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Urban Studies and Planning Commons

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Articles 1 - 30 of 1302

Full-Text Articles in Urban Studies and Planning

Challenges To Coordination: Understanding Intergovernmental Friction During Disasters (Pre Print), Daniel P. Aldrich Dec 2019

Challenges To Coordination: Understanding Intergovernmental Friction During Disasters (Pre Print), Daniel P. Aldrich

Daniel P Aldrich

While idealized crisis response involves smooth coordination between relevant actors, friction between levels of government and between the state and civil society in responding to catastrophe may be more common. This article builds a theory of cross-level friction during and after crisis by analyzing the conditions when discord is most likely. With a medium-N dataset (N = 18) of disaster responses from, among other countries, Chile, Haiti, Japan, North America, the Philippines, and Somalia, I carry out quantitative and qualitative analysis of cases with a variety of levels of friction to investigate the conditions that lead to misalignment. Tobit regression, qualitative ...


Webinar: Contextual Guidance At Intersections For Protected Bicycle Lanes, Christopher Monsere, Nathan Mcneil Nov 2019

Webinar: Contextual Guidance At Intersections For Protected Bicycle Lanes, Christopher Monsere, Nathan Mcneil

Christopher M. Monsere

Separated bike lanes have become increasingly common around the United States as cities seek to attract the new riders, including people who want to ride but limit their riding because they do not feel comfortable riding with motor vehicle traffic. Planners and engineers are working to identify contextually appropriate, safe, and comfortable designs for intersection locations, where bicyclist paths cross the paths of turning vehicles as well as cross-traffic. This research employed a combination of user surveys and simulations to anticipate expected bicyclist and turning vehicle interactions and bicyclist comfort based on design type and volumes. Findings examine which types ...


The Politics Of Implementation: Oregon's Statewide Transportation Planning Rule - What's Been Accomplished, Martha J. Bianco, Sy Adler Oct 2019

The Politics Of Implementation: Oregon's Statewide Transportation Planning Rule - What's Been Accomplished, Martha J. Bianco, Sy Adler

Sy Adler

This paper is a case study of the evolution of Oregon’s groundbreaking Transportation Planning Rule, from its adoption in 1991, up through present amendments. Our analysis is an assessment of how private- and public-sector investors grapple with the coproduction of the built environment under the constraints of a value system that emanates from the state, shepherded by litigious public interest groups. In this case, this value system is articulated in the Oregon administrative rule known as the Transportation Planning Rule. This Rule emphasizes a reduction in the reliance on automobiles and, among other things, requires a decrease in vehicle ...


Governing And Managing Multi-Modal Transit Agencies In A Multicentric Era, Sy Adler, Sheldon Edner Oct 2019

Governing And Managing Multi-Modal Transit Agencies In A Multicentric Era, Sy Adler, Sheldon Edner

Sy Adler

We explore the dynamics of governing and managing multi-modal regional transit agencies through a case study of the Tri-County Metropolitan Transit District (Tri-Met), which provides bus and rail transit services to the Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area (see map). Along with other similarly constituted firms in the United States transit industry, Tri-Met confronts the challenge of providing service in a geopolitical context that is quite different than when the agency was created. The critical new element in Tri-Met's operating environment is the emergence of several suburban business centers that effectively compete with the Portland central business district (CBD), and are ...


Challenges Confronting Metropolitan Portland's Transportation Decision-Making Regime, Sheldon Edner, Sy Adler, Peter B. Morris Oct 2019

Challenges Confronting Metropolitan Portland's Transportation Decision-Making Regime, Sheldon Edner, Sy Adler, Peter B. Morris

Sy Adler

In this paper we discuss the structure and dynamics of this consensus process through an exploration of a series of challenges to the regime. These challenges include: (1) cultivating new sources of project finance, as the federal government reduces its contribution; and (2) integrating transport projects with regional and local land use plans designed to manage urban growth; in the context of (3) intensifying competition between -business centers within the region, as rapidly growing suburban areas seek transport projects that will facilitate locally-oriented economic growth. We first discuss the institutional and normative elements of the regional consensus process in historical ...


Understanding The Dynamics Of Innovation In Urban Transit, Sy Adler Oct 2019

Understanding The Dynamics Of Innovation In Urban Transit, Sy Adler

Sy Adler

Urban transit is the major United States example of a private industry that failed and was taken over by the public sector. The recent re-emergence of the private sector in urban transit, and private sector-like behavior in the public sector, raise a number of interesting theoretical and historical issues and policy questions. This report develops a conceptual model to explain this recent history and outlines likely paths of transit service and institutional innovation. The model has three components: 1) the political and economic roles of urban transport facilities in the land development process; 2) the nature of the political process ...


The Value Of Balanced Growth For Transportation, Kirby Date, Jacqueline M. Jenkins, Wendy A. Kellogg, Kathryn W. Hexter, Suzann Rhodes Oct 2019

The Value Of Balanced Growth For Transportation, Kirby Date, Jacqueline M. Jenkins, Wendy A. Kellogg, Kathryn W. Hexter, Suzann Rhodes

Jacqueline Jenkins

The Ohio Balanced Growth Program is a voluntary, locally-driven, incentive-driven program which aims to encourage compact, nodal development patterns. The Ohio Department of Transportation provided support for this research to evaluate potential links between Balanced Growth-type policy, land use and development patterns, and transportation benefits.

A literature review was completed to understand the existing body of knowledge regarding the connection between policy, land use, and transportation. This included a scan of Balanced Growth-type programs across the US. Twenty-six US Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) were selected and reviewed for general geographic and policy characteristics. Land use and transportation outcome data were ...


The Value Of Balanced Growth For Transportation: Executive Summary, Kirby Date, Jacqueline Jenkins, Wendy A. Kellogg, Suzann Rhodes, Kathryn W. Hexter, Charlie Post Oct 2019

The Value Of Balanced Growth For Transportation: Executive Summary, Kirby Date, Jacqueline Jenkins, Wendy A. Kellogg, Suzann Rhodes, Kathryn W. Hexter, Charlie Post

Jacqueline Jenkins

This project evaluates the benefit that programs like the Ohio Balanced Growth Program could bring to transportation agencies in Ohio.


Transforming Pervasive Into Collaborative: Engaging Youth As Leaders With Gis Through A Framework That Integrates Technologies, Storytelling, And Action, Alenka Poplin, Linda Shenk, Ulrike Passe Oct 2019

Transforming Pervasive Into Collaborative: Engaging Youth As Leaders With Gis Through A Framework That Integrates Technologies, Storytelling, And Action, Alenka Poplin, Linda Shenk, Ulrike Passe

Alenka Poplin

This paper presents the methods and preliminary results gained in geographic information systems (GIS)-based participatory activities designed to engage youth in urban planning. We describe our engagement framework that integrates such pervasive IT tools as GIS, online serious games, agent-based modeling, and mobile participatory GIS into engagement strategies that tap into what we see as the storytelling capabilities of these tools. We show how these methods help citizens, in our case youth, assume leadership roles and take positive, tangible actions in their communities. This paper summarizes the elements of our framework and the initial results of a program called ...


Smart Shrinkage: Better Planning And Decision-Making For Legacy Cities, Michael P. Johnson Jr. Oct 2019

Smart Shrinkage: Better Planning And Decision-Making For Legacy Cities, Michael P. Johnson Jr.

Michael P. Johnson

Neighborhoods, cities and regions facing long-term declines in population and economic activity may consider alternative responses, such as revitalization, regeneration, shrinkage and abandonment. In this presentation I show that planning decisions intended to improve quality of life, informed by qualitative and quantitative data and analytic methods, implemented through accessible and affordable technologies, and based on notions of social impact and social justice, can enable residents to play a leading role in the positive transformation of shrinking cities and
distressed communities.


Urban Planning And Operations Research: A Review And Critique, Tayo Fabusuyi, Michael P. Johnson Jr. Oct 2019

Urban Planning And Operations Research: A Review And Critique, Tayo Fabusuyi, Michael P. Johnson Jr.

Michael P. Johnson

While inquiry in Operations Research (OR) modeling of Urban Planning (UP) processes is longstanding, the OR discipline has not influenced UP at a level of other domains such as public policy and information technology. Could an OR approach which focuses on the complex, emergent nature of cities and the institutional environment enable interventions that better address challenges that are complex, multi-stakeholder and stochastic in nature? Based on a critique of research and practice in OR and UP, we argue that a prospective and prescriptive approach to
planning that embraces mixed-methods can help researchers and practitioners develop programs that reflect community ...


Growth Without Displacement: A Test For Equity Planning In Portland, Lisa K. Bates Oct 2019

Growth Without Displacement: A Test For Equity Planning In Portland, Lisa K. Bates

Lisa K. Bates

Portland, Oregon, is considered a pioneer of regionalism, integrated land-use and transportation planning, and sustainability as a criterion for planning policy. After four decades of land-use planning, Portland has a national and international reputation for urban livability and climate change mitigation. While these successes are laudable, in the past decade Portland’s underrepresented and underserved communities have been raising a voice to demand that planners address issues of income and racial inequality. In response to and in collaboration with communities, over the past five years Portland’s Bureau of Planning and Sustainability (BPS) has adopted an equity strategy with a ...


The Impact Of A School Gardening Program On Nutrition Attitudes, Behaviors And Interests Amongst Fourth Grade Students, Anjali Barnick Sep 2019

The Impact Of A School Gardening Program On Nutrition Attitudes, Behaviors And Interests Amongst Fourth Grade Students, Anjali Barnick

Anjali Barnick

This study intended to examine the impact of the gardening curriculum in an urban elementary school in Cleveland, Ohio. This yearlong gardening education program is introduced to the students in the 4th grade and incorporates a curriculum that includes gardening, nutrition, community service and experiential learning. With ample support from the community and from parents, this school provided the ideal setting to research the topic of how school gardening programs influence the students, their families and the community.The study used a series of questionnaires administered to the students in the fall of August 2013, early winter December 2013 and ...


Electronic Wayfinding For Visually Impaired Travelers: Limitations And Opportunities, Martin Swobodzinski, Amy T. Parker Aug 2019

Electronic Wayfinding For Visually Impaired Travelers: Limitations And Opportunities, Martin Swobodzinski, Amy T. Parker

Amy Parker

In this project, we distilled an inventory of smartphone-based electronic travel aid technology for the wayfinding of visually impaired travelers in an urban environment based on a thorough review of software marketplaces and the academic literature. Subsequently, we solicited structured input from domain experts and visually impaired individuals on their experiences and evaluations pertaining to personal telecommunication technology for safe and efficient wayfinding. The insights gained from this project are instrumental for the conceptualization and development of integrated route planning and guidance application that address the distinct information needs and expectations of individuals with a vision-related functional impairment. The very ...


A Comprehensive Examination Of Electronic Wayfinding Technology For Visually Impaired Travelers In An Urban Environment, Martin Swobodzinski, Amy T. Parker Aug 2019

A Comprehensive Examination Of Electronic Wayfinding Technology For Visually Impaired Travelers In An Urban Environment, Martin Swobodzinski, Amy T. Parker

Amy Parker

In this project, we distilled an inventory of smartphone-based electronic travel aid technology for the wayfinding of visually impaired travelers in an urban environment based on a thorough review of software marketplaces and the academic literature. Subsequently, we solicited structured input from domain experts and visually impaired individuals on their experiences and evaluations pertaining to personal telecommunication technology for safe and efficient wayfinding. The insights gained from this project are instrumental for the conceptualization and development of integrated route planning and guidance application that address the distinct information needs and expectations of individuals with a vision-related functional impairment. The very ...


Supporting Shrinkage: Better Planning And Decision-Making For Legacy Cities, Michael P. Johnson Jr., Justin B. Hollander, Eliza W. Kinsey, George Chichirau, Charla Burnett Aug 2019

Supporting Shrinkage: Better Planning And Decision-Making For Legacy Cities, Michael P. Johnson Jr., Justin B. Hollander, Eliza W. Kinsey, George Chichirau, Charla Burnett

Michael P. Johnson

Planning and policy design for shrinking and distressed regions is challenging. Traditionally, planners use
a variety of tools and incentives to encourage land uses that accommodate changes in populations,
infrastructure and activities to maximize quality of life and social and environmental sustainability.
These are generally designed for growing cities and politically and socially active communities. Since
many regions face significant disparities in social supports, financial resources and quality of life, use of
these tools is thus problematic.

Information technology and the Internet have transformed the production of goods and services. The
‘big data’, ‘smart cities’ and ‘e-government’ movements make it ...


Metropolitan Briefing Book, 2007, Craig Wollner, Sheila Martin, George C. Hough Jr, Amy Koski, John Tapogna, Mike Houck, Jim Labbe, Jennifer Dill, Steve Novick, Ethan Seltzer Aug 2019

Metropolitan Briefing Book, 2007, Craig Wollner, Sheila Martin, George C. Hough Jr, Amy Koski, John Tapogna, Mike Houck, Jim Labbe, Jennifer Dill, Steve Novick, Ethan Seltzer

Ethan Seltzer

The Institute of Portland Metropolitan Studies (IMS) was created to connect the resources of higher education to the needs of the six-county, bit-state Portland-Vancouver metropolitan area (Clackamas, Clark, Columbia, Multnomah, Washington, and Yamhill Counties). In this spirit, we offer our 2007 Metropolitan Briefing Book. Our theme is regional variety. Variety has been touted as "the very spice of life" (William Cowper) and as "the mother of enjoyment" (Vivan Grey). Our region enjoys a good deal of variety--in its landscapes, in its economy, and in its people, their cultures, and their attitudes. These differences are important to local vitality and beauty ...


From Data To Decisions In Local Government, Michael P. Johnson Jr. Jul 2019

From Data To Decisions In Local Government, Michael P. Johnson Jr.

Michael P. Johnson

Making good decisions is essential to enabling local government to deliver services that improve the lives of constituents. But what is a good decision, and what is necessary to make good decisions? In this presentation, given to fellows of the Lead for America program, I introduce the notion of decision and data analytics, specific to the needs of resource-constrained local governments, provide three examples of analytics & decision opportunities ranging from mostly-qualitative to mostly-quantitative data and analysis, and end with three case studies that I had the Lead for America fellows perform.


Urban Trees And Asthma: A Call For Epidemiological Research, Theodore S. Eisenman, Sunit P. Jariwala, Gina S. Lovasi Jun 2019

Urban Trees And Asthma: A Call For Epidemiological Research, Theodore S. Eisenman, Sunit P. Jariwala, Gina S. Lovasi

Theodore S. Eisenman

The Lancet Respiratory Medicine is the 2018 top-ranked Respiratory System medical journal (1/63) by Journal Citation Reports.


Cubelos, G., Valenzuela, B., Kularathna, S., Iliopoulos, N., Quiroz, M., Yavar, R., Henríquez, P., Bacigalupe, G., Onuki, M., Mikami, T., Cienfuegos, R., Aranguiz, R., & Esteban, M. (2019, June 26). Assessing Tsunami Awareness In Remote Coastal Towns In Northern Chile Through Community Mapping., Gonzalo Bacigalupe Jun 2019

Cubelos, G., Valenzuela, B., Kularathna, S., Iliopoulos, N., Quiroz, M., Yavar, R., Henríquez, P., Bacigalupe, G., Onuki, M., Mikami, T., Cienfuegos, R., Aranguiz, R., & Esteban, M. (2019, June 26). Assessing Tsunami Awareness In Remote Coastal Towns In Northern Chile Through Community Mapping., Gonzalo Bacigalupe

Gonzalo Bacigalupe, EdD, MPH

In 2015 and 2017 unusual ocean and atmospheric conditions produced many years’ worth of rainfall in short periods over Northern Chile’s Atacama Desert, resulting in catastrophic flooding in the town of Chañaral. However, the town is not only at risk of fluvial flooding, it is also at risk of tsunamis. Through a community mapping exercise, the authors attempted to establish the level of community awareness about tsunamis, and contrasted it with that of other types of water-related hazards facing the town (namely that of flooding due to high intensity rain). This was then compared with the results of field ...


Changing Urban Form In A Shrinking City, Justin Hollander, Michael P. Johnson Jr., Rachel B. Drew Jun 2019

Changing Urban Form In A Shrinking City, Justin Hollander, Michael P. Johnson Jr., Rachel B. Drew

Michael P. Johnson

This paper uses building footprint data in a shrinking city, Baltimore, MD, in 1972 and 2010 to achieve two primary research objectives. The first is to understand the historical patterns of housing construction and demolition in selected row house neighborhoods in Baltimore between 1972 and 2010. The second is to understand changes in housing footprints, and associations between these changes and physical and socio-economic characteristics in selected neighborhoods. We find that housing losses and associated changes in building footprints have shown substantial variation across our study area and exhibit clustering within our study area. Moreover, while housing loss is strongly ...


Walking Titanic's Charity Trail In New York City: Part One, Gramercy Park And Madison Square Park, Eric C. Cimino Ph.D. Jun 2019

Walking Titanic's Charity Trail In New York City: Part One, Gramercy Park And Madison Square Park, Eric C. Cimino Ph.D.

Eric C. Cimino

This article combines insights form travel writing, history, and urban studies to explore the social welfare milieu of early twentieth century New York City and its connection to disaster relief efforts for Titanic survivors in 1912.


Housing And Mobility Toolkit For San Mateo County, Serena Alexander, Joseph Kott, Bruce Appleyard, Mark Garrett, Shannon Mcdonald, Maaza Mekuria, Udeme J. Ndon, Anurag Pande, Eric Peterson May 2019

Housing And Mobility Toolkit For San Mateo County, Serena Alexander, Joseph Kott, Bruce Appleyard, Mark Garrett, Shannon Mcdonald, Maaza Mekuria, Udeme J. Ndon, Anurag Pande, Eric Peterson

Udeme J. Ndon

Since the end of the Great Recession, San Mateo County has attracted new workers at a record rate without building anywhere near enough housing. This jobs-housing imbalance drives the cost of housing up and forces many moderate and lower-income employees and their families out of the County. A lack of access to quality affordable housing in the County and the entire Bay Area along with limited transportation options means that an increased number of employees drive in and out of the County every workday. The resultant congestion, gridlock, and long commutes along with other negative environmental, social, and economic impacts ...


Value Capture To Fund Public Transportation: The Impact Of Warm Springs Bart Station On The Value Of Neighboring Residential Properties In Fremont, Ca, Shishir Mathur May 2019

Value Capture To Fund Public Transportation: The Impact Of Warm Springs Bart Station On The Value Of Neighboring Residential Properties In Fremont, Ca, Shishir Mathur

Shishir Mathur

This study estimates households’ willingness to pay for single-family houses and condominiums/townhouses located within 2 miles of Warm Springs (WS) BART Station in Fremont, CA. The study finds that, compared to the houses sold in the referent category (2 to 5 miles away and sold during the pre-project-announcement period of 2000-2001), an average-priced single-family house within two miles of the WS BART Station was higher in price by 9% to 15%. The total property value increment for the single-family houses is large enough to fund the $802 million Warm Springs BART Extension Project cost five times over.


The Economic Impact Of Des Moines Parks & Recreation Services, Kristine Fleming, Oksana Grybovych, Brian Gedlinske, Wade P. Kooiman, Jill Lankford, Sam Lankford Apr 2019

The Economic Impact Of Des Moines Parks & Recreation Services, Kristine Fleming, Oksana Grybovych, Brian Gedlinske, Wade P. Kooiman, Jill Lankford, Sam Lankford

Brian Gedlinske

Park and recreation programs provided by the City of Des Moines deliver services that have a range of benefits or values to residents, businesses, economy, and local government. Many of these benefits are often overlooked and rarely quantified. The purpose of this effort is to quantify the economic value received due to the operation of the City of Des Moines’ Parks and Recreation Department. These values are arranged to reflect factors that produce revenue for the city government, wealth increasing factors for citizens and businesses, cost saving factors to citizens, and cost saving factors for the city government.

Included in ...


Building An Equitable And Inclusive City Through Housing Policies: Singapore's Experience, S Y Phang Apr 2019

Building An Equitable And Inclusive City Through Housing Policies: Singapore's Experience, S Y Phang

PHANG Sock Yong

No abstract provided.


Modeling Landowner Interactions And Development Patterns At The Urban Fringe, Jennifer Koch, Monica A. Dorning, Derek B. Van Berkel, Scott M. Beck, Georgina M. Sanchez, Ashwin Shashidharan, Lindsey S. Smart, Qiang Zhang, Jordan W. Smith, Ross K. Meentemeyer Apr 2019

Modeling Landowner Interactions And Development Patterns At The Urban Fringe, Jennifer Koch, Monica A. Dorning, Derek B. Van Berkel, Scott M. Beck, Georgina M. Sanchez, Ashwin Shashidharan, Lindsey S. Smart, Qiang Zhang, Jordan W. Smith, Ross K. Meentemeyer

Jordan Smith

Population growth and unrestricted development policies are driving low-density urbanization and fragmentation of peri-urban landscapes across North America. While private individuals own most undeveloped land, little is known about how their decision-making processes shape landscape-scale patterns of urbanization over time. We introduce a hybrid agent-based modeling (ABM) – cellular automata (CA) modeling approach, developed for analyzing dynamic feedbacks between landowners’ decisions to sell their land for development, and resulting patterns of landscape fragmentation. Our modeling approach builds on existing conceptual frameworks in land systems modeling by integrating an ABM into an established grid-based land-change model – FUTURES. The decision-making process within the ...


Analyzing Lynch’S City Imageability In The Digital Age, Mahbubur Meenar, Nader Afzalan, Amir Hajrasouliha Apr 2019

Analyzing Lynch’S City Imageability In The Digital Age, Mahbubur Meenar, Nader Afzalan, Amir Hajrasouliha

Amir Hajrasouliha

This paper explores the role of virtual mapping environments in analyzing people’s perception of spaces and their implications
in planning. We examine how people interpret Kevin Lynch’s “city imageability” in the digital age by asking two questions: (1)
how can we create mental images of city elements by using virtual versus physical environments? (2) What are the strengths
and weaknesses of each method? We studied sixty-eight mental maps—created by thirty-four participants—identifying five
factors for disagreements on city elements: scale, eye level, details, accuracy/timeliness, and sensory/movement. We conclude
by suggesting how practitioners can take a ...


Remarks On Public Transit (Part Of Panel Discussion On Cities And Economic Development) At Pepperdine Univ., Michael Lewyn Mar 2019

Remarks On Public Transit (Part Of Panel Discussion On Cities And Economic Development) At Pepperdine Univ., Michael Lewyn

Michael E Lewyn


Chinatown Anti-Displacement Community Research Project Report, George Villanueva, Debbie Liu Mar 2019

Chinatown Anti-Displacement Community Research Project Report, George Villanueva, Debbie Liu

George Villanueva

The Greater Chinatown area in Chicago (see Figure 1 for map) is rapidly changing because of recent public and private investments. The area continues to attract great interest by developers because of its proximity to downtown, public transportation rail infrastructure, bicycle shares, and its vibrant ethnic culture. Consequentially, Greater Chinatown’s popular real estate market creates concerns about the implications of gentrification (economic and cultural) and potential displacement of existing communities. Community advocates, policymakers, and scholars nationwide point to the displacement in lower-income and ethnic communities resulting from urban revitalization. In particular, Chinatowns across the nation have become part of ...