food availability in urban areas across the Global South, it is not correlated with universal access to adequate amounts of nutritious foods. This report is based on a household survey conducted in 2015 in six low-income informal areas in Malawi’s capital city, where three-quarters of the population live in informal settlements. Understanding the dimensions of household food insecurity in these neighbourhoods is critical to sustainable and inclusive growth in Lilongwe. The survey findings provide a complementary perspective to the 2008 AFSUN survey conducted in Blantyre, which suggested a level of food security in urban Malawi ...


No. 26: The Supermarket Revolution And Food Security In Namibia, Ndeyapo Nickanor, Lawrence Kazembe, Jonathan Crush, Jeremy Wagner Jan 2017

No. 26: The Supermarket Revolution And Food Security In Namibia, Ndeyapo Nickanor, Lawrence Kazembe, Jonathan Crush, Jeremy Wagner

African Food Security Urban Network

The surprisingly high rate of supermarket patronage in low-income areas of Windhoek, Namibia’s capital and largest city, is at odds with conventional wisdom that supermarkets in African cities are primarily patronized by middle and high-income residents and therefore target their neighbourhoods. What is happening in Namibia and other Southern African countries that make supermarkets so much more accessible to the urban poor? What are they buying at supermarkets and how frequently do they shop there? Further, what is the impact of supermarket expansion on informal food vendors? This report, which presents the findings from the South African Supermarkets in ...


No. 22: The Return Of Food: Poverty And Urban Food Security In Zimbabwe After The Crisis, Godfrey Tawodzera, Liam Riley, Jonathan Crush Jan 2016

No. 22: The Return Of Food: Poverty And Urban Food Security In Zimbabwe After The Crisis, Godfrey Tawodzera, Liam Riley, Jonathan Crush

African Food Security Urban Network

The nadir of Zimbabwe’s political and economic crisis in 2008 coincided with the implementation of a baseline household food security survey in Harare by AFSUN. This survey found that households in lowincome urban areas in Zimbabwe’s capital were far worse off in terms of all the food insecurity and poverty indicators than households in the other 10 Southern African cities surveyed by AFSUN. The central question addressed in this report is whether food security in Zimbabwe’s urban centres has improved. AFSUN conducted a follow-up survey in 2012 that allows for direct longitudinal comparisons of continuity and change ...


No. 24: Mapping The Invisible: The Informal Food Economy Of Cape Town, South Africa, Jane Battersby, Maya Marshak, Ncedo Mngqibisa Jan 2016

No. 24: Mapping The Invisible: The Informal Food Economy Of Cape Town, South Africa, Jane Battersby, Maya Marshak, Ncedo Mngqibisa

African Food Security Urban Network

The informal food retail sector, which is diverse in terms of products traded as well as business models utilized, is an important component of urban food systems and plays a vital role in ensuring access to food by the urban poor. Yet, policy frameworks both to address food security and to govern the informal sector neglect informal retail in the food system and, as a result, the sector is poorly understood. This report attempts to identify the characteristics of the sector that impact on its ability to address the food needs of the neighbourhoods in which the businesses are located ...


No. 23: The Food Insecurities Of Zimbabwean Migrants In Urban South Africa, Jonathan Crush, Godfrey Tawodzera Jan 2016

No. 23: The Food Insecurities Of Zimbabwean Migrants In Urban South Africa, Jonathan Crush, Godfrey Tawodzera

African Food Security Urban Network

This report examines the food security status of Zimbabwean migrant households in the poorer areas of two major South African cities, Johannesburg and Cape Town. The vast majority were food insecure in terms of the amount of food to which they had access and the quality and diversity of their diet. What seems clear is that Zimbabwean migrants are significantly more food insecure than other low-income households. The primary reason for this appears to lie in pressures that include remittances of cash and goods back to family in Zimbabwe. The small literature on the impact of migrant remittances on food ...


No. 21: The State Of Poverty And Food Insecurity In Maseru, Lesotho, Resetselemang Leduka, Jonathan Crush, Bruce Frayne, Cameron Mccordic, Thope Matobo, Ts’Episo Makoa, Matseliso Mphale, Mmantai Phaila, Moipone Letsie Jan 2015

No. 21: The State Of Poverty And Food Insecurity In Maseru, Lesotho, Resetselemang Leduka, Jonathan Crush, Bruce Frayne, Cameron Mccordic, Thope Matobo, Ts’Episo Makoa, Matseliso Mphale, Mmantai Phaila, Moipone Letsie

African Food Security Urban Network

This report on food insecurity in urban Lesotho is the latest in a series on Southern African cities issued by AFSUN. Like the previous reports, it focuses on one city (Maseru) and on poor neighbourhoods and households in that city. More than 60% of poor households surveyed in Maseru were severely food insecure. While food price increases worsen food insecurity for poor households, it is poverty that weakens the resilience of society to absorb these increases. This report argues that Maseru residents face specific and interrelated challenges with respect to food and nutrition insecurity. These are poverty; limited local livelihood ...


Food System And Food Security Study For The City Of Cape Town, Jane Battersby, Gareth Haysom, Godfrey Tawodzera, Milla Mclachlan, Jonathan Crush Jul 2014

Food System And Food Security Study For The City Of Cape Town, Jane Battersby, Gareth Haysom, Godfrey Tawodzera, Milla Mclachlan, Jonathan Crush

African Food Security Urban Network

Food insecurity is a critical, but poorly understood, challenge for the health and development of Capetonians.

Food insecurity is often imagined as hunger, but it is far broader than that. Households are considered food secure when they have “physical and economic access to sufficient and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life” (WHO/FAO 1996). Health is not merely the absence of disease, but also encompasses good nutrition and healthy lifestyles. Individuals in a food insecure household and/or community are at greater risk due to diets of poor nutritional value ...


No. 17: The State Of Food Insecurity In Gaborone, Botswana, Ben Acquah, Stephen Kapunda, Alexander Legwegoh, Thando Gwebu, Tirelo Modie-Moroka, Kesitegile Gobotswang, Aloysius Mosha Jan 2013

No. 17: The State Of Food Insecurity In Gaborone, Botswana, Ben Acquah, Stephen Kapunda, Alexander Legwegoh, Thando Gwebu, Tirelo Modie-Moroka, Kesitegile Gobotswang, Aloysius Mosha

African Food Security Urban Network

The results of AFSUN’s study of the food security situation of the poor in Gaborone show that not everyone is benefitting from Botswana’s strong and growing economy and that many of the urban poor experience extremely high levels of food insecurity. The study, which formed part of AFSUN’s baseline survey of 11 Southern African cities, collected data on a broad range of issues that affect household food insecurity and found that four out of five households in the surveyed areas in Gaborone reported severe or moderate food insecurity. Only 18% were either food secure or mildly food ...


No. 19: The State Of Food Insecurity In Lusaka, Zambia, Chileshe Mulenga Jan 2013

No. 19: The State Of Food Insecurity In Lusaka, Zambia, Chileshe Mulenga

African Food Security Urban Network

The Lusaka urban food security survey done by AFSUN as part of its baseline survey of 11 Southern African cities found that up to 93% of the households in the informal settlements, which house three-quarters of the Zambian capital’s population, were food insecure. A paltry 8% were food secure. Worse still, most of the households in the informal urban settlements of Lusaka did not only have poor access to food, they also consumed foods from a very narrow range of food groups. Their diets were dominated by cereals and therefore likely to be deficient in essential vitamins, minerals and ...


No. 18: The State Of Food Insecurity In Blantyre City, Malawi, Peter Mvula, Asiyati Chiweza Jan 2013

No. 18: The State Of Food Insecurity In Blantyre City, Malawi, Peter Mvula, Asiyati Chiweza

African Food Security Urban Network

Chronic food insecurity is considered to be one of the most important challenges facing the people and government of Malawi. Most attention tends to be given to the rural areas where the majority of the population live and where the prevalence of food insecurity is highest. However, Malawi is urbanizing at a rapid rate and those who move to the cities do not automatically become food secure. Urban food insecurity is likely to increase and therefore it is important for policy-makers to begin to think about this issue. AFSUN’s study of food insecurity in the city of Blantyre, Malawi ...


No. 20: The State Of Food Insecurity In Maputo, Mozambique, Ines Raimundo, Jonathan Crush, Wade Pendleton Jan 2013

No. 20: The State Of Food Insecurity In Maputo, Mozambique, Ines Raimundo, Jonathan Crush, Wade Pendleton

African Food Security Urban Network

Food insecurity is a fact of life for the vast majority of households across Maputo’s poverty belt. The Maputo urban food security survey done by AFSUN as part of its baseline survey of 11 Southern African cities found that households exist in a constant state of food insecurity manifested in a lack of access to sufficient affordable food, poor dietary quality and undernutrition. Income is meagre and only those households with access to wage income have any chance of holding food insecurity at bay. With a vibrant informal food economy, Maputo’s poor are surrounded by fresh and processed ...


No. 15: The State Of Food Security In Manzini, Swaziland, Daniel Tevera, Nomcebo Simelane, Graciana Peter, Abul Salam Jan 2012

No. 15: The State Of Food Security In Manzini, Swaziland, Daniel Tevera, Nomcebo Simelane, Graciana Peter, Abul Salam

African Food Security Urban Network

This study of the food security situation of the poor in Manzini, Swaziland’s economic hub, formed part of AFSUN’s baseline survey of eleven Southern African cities. It found that the urban poor here are less food secure than in any of the other cities in the survey. On the basis of the findings presented in this paper, AFSUN makes several policy recommendations to deal with food security challenges in the poor urban areas of Swaziland. Among these is that government needs to target urban households specifically in addition to its focus on poverty in rural areas. A more ...


No. 14: The State Of Food Insecurity In Windhoek, Namibia, Wade Pendleton, Ndeyapo Nickanor, Akiser Pomuti Jan 2012

No. 14: The State Of Food Insecurity In Windhoek, Namibia, Wade Pendleton, Ndeyapo Nickanor, Akiser Pomuti

African Food Security Urban Network

AFSUN recently conducted a survey of poor urban households in eleven major cities in Southern Africa to better understand the seriousness of the urban food insecurity situation. This report looks in detail at the results for Windhoek and seeks to answer one central question, that is, why do the urban poor in Namibia’s capital generally appear to be better off than the urban poor in most of the other ten cities where the survey was conducted and why, at the same time, does Windhoek contain some of the most food insecure households in the region? As a city of ...


No. 12: The State Of Food Insecurity In Johannesburg, Michael Rudolph, Florian Kroll, Shaun Ruysenaar, Tebogo Dlamini Jan 2012

No. 12: The State Of Food Insecurity In Johannesburg, Michael Rudolph, Florian Kroll, Shaun Ruysenaar, Tebogo Dlamini

African Food Security Urban Network

Johannesburg is the economic hub of South Africa and the Southern African region. At the same time, it is a city of extremes which juxtaposes ostentatious wealth and conspicuous consumption with grinding poverty and food insecurity. Not enough is known about the prevalence and nature of food insecurity in the city, making it dif!cult to challenge and plan to reduce the urban food gap. This paper uses AFSUN data from three lower-income areas of the city (Alexandra, Orange Farm and the Inner City) to examine the characteristics and drivers of food insecurity in Johannesburg. Despite high overall levels of ...


No. 10: Gender And Food Insecurity In Southern African Cities, Belinda Dodson, Asiyati Chiweza, Liam Riley Jan 2012

No. 10: Gender And Food Insecurity In Southern African Cities, Belinda Dodson, Asiyati Chiweza, Liam Riley

African Food Security Urban Network

This gender analysis of the findings of AFSUN’s baseline survey of poor urban households in eleven cities in Southern Africa in 2008 and 2009 has implications for urban, national and regional policy interventions aimed at reducing urban food insecurity. By comparing female-centred and other households, light is shed both on the determinants of urban food insecurity – which relate fundamentally to income, employment and education – and on the manifest gender inequalities in access to the largely income-based entitlements to food in the city. These insights can be used to design and implement practical and strategic interventions that could simultaneously and ...


No. 13: The State Of Food Insecurity In Harare, Zimbabwe, Godfrey Tawodzera, Lazarus Zanamwe, Jonathan Crush Jan 2012

No. 13: The State Of Food Insecurity In Harare, Zimbabwe, Godfrey Tawodzera, Lazarus Zanamwe, Jonathan Crush

African Food Security Urban Network

Harare is at the epicentre of the economic meltdown and political crisis that has devastated Zimbabwe over the last decade and led to a mass exodus from the country. Those who remained in Zimbabwe’s largest city and capital endured unprecedented hardship as the formal economy collapsed, unemployment soared and poverty deepened. Household surveys conducted in Harare with official sanction between 2003 and 2009 appear to demonstrate that food insecurity was not a particularly serious problem, a conclusion sharply at odds with reality. In 2008, at the height of the crisis, AFSUN therefore implemented its own baseline food security survey ...


No. 16: The State Of Food Insecurity In Msunduzi Municipality, South Africa, Mary Caesar, Jonathan Crush, Trevor Hill Jan 2012

No. 16: The State Of Food Insecurity In Msunduzi Municipality, South Africa, Mary Caesar, Jonathan Crush, Trevor Hill

African Food Security Urban Network

There is plenty of food in Msunduzi, in South Africa’s KwaZulu-Natal province, but the urban poor regularly go hungry. This study of Msunduzi’s food security situation formed part of AFSUN’s baseline survey of eleven Southern African cities. The survey results show that the urban poor in Msunduzi are significantly worse off than their counterparts in Cape Town and Johannesburg. A third of the households reported that they sometimes or often have no food to eat of any kind. Household size did not make a great deal of difference to levels of insecurity but female-headed households are more ...


No. 09: Migration, Development And Urban Food Security, Jonathan Crush Jan 2012

No. 09: Migration, Development And Urban Food Security, Jonathan Crush

African Food Security Urban Network

Over the last decade, two issues have risen to the top of the international development agenda: Food Security & Migration and Development. Each has its own agency champions, international gatherings, national line ministries and voluminous bodies of research. There is thus a massive institutional and substantive disconnect between these two development agendas. The reasons are hard to understand since the connections between migration and food security seem so obvious. Food security needs to be “mainstreamed” into the migration and development agenda and migration needs to be “mainstreamed” into the food security agenda. Without this happening, both agendas will proceed in ignorance ...


No. 08: Climate Change And Food Security In Southern African Cities, Gina Ziervogel, Bruce Frayne Jan 2011

No. 08: Climate Change And Food Security In Southern African Cities, Gina Ziervogel, Bruce Frayne

African Food Security Urban Network

The current urban transition in the Global South is at the heart of discussions about the relationship between climate change and food security. This paper explores the links between climate change and food security within the context of the urban transition taking place in Southern Africa. Climate change is expected to negatively accentuate existing levels of urban food insecurity and these adverse impacts are likely to fall disproportionately on the poor. Researchers, planners and policymakers in Southern African cities are starting to explore how changes in weather associated with climate change are likely to affect urban lifestyles and systems. In ...


No. 11: The State Of Food Insecurity In Cape Town, Jane Battersby Jan 2011

No. 11: The State Of Food Insecurity In Cape Town, Jane Battersby

African Food Security Urban Network

Cape Town is one of the wealthiest cities in the Southern African region. Yet, the vast majority of households in poor areas of the city experience food insecurity. This paper uses AFSUN data to examine the characteristics and drivers of food insecurity in Cape Town. While food insecurity correlates closely with income poverty and household structure, broader factors also impact upon urban food security, most notably urban design and market structure. Efforts to address urban food insecurity should therefore not simply target the household. Instead, a food systems approach is necessary, which considers supply chains, procurement, nutrition support programmes, public ...


No. 06: Urban Food Insecurity And The Advent Of Food Banking In Southern Africa, Daniel N. Warshawsky Jan 2011

No. 06: Urban Food Insecurity And The Advent Of Food Banking In Southern Africa, Daniel N. Warshawsky

African Food Security Urban Network

In most African cities, there is sufficient food to feed everyone and considerable wastage of fresh and processed foodstuffs. Poor households are food insecure because they cannot afford to purchase enough quality food and are unable to access the surplus food that exists. Food redistribution NGOs are well established in Southern Africa but more recently large centralized food banks have been advocated as a means to get surplus food to the hungry. In 2009, the first food banks opened in the South African cities of Cape Town, Johannesburg, Durban and Port Elizabeth. The South African model of food collection and ...


No. 07: Rapid Urbanization And The Nutrition Transition In Southern Africa, Jonathan Crush, Bruce Frayne, Milla Mclachlan Jan 2011

No. 07: Rapid Urbanization And The Nutrition Transition In Southern Africa, Jonathan Crush, Bruce Frayne, Milla Mclachlan

African Food Security Urban Network

The nutrition transition, including the presence of malnutrition and obesity in poor urban populations (the so-called ‘double burden’ of disease), is occurring in Southern Africa in the context of massive rural-urban migration and rapid urbanization. This seemingly contradictory situation poses one of the major threats to public health in the developing world, and impacts the poor – and therefore the most food insecure – to the greatest extent. This paper reviews the state of knowledge about food insecurity and the nutrition transition in the urban areas of Southern Africa drawing on existing studies and new research conducted by AFSUN. The paper lays ...


No. 05: The Hiv And Urban Food Security Nexus, Jonathan Crush, Bruce Frayne, Scott Drimie, Mary Caesar Jan 2011

No. 05: The Hiv And Urban Food Security Nexus, Jonathan Crush, Bruce Frayne, Scott Drimie, Mary Caesar

African Food Security Urban Network

Considerable attention has been devoted to the impact of the HIV and AIDS epidemic on small farmers and the food security of the rural poor. Despite the rapid progression of the epidemic in rural areas, it remains an ever-growing challenge in the continent’s rapidly-growing cities where prevalence rates are still higher than in rural areas. This report examines the reciprocal relationship between HIV and urban food security. Much of the research and most of the policy interventions on the HIV-Urban Food Security Nexus focus on the nutritional status of individual People Living With HIV (PLHIV). Other members of households ...


No. 04: Urban Food Production And Household Food Security In Southern African Cities, Jonathan Crush, Alice Hovorka, Daniel Tevara Jan 2010

No. 04: Urban Food Production And Household Food Security In Southern African Cities, Jonathan Crush, Alice Hovorka, Daniel Tevara

African Food Security Urban Network

Optimism about the role of household food production (urban agriculture) in improving the food security of the urban poor has given way to pessimism and even scepticism. This paper critically examines the views of advocates of urban agriculture and suggests that it cannot be isolated from a broader consideration of the changing nature of urban food supply systems in Southern African cities. Urban food production by poor households is currently very limited across the region and even fewer produce for market. While food production is a useful livelihood supplement in some cities and a source of income to some wealthier ...


No. 03: Pathways To Insecurity: Food Supply And Access In Southern African Cities, Jonathan Crush, Bruce Frayne Jan 2010

No. 03: Pathways To Insecurity: Food Supply And Access In Southern African Cities, Jonathan Crush, Bruce Frayne

African Food Security Urban Network

As in many parts of the world, supermarket expansion and control of food supply chains is having a major impact on the quality, quantity and price of food available to urban residents. Growing numbers of poor households in Southern African cities now obtain their food, directly or indirectly, from supermarkets. In most cities, these same households spend over 40 percent of household income on food. Supermarket expansion is also having a major impact on the informal sector. This paper reviews the changing nature of the urban food supply in Southern African cities, the role of supermarkets and the informal sector ...


No. 01: The Invisible Crisis: Urban Food Security In Southern Africa, Jonathan Crush, Bruce Frayne Jan 2010

No. 01: The Invisible Crisis: Urban Food Security In Southern Africa, Jonathan Crush, Bruce Frayne

African Food Security Urban Network

Over 1 billion people in the world are now undernourished. The current international food security agenda focuses almost exclusively on the food insecurity of rural populations and ways to increase smallholder production. The plight of the urban poor is marginalised in this agenda leading to neglect of the ‘invisible crisis’ of urban food insecurity. This paper argues that the future of Southern Africa is an urban one and that urban food insecurity is therefore a large and growing challenge. The causes, determinants and solutions for food insecurity are not the same in rural and urban settings. This paper suggests that ...


No. 02: The State Of Urban Food Insecurity In Southern Africa, Bruce Frayne, Wade Pendleton, Jonathan Crush, Ben Acquah, Jane Battersby-Lennard, Eugenio Bras, Asiyati Chiweza, Tebogo Dlamini, Robert Fincham, Florian Kroll, Clement Leduka, Aloysius Mosha, Chileshe Mulenga, Peter Mvula, Akiser Pomuti, Ines Raimundo, Michael Rudolph, Shaun Ruysenaa, Nomcebo Simelane, Daniel Tevara, Maxton Tsoka, Godfrey Tawodzera, Lazarus Zanamwe Jan 2010

No. 02: The State Of Urban Food Insecurity In Southern Africa, Bruce Frayne, Wade Pendleton, Jonathan Crush, Ben Acquah, Jane Battersby-Lennard, Eugenio Bras, Asiyati Chiweza, Tebogo Dlamini, Robert Fincham, Florian Kroll, Clement Leduka, Aloysius Mosha, Chileshe Mulenga, Peter Mvula, Akiser Pomuti, Ines Raimundo, Michael Rudolph, Shaun Ruysenaa, Nomcebo Simelane, Daniel Tevara, Maxton Tsoka, Godfrey Tawodzera, Lazarus Zanamwe

African Food Security Urban Network

The number of people living in urban areas is rising rapidly in Southern Africa. By mid-century, the region is expected to be 60% urban. Rapid urbanization is leading to growing food insecurity in the region’s towns and cities. This paper presents the results of the first ever regional study of the prevalence of food insecurity in Southern Africa. The AFSUN food security household survey was conducted simultaneously in 2008-9 in 11 cities in 8 SADC countries. The results confirm high levels of food insecurity amongst the urban poor in terms of food availability, accessibility, reliability and dietary diversity. The ...