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Articles 1 - 30 of 54

Full-Text Articles in Urban Studies and Planning

The Impact Of Concentrations Of African Americans And Latinos/Latinas On Neighborhood Social Cohesion In High Poverty United States Neighborhoods, Laurie A. Walker, Daniel Brisson Jan 2017

The Impact Of Concentrations Of African Americans And Latinos/Latinas On Neighborhood Social Cohesion In High Poverty United States Neighborhoods, Laurie A. Walker, Daniel Brisson

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

United States research concludes concentrations of Latinos/Latinas and African Americans have a negative impact on Neighborhood Social Cohesion (NSC); however, European research finds higher levels of NSC when controlling for measures of concentrated disadvantage. This study utilizes a longitudinal stratified random sample of 7,495 households in 430 Census Blocks within 10 United States cities that participated in the Making Connections Initiative. Results show higher NSC is associated with higher percentages of residents who are Latino/Latina, African American, and homeowners when controlling for measures of concentrated disadvantage. The study findings challenge the stigma associated with concentrations of racial ...


Optimal Location For Bike Sharing Stations In Downtown Kalamazoo, Lizmert Lopez Gonzalez Apr 2016

Optimal Location For Bike Sharing Stations In Downtown Kalamazoo, Lizmert Lopez Gonzalez

Research and Creative Activities Poster Day

At present, emphasis is on increasing physical activities and expanding access to goods and services through non-motorized modes in order to enhance safety, social sustainability in transportation equity, environmental justice, and public health. Hence, there is an interest in developing bike sharing systems to encourage non-motorized activities in cities. This study focuses on developing a bike sharing system for city of Kalamazoo. One key parameter for a successful system is to identify optimum locations for bike sharing stations. This poster presents implementation of location-allocation models and spatial analysis tools to determine the most suitable locations for bike sharing stations within ...


Local Planning And High-Speed Rail: Responses And Perceptions In A Developing Amtrak Corridor, John-Luke D'Ambrosio Dec 2014

Local Planning And High-Speed Rail: Responses And Perceptions In A Developing Amtrak Corridor, John-Luke D'Ambrosio

Master's Theses

Incremental speed increases have been a main focus of Amtrak in recent years. Now operating at 110 mph within three different service lines in the United States, Amtrak is making progress toward achieving maximum speeds within rail corridors. This study focuses on Amtrak’s Wolverine service line which operates daily passenger rail service between Chicago, Illinois and Detroit/Pontiac, Michigan. Specifically, this study will look at six cities connected by this service that are east of Chicago. The six cities examined in this research are Hammond, Indiana, Michigan City, Indiana, New Buffalo, Michigan, Niles, Michigan, Dowagiac, Michigan, and Kalamazoo, Michigan ...


Virtual Analysis And Evaluation Of Roundabout Safety And Operational Features, Elisha Jackson Wankogere Dec 2014

Virtual Analysis And Evaluation Of Roundabout Safety And Operational Features, Elisha Jackson Wankogere

Master's Theses

Roundabouts can be a solution to safety concerns present at other types of intersections. Recently in the United States, there has been an increase in conversion of problematic intersections to roundabouts to improve their safety. However, it is difficult to make these roundabouts, especially multi-lane roundabouts, safe to all ranges of users. Roundabout features such as advance warning and signage play an important role in determining driver performance as they navigate the roundabout.

This research is an effort to evaluate new and existing roundabout safety and operational features such as signs and pavement markings and how they influence performance of ...


Overtime Traffic Enforcement Evaluation: A Methodology For Selecting Agencies And Enforcement Periods, Dario Enrique Romero Santana Jun 2014

Overtime Traffic Enforcement Evaluation: A Methodology For Selecting Agencies And Enforcement Periods, Dario Enrique Romero Santana

Master's Theses

Multiple studies have stated the advantages of police traffic enforcement on crash reduction (Zaidel, February 2002). It is very important to identify locations and time periods where police enforcement produces the greatest crash reductions. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine the impact of overtime traffic enforcement on crash occurrence; (2) develop procedures to identify police agencies with potential to reduce targeted crashes; and (3) develop procedures to identify additional time periods in which enforcement activities should be conducted. In order to accomplish these objectives, many methodologies were explored. The study used crash and enforcement data collected by ...


The Effectiveness Of The New Town Policy In Managing Growth And Congestion In Mega Cities: A Case Study Of Lagos, Nigeria New Town Policy, Abolaji Samson Olanipekun Jun 2013

The Effectiveness Of The New Town Policy In Managing Growth And Congestion In Mega Cities: A Case Study Of Lagos, Nigeria New Town Policy, Abolaji Samson Olanipekun

Master's Theses

One of the major challenges facing municipal governments of megacities in developing countries is shortage of urban infrastructures relative to population growth. Because cities play important role in the economic development of every nation, problems confronting them require proactive policy measures by the government. One such mega city is Lagos, Nigeria. From 1962 to 2006, the population of Lagos grew from 1,135,805 to 17.5 million. Crammed on a 2200 square kilometer land area of which 18.9%, Lagos population is projected to reach 20.5 million by 2015, an explosion largely driven by the non-regulatory internal migration ...


Use Of A Gateway In-Street Sign Treatment To Increase Yielding To Pedestrians At Crosswalks, Miles K. Bennett Jun 2013

Use Of A Gateway In-Street Sign Treatment To Increase Yielding To Pedestrians At Crosswalks, Miles K. Bennett

Master's Theses

An important goal to reduce the number of collisions between motorists and pedestrians is to increase motorist’s yielding right-of-way to pedestrians in crosswalks. The current study addresses this goal. A Gateway installation of instreet signs (one in-street sign installed between the two travel lanes in each direction and one on both edges of the roadway in each direction) was evaluated on multilane roads. The first experiment compared the efficacy of adding multiple in-street signs used in a gateway configuration with a single sign between the two travel lanes in each direction. The second experiment compared the in-street sign gateway ...


Spatial Factors Impacting Non-Motorized Exposures And Crash Risks, Farhad Abasahl Jun 2013

Spatial Factors Impacting Non-Motorized Exposures And Crash Risks, Farhad Abasahl

Master's Theses

This research investigates spatial factors, that impact non-motorized exposures and crashes, and examines the relationship between exposure at signalized intersections and crash frequencies involving pedestrians and bicycles at a census tract level. The four Michigan cities of Ann Arbor, East Lansing, Flint and Grand Rapids are examined. After completing an extensive literature review to provide a list of required data, 92 intersections are selected from the four cities to collect pedestrian and bicyclist counts. Five-year crash records, special attractions, non-motorized facilities and transportation infrastructure data for the four cities are gathered for the four cities. This data are later mapped ...


Gis-Based Flood Analysis For Adequate Flood Mitigation In An Unplanned Urban Area; The Case Of Pikine Dagoudane In Dakar County, Senegal, Sokhna Helene Diop Jun 2013

Gis-Based Flood Analysis For Adequate Flood Mitigation In An Unplanned Urban Area; The Case Of Pikine Dagoudane In Dakar County, Senegal, Sokhna Helene Diop

Master's Theses

Since 1989, Pikine Dagoudane, in the suburbs of Dakar City has faced several flooding events, resulting in economic loss, environmental degradation and severe disturbance of the social life of the residents. The mitigation programs implemented have not appeared to provide any relief since 2000. Review of the existing literature on the crisis has revealed that the general scale of the studies, and the insufficient attention to some of the major factors could be accounted for such little efficiency. This thesis applies a different approach, based on a small area and focusing mainly on topographic characteristics, to provide a better understanding ...


The Limits Of Social Capital: An Examination Of Immigrants' Housing Challenges In Calgary, Alina Tanasescu, Alan Smart Dec 2010

The Limits Of Social Capital: An Examination Of Immigrants' Housing Challenges In Calgary, Alina Tanasescu, Alan Smart

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

A common explanation of immigrants' under-representation among the homeless population in Canada is that kinship and community networks act as a buffer to absolute homelessness. There are indications that immigrant homelessness is, however, increasing, suggesting that the buffering capacity of social networks reaches a limit. Further, evidence of precarious housing situations indicates that we should approach this form of housing provision with some caution. This paper draws on a larger study of housing difficulties among immigrants in Calgary to address the ways in which social capital serves a buffering role, and under what conditions it loses its ability to prevent ...


Exploring Homeowner Opposition To Public Housing Developments, Joanna Duke Mar 2010

Exploring Homeowner Opposition To Public Housing Developments, Joanna Duke

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This paper examines the beliefs and attitudes of homeowners in two receiving communities of public housing units. Opposition to housing mobility programs is generally attributed to fear offalling property values and increased crime rates. Given the spatial and redistributive nature of the programs, this paper proposes and explores space and liberty-based ideologies as causes ofdormant opposition persisting beyond relocation. Survey data were collected from two neighborhoods where developments containing public housing were located. Results indicate that ideologies about space and liberty are important to understanding receiving community opposition as well as the extent to which members of the receiving community ...


Pregnant And Poor In The Suburb: The Experiences Of Economically Disadvantaged Women Of Color With Prenatal Services In A Wealthy Suburban County, Linda E. Francis, Candyce S. Berger, Marianne Giardini, Carolyn Steinman, Karina Kim Sep 2009

Pregnant And Poor In The Suburb: The Experiences Of Economically Disadvantaged Women Of Color With Prenatal Services In A Wealthy Suburban County, Linda E. Francis, Candyce S. Berger, Marianne Giardini, Carolyn Steinman, Karina Kim

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This study explores the perinatal care experiences of disadvantaged women of color in a wealthy U.S. suburb. The women were asked to discuss the availability of health and social services during pregnancy, continuity of provider and/or treatment, communication issues with their providers, and the amount and type ofsupport and resources available. Many of the questions covered in literature on urban poverty emerged as well in this suburban sample, including economic and psychosocial barriers, and continuity and communication issues between low-income/minority women and providers of health and social services. Additional barriers in the suburbs were also discussed, including ...


Factors Predicting Residential Mobility Among The Recipients Of The Section 8 Housing Choice Voucher Program, Barbra Teater Sep 2009

Factors Predicting Residential Mobility Among The Recipients Of The Section 8 Housing Choice Voucher Program, Barbra Teater

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The Section 8 Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) program is the largest low-income federal housing program in the Unites States and has a policy goal of promoting mobility or "choice." This study explored the factors that predict residential mobility among the recipients of the HCV program in Columbus, Ohio by including variables found to predict mobility among the general population and two new variables that are specific to the HCV program: total tenant payment (TTP); and fair market rent (FMR). Although the findings revealed that race, gender, age and number in family were significant in predicting residential mobility, the variables affected ...


Public And Private Sources Of Assistance For Low-Income Households, Chi-Fang Wu, Mary Keegan Eamon Dec 2007

Public And Private Sources Of Assistance For Low-Income Households, Chi-Fang Wu, Mary Keegan Eamon

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This study examined the types and combinations of public and private assistance received by three types of low-income households, including those with children, without children, and elderly without children. Using data from the 1996 and 2001 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), the results indicate that a large percentage of low-income households rely on public assistance, and receipt of private assistance is much less common. Approximately 7% of the sample use both types of assistance. The findings highlight differences in combinations of public and private assistance used by different household types. Wealsofound some significant differences in ...


Review Of The Color Of Credit: Mortgage Discrimination, Research Methodology And Fair Lending Enforcement. Stephen L. Ross And John Yinger. Reviewed By Howard Jacob Karger., Howard Jacob Karger Sep 2004

Review Of The Color Of Credit: Mortgage Discrimination, Research Methodology And Fair Lending Enforcement. Stephen L. Ross And John Yinger. Reviewed By Howard Jacob Karger., Howard Jacob Karger

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Book review of Stephen L. Ross and John Yinger, The Color of Credit: Mortgage Discrimination, Research Methodology and Fair Lending Enforcement. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2003. $39.95 hardcover.


Finding And Keeping Affordable Housing: Analyzing The Experiences Of Single-Mother Families In North Philadelphia, Susan Clampet-Lundquist Dec 2003

Finding And Keeping Affordable Housing: Analyzing The Experiences Of Single-Mother Families In North Philadelphia, Susan Clampet-Lundquist

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The location, availability, and quality of housing shapes one's social networks, affects access to jobs, and impacts on social relations within the housing unit. However, access to affordable housing is limited for a significant portion of the population in the urban United States. In this study, I interviewed eighteen African-American and Puerto Rican single mothers in two low-income neighborhoods of Philadelphia about how they create and maintain their housing arrangements. Within the constraints of an affordable housing shortage, women told me how they struggle to share housing with others, rehab abandoned properties, live in substandard housing, and remain in ...


Serving The Homeless: Evaluating The Effectiveness Of Homeless Shelter Services, George M. Glisson, Robert L. Fischer, Bruce A. Thyer Dec 2001

Serving The Homeless: Evaluating The Effectiveness Of Homeless Shelter Services, George M. Glisson, Robert L. Fischer, Bruce A. Thyer

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The effects of homeless assistance services at the local level are tremendously difficult to ascertain. In this study, a four-month sample of homeless persons served by a local homeless shelter and case management program were contacted nine to eleven months after receiving services. The findings suggest that the program had some initial success in assisting the homeless clients to locate housing within the first year after leaving the shelter. However, the housing costs paid by these formerly homeless were quite high, with nearly three-quarters of them spending forty percent or more of their income on housing.


Private Food Assistance In A Small Metropolitan Area: Urban Resources And Rural Needs, Joseph J. Molnar, Patricia A. Duffy, Latoya Claxton, Conner Bailey Sep 2001

Private Food Assistance In A Small Metropolitan Area: Urban Resources And Rural Needs, Joseph J. Molnar, Patricia A. Duffy, Latoya Claxton, Conner Bailey

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Food banks and other private feeding programs have become an institutionalized component of the social welfare system in over 190 urban areas in the U.S. More recently, private food assistance has gained importance in rural areas as well. The density and capacity of agencies to serve the poor is higher in urban areas than in sparsely populated rural locales where distance and dispersal tend to be barriers to supplying and accessing donated food. Rural food distribution strategies thus must be qualitatively different than those in larger communities, because of the smaller-scale, more informal distributional system. Little is known about ...


Review Of Challenges Of Urban Education: Sociological Perspectives For The Next Century. Karen A. Mcclafferty, Carlos Alberto Torres And Theodor R. Mitchell (Eds.). Reviewed By Chad Ellett, Chad D. Ellett Jun 2001

Review Of Challenges Of Urban Education: Sociological Perspectives For The Next Century. Karen A. Mcclafferty, Carlos Alberto Torres And Theodor R. Mitchell (Eds.). Reviewed By Chad Ellett, Chad D. Ellett

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Book review of Karen A. McClafferty, Carlos Alberto Torres and Theodor R. Mitchell (Eds.), Challenges of Urban Education: Sociological Perspectives for the Next Century. Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press, 2000. $19.95 papercover.


Estimating Poverty Rates In A Metropolis: The Example Of Los Angeles/Long Beach, Robert G. Mogull Dec 2000

Estimating Poverty Rates In A Metropolis: The Example Of Los Angeles/Long Beach, Robert G. Mogull

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This study develops a technique to estimate and project annual rates of poverty for a large metropolitan area for various segments of its population. The annual estimates and projections are based upon the official rates compiled by the Bureau of the Census.

Using Los Angeles/Long Beach as the site of the experimental example, the evidence reveals a substantially increasing trend in the incidence of poverty for the overall metropolitan population. This increase is caused by the dramatic rise in poverty within the Hispanic and Children population groups. Trends in poverty are negative, however, for the Elderly, Blacks, Female Family ...


Urban Violence Among African American Males: Integrating Family, Neighborhood, And Peer Perspectives, M. Daniel Bennett Jr., Mark W. Fraser Sep 2000

Urban Violence Among African American Males: Integrating Family, Neighborhood, And Peer Perspectives, M. Daniel Bennett Jr., Mark W. Fraser

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Even though rates have declined in recent years, violence is a serious problem in many American cities. This paper reviews recent perspectives on violence among young, urban African American males. Special attention is afforded the "father absent" hypothesis, the effect of poverty, the character of neighborhoods, the roots of self-efficacy, and peer influence, particularly the influence of street codes. The latter are argued both to regulate some situational behavior and to promote the use of violence in disputes over social status, drugs, and money. The authors discuss implications for policy and community development.


Implementation Problems In The Development Of Urban Community Services In The People's Republic Of China: The Case Of Beijing, Agnas K.C. Yeung, Kwok Kin Fung, Kim Ming Lee Sep 1999

Implementation Problems In The Development Of Urban Community Services In The People's Republic Of China: The Case Of Beijing, Agnas K.C. Yeung, Kwok Kin Fung, Kim Ming Lee

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

To review the ten year implementation of the community service policy of the People's Republic of China, community service implementers and academics located in Beijing were interviewed. By employing implementation theories as a framework of analysis, a number of implementation problems are identified. In terms of policy characteristics and the structuring of implementation, this case shows that the objectives are not specific enough. The decentralized implementation strategy allows the implementers too much discretionary power. The shortage of qualified and motivated personnel further complicate the issue. Lastly, the policy environment of Beijing does not lend adequate support to the policy.


Review Of Big Cities In The Welfare Transition. Alfred J. Hahn And Sheila B. Kamerman. Reviewed By John R. Graham, University Of Calgary., John R. Graham Jun 1999

Review Of Big Cities In The Welfare Transition. Alfred J. Hahn And Sheila B. Kamerman. Reviewed By John R. Graham, University Of Calgary., John R. Graham

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Book review of Alfred J. Kahn and Sheila B. Kamerman, Big Cities in the Welfare Transition. New York: Columbia University School of Social Work, 1998, $25.00 papercover


"Safe Places To Go And Things To Do": Political Texts From Urban Youth Of Color, Amory Starr Sep 1998

"Safe Places To Go And Things To Do": Political Texts From Urban Youth Of Color, Amory Starr

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This paper is the first to examine the political texts of urban youth of color. It presents their assessments of what kinds of policies and programs would improve their lives.


Review Of Children In The Urban Environment: Linking Social Policy And Clinical Practice. Norma K. Phillips And Shulamith L. A. Straussner. Reviewed By Dorinda Noble, Louisiana State University., Dorinda Noble May 1998

Review Of Children In The Urban Environment: Linking Social Policy And Clinical Practice. Norma K. Phillips And Shulamith L. A. Straussner. Reviewed By Dorinda Noble, Louisiana State University., Dorinda Noble

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Norma K. Phillips and Shulamith L.A. Straussner, Children in the Urban Environment: Linking Social Policy and Clinical Practice. Springfield, IL. $57.96 hardcover, $43.05 papercover.


The Forgotten Many: A Study Of Poor Urban Whites, Reba L. Chaisson May 1998

The Forgotten Many: A Study Of Poor Urban Whites, Reba L. Chaisson

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Being White in America is thought to ensure social and economic stability, but the lives of Whites who are poor run contrary to these assumptions. Members of this group, the focus group of this study, receive food stamps, public aid and general assistance payments on a monthly basis. And they rely on public health clinics and food pantries to get by-programs and services that are viewed by the larger society as being tapped only by Blacks. This paper examines the differences and similarities between the poverty experiences of Blacks and Whites. The research for this analysis consisted of participant observation ...


Review Of Still The Promised City?: African-Americans And New Immigrants In Postindustrial New York. Roger Waldinger. Reviewed By Charles Jaret, Georgia State University, Charles Jaret Dec 1997

Review Of Still The Promised City?: African-Americans And New Immigrants In Postindustrial New York. Roger Waldinger. Reviewed By Charles Jaret, Georgia State University, Charles Jaret

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Roger Waldinger. Still the Promised City?: African-Americans and New Immigrants in Postindustrial New York. New York. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1996. $35.00 hardcover.


Moving Along: An Exploratory Study Of Homeless Women With Children Using A Transitional Housing Program, Sondra J. Fogel Sep 1997

Moving Along: An Exploratory Study Of Homeless Women With Children Using A Transitional Housing Program, Sondra J. Fogel

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The increase in the number of women and children who are homeless, particularly in the last fifteen years, has generated the innovation of shelters that combine longer term housing arrangements and social services. These organizations are usually called "transitional housing," intended to assist this population toward the economic goal of "self-sufficiency." The impact and success of this strategy is often debated. However, there has been scant research investigating how residents of this setting use skills and resources to secure housing outcomes and community re-integration. Through multiple in-depth interviews and other qualitative data collecting strategies, a conceptual model is presented which ...


Demographic Differences Between Sheltered Homeless Families And Housed Poor Families: Implications For Policy And Practice, Alice K. Johnson, Kay Young Mcchesney, Cynthia J. Rocha, William H. Butterfield Dec 1995

Demographic Differences Between Sheltered Homeless Families And Housed Poor Families: Implications For Policy And Practice, Alice K. Johnson, Kay Young Mcchesney, Cynthia J. Rocha, William H. Butterfield

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This study compares homeless families with a representative sample of low income family households in St. Louis city and county to determine how they differ on key demographic variables. The research addresses methodological problems in prior research by comparing the findings of this study's random sample to the findings of four previous comparison studies. Findings from this study's random comparison sample are presented. Homeless families are significantly younger, never married, female-headed families of color. Housed and homeless families are not significantly different in the number of children or in the educational level of the head of household but ...


Paths To Homelessness: Extreme Poverty And The Urban Housing Crisis. Doug A. Timmer, D. Stanley Eitzen And Kathryn D. Talley. Sep 1995

Paths To Homelessness: Extreme Poverty And The Urban Housing Crisis. Doug A. Timmer, D. Stanley Eitzen And Kathryn D. Talley.

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Doug A. Timmer, D. Stanley Eitzen and Kathryn D. Talley, Paths to Homelessness: Extreme Poverty and the Urban Housing Crisis. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994. $55.00 hardcover, $16.95 papercover.