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Full-Text Articles in Science and Technology Studies

A Question Of Trust: Can We Build An Evidence Base To Gain Trust In Systematic Review Automation Technologies?, Annette M. O'Connor, Guy Tsafnat, James Thomas, Paul Glasziou, Stephen B. Gilbert, Brian Hutton Dec 2019

A Question Of Trust: Can We Build An Evidence Base To Gain Trust In Systematic Review Automation Technologies?, Annette M. O'Connor, Guy Tsafnat, James Thomas, Paul Glasziou, Stephen B. Gilbert, Brian Hutton

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Publications

Background Although many aspects of systematic reviews use computational tools, systematic reviewers have been reluctant to adopt machine learning tools.

Discussion We discuss that the potential reason for the slow adoption of machine learning tools into systematic reviews is multifactorial. We focus on the current absence of trust in automation and set-up challenges as major barriers to adoption. It is important that reviews produced using automation tools are considered non-inferior or superior to current practice. However, this standard will likely not be sufficient to lead to widespread adoption. As with many technologies, it is important that reviewers see “others” in ...


Animal Pain And The Social Role Of Science, Leslie Irvine Sep 2019

Animal Pain And The Social Role Of Science, Leslie Irvine

Leslie Irvine, PhD

Assuming that all animals are sentient would mean ending their use in most scientific research. This does not necessarily imply an unscientific or anti-scientific stance. Examining the social role of science reveals its considerable investment in preserving the status quo, including the continued use of animal subjects. From this perspective, the use of animal subjects is a custom that science could move beyond, rather than a methodological requirement that it must defend.


Interactive Infographics' Effect On Elaboration In Agricultural Communication, Erin Burnett, Jessica Holt, Abigail Borron, Bartosz Wojdynski Sep 2019

Interactive Infographics' Effect On Elaboration In Agricultural Communication, Erin Burnett, Jessica Holt, Abigail Borron, Bartosz Wojdynski

Journal of Applied Communications

In public health, politics, and advertising, interactive content spurred increased elaboration from audiences that were otherwise least likely to engage with a message. This study sought to examine interactivity as an agricultural communication strategy through the lens of the Elaboration Likelihood Model. Respondents were randomly assigned a static or interactive data visualization concerning the production of peaches and blueberries in Georgia, then asked to list their thoughts in accordance with Petty and Cacioppo’s thought-listing measure. Respondents significantly exhibited higher elaboration with the interactive message as opposed to the static, extending the results of past research in other communication realms ...


Application Of Problem Based Learning And Mastery Learning To Multimedia Education, Gabriel J. Grant, Dominick E. Fazarro, Luke Steinke Aug 2019

Application Of Problem Based Learning And Mastery Learning To Multimedia Education, Gabriel J. Grant, Dominick E. Fazarro, Luke Steinke

Luke Steinke

The current state of education and the workforce demands a special kind of learner capable of creativity, communicating effectively, analytical skill application, critical thinking, and problem solving. Whereas these skills are important, it is also a necessity for learners to be masters of the knowledge and skills that they have acquired. Traditional educational methods have proven to be somewhat ineffective in producing these results. Problem based learning has proven worthy in handling some of the load, however, mastery learning has been abandoned long ago for reasons in spite of its effectiveness. Through given examples and careful design, the educator will ...


The Internet's Invisible Cleanup Crew, Emily Drabinski Aug 2019

The Internet's Invisible Cleanup Crew, Emily Drabinski

Publications and Research

Review of Behind the Screen: Content Moderation in the Shadow of Social Media by Sarah T. Roberts


Assessing Capacity To Engage In Healthcare To Improve The Patient Experience Through Health Information Technology, Cynthia J. Sieck, Daniel M. Walker, Megan Gregory, Naleef Fareed, Jennifer L. Hefner Jul 2019

Assessing Capacity To Engage In Healthcare To Improve The Patient Experience Through Health Information Technology, Cynthia J. Sieck, Daniel M. Walker, Megan Gregory, Naleef Fareed, Jennifer L. Hefner

Patient Experience Journal

Patient engagement is viewed as a means to improve patient care, increase population health, and decrease health care costs. Efforts to improve engagement are prevalent across healthcare, particularly through health information technology (HIT) tools such as patient portals. However, we know that not all patients have the same ability to engage, leading to potential disparities. We present the Engagement Capacity Framework and suggest that examining capacity for engagement would improve our ability to address currently unmeasured factors that facilitate engagement. The objective was to examine factors that influence an individual’s capacity for engagement through HIT. We administered a paper ...


Artificial Intelligence And The Apocalyptic Imagination: The Ends Of Divine, Natural, And Artificial Agency, Michael J. Paulus Jr. Jul 2019

Artificial Intelligence And The Apocalyptic Imagination: The Ends Of Divine, Natural, And Artificial Agency, Michael J. Paulus Jr.

Michael J. Paulus, Jr.

New information and communication technologies (ICTs) are reshaping our lives and the environments in which we live to such an extent that philosopher Luciano Floridi claims we are living through an information revolution. ICTs are changing our self-understanding, how we relate to each other, and how we understand our role in the world. At the center of this revolution is the advent of auto­mated information processing and intelligent systems.

These technologies of artificial intelligence (AI) raise questions about data collection, algorithmic agency, and the future of every dimension of life. They also inspire a range of hopes and fears ...


A Systematic Review Of Studies On Educational Robotics, Saira Anwar, Nicholas Alexander Bascou, Muhsin Menekse, Asefeh Kardgar Jul 2019

A Systematic Review Of Studies On Educational Robotics, Saira Anwar, Nicholas Alexander Bascou, Muhsin Menekse, Asefeh Kardgar

Journal of Pre-College Engineering Education Research (J-PEER)

There has been a steady increase in the number of studies investigating educational robotics and its impact on academic and social skills of young learners. Educational robots are used both in and out of school environments to enhance K–12 students’ interest, engagement, and academic achievement in various fields of STEM education. Some prior studies show evidence for the general benefits of educational robotics as being effective in providing impactful learning experiences. However, there appears to be a need to determine the specific benefits which have been achieved through robotics implementation in K–12 formal and informal learning settings. In ...


Unmanned Aircraft Systems In The Cyber Domain, Randall K. Nichols, Hans C. Mumm, Wayne D. Lonstein, Julie J.C.H. Ryan, Candice Carter, John-Paul Hood Jul 2019

Unmanned Aircraft Systems In The Cyber Domain, Randall K. Nichols, Hans C. Mumm, Wayne D. Lonstein, Julie J.C.H. Ryan, Candice Carter, John-Paul Hood

NPP eBooks

Unmanned Aircraft Systems are an integral part of the US national critical infrastructure. The authors have endeavored to bring a breadth and quality of information to the reader that is unparalleled in the unclassified sphere. This textbook will fully immerse and engage the reader / student in the cyber-security considerations of this rapidly emerging technology that we know as unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). The first edition topics covered National Airspace (NAS) policy issues, information security (INFOSEC), UAS vulnerabilities in key systems (Sense and Avoid / SCADA), navigation and collision avoidance systems, stealth design, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) platforms; weapons systems security ...


Cubelos, G., Valenzuela, B., Kularathna, S., Iliopoulos, N., Quiroz, M., Yavar, R., Henríquez, P., Bacigalupe, G., Onuki, M., Mikami, T., Cienfuegos, R., Aranguiz, R., & Esteban, M. (2019, June 26). Assessing Tsunami Awareness In Remote Coastal Towns In Northern Chile Through Community Mapping., Gonzalo Bacigalupe Jun 2019

Cubelos, G., Valenzuela, B., Kularathna, S., Iliopoulos, N., Quiroz, M., Yavar, R., Henríquez, P., Bacigalupe, G., Onuki, M., Mikami, T., Cienfuegos, R., Aranguiz, R., & Esteban, M. (2019, June 26). Assessing Tsunami Awareness In Remote Coastal Towns In Northern Chile Through Community Mapping., Gonzalo Bacigalupe

Gonzalo Bacigalupe, EdD, MPH

In 2015 and 2017 unusual ocean and atmospheric conditions produced many years’ worth of rainfall in short periods over Northern Chile’s Atacama Desert, resulting in catastrophic flooding in the town of Chañaral. However, the town is not only at risk of fluvial flooding, it is also at risk of tsunamis. Through a community mapping exercise, the authors attempted to establish the level of community awareness about tsunamis, and contrasted it with that of other types of water-related hazards facing the town (namely that of flooding due to high intensity rain). This was then compared with the results of field ...


A Question Of Trust: Can We Build An Evidence Base To Gain Trust In Systematic Review Automation Technologies?, Annette M. O'Connor, Guy Tsafnat, James Thomas, Paul Glasziou, Stephen B. Gilbert, Brian Hutton Jun 2019

A Question Of Trust: Can We Build An Evidence Base To Gain Trust In Systematic Review Automation Technologies?, Annette M. O'Connor, Guy Tsafnat, James Thomas, Paul Glasziou, Stephen B. Gilbert, Brian Hutton

Annette O'Connor

Background Although many aspects of systematic reviews use computational tools, systematic reviewers have been reluctant to adopt machine learning tools.

Discussion We discuss that the potential reason for the slow adoption of machine learning tools into systematic reviews is multifactorial. We focus on the current absence of trust in automation and set-up challenges as major barriers to adoption. It is important that reviews produced using automation tools are considered non-inferior or superior to current practice. However, this standard will likely not be sufficient to lead to widespread adoption. As with many technologies, it is important that reviewers see “others” in ...


A Question Of Trust: Can We Build An Evidence Base To Gain Trust In Systematic Review Automation Technologies?, Annette M. O'Connor, Guy Tsafnat, James Thomas, Paul Glasziou, Stephen B. Gilbert, Brian Hutton Jun 2019

A Question Of Trust: Can We Build An Evidence Base To Gain Trust In Systematic Review Automation Technologies?, Annette M. O'Connor, Guy Tsafnat, James Thomas, Paul Glasziou, Stephen B. Gilbert, Brian Hutton

Stephen B. Gilbert

Background Although many aspects of systematic reviews use computational tools, systematic reviewers have been reluctant to adopt machine learning tools.

Discussion We discuss that the potential reason for the slow adoption of machine learning tools into systematic reviews is multifactorial. We focus on the current absence of trust in automation and set-up challenges as major barriers to adoption. It is important that reviews produced using automation tools are considered non-inferior or superior to current practice. However, this standard will likely not be sufficient to lead to widespread adoption. As with many technologies, it is important that reviewers see “others” in ...


The Challenges Of Digital Legacy Management On The Value Of Digital Objects To Older Australians, Derani Nathasha Dissanayake Jun 2019

The Challenges Of Digital Legacy Management On The Value Of Digital Objects To Older Australians, Derani Nathasha Dissanayake

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

People spend a considerable amount of time and money in collecting digital objects. Nine out of ten Australians have a social media account but 83% of them have not discussed with their family members what should happen to their social media accounts when they die (Steen, D’Alessandro, Graves, Perkins, Genders, Barbera, Shi, McGrath & Davis, 2017). Only 3% of Australians who had a Will included social media accounts in their Wills. People collect digital objects yet little attention is paid to their preservation. 71% of Australians are unaware of what happens to their digital assets when they die (Ibid, 2017 ...


Wrack Lines Volume 19, Number 1, Spring/Summer 2019, Nancy Balcom, Syma Ebbin, David Gregorio, Richard Telford, Judy Benson Jun 2019

Wrack Lines Volume 19, Number 1, Spring/Summer 2019, Nancy Balcom, Syma Ebbin, David Gregorio, Richard Telford, Judy Benson

Wrack Lines

Issue theme is: "Making Connections: As the Climate Changes, People and Nature Intertwine in New Ways." Articles include: "As More Roads Become Rivers, Communities Search for Solutions;" "Solving an Engineering Conundrum: As Coastal Homes Get Elevated, New Research Looks at Whether Vulnerability to Wind Damage Is Increasing;" "Along the Coast, Residents Consider How to Heed Sandy's Warning of What's to Come;" "All Rivers, All Lives Run to the Sea," about the intersection of waterways and the world of nature writer Edwin Way Teale; and "Crosscurrents: Connecticut Sea Grant's Retrospective Exhibition Makes Waves," about reaching new audiences and ...


The Affective Politics Of Twitter, Johnathan C. Flowers May 2019

The Affective Politics Of Twitter, Johnathan C. Flowers

Computer Ethics - Philosophical Enquiry (CEPE) Proceedings

Given the increasing encroachment of Twitter into offline experience, it has become necessary to look beyond the formation of identity in online spaces to the ways in which identities surface through the formation of affective communities organized through the use of technocultural assemblages, or the platforms, algorithms, and digital networks through which affect circulates in an online space. This essay focuses on the microblogging website Twitter as one such technocultural assemblage whose hashtag functionality allows for the circulation of affect among bodies which “surface” within the affective communities organized on Twitter through their alignment with and orientation by hashtags which ...


Difference Between Algorithmic Processing And The Process Of Lifeworld (Lebenswelt), Domenico Schneider May 2019

Difference Between Algorithmic Processing And The Process Of Lifeworld (Lebenswelt), Domenico Schneider

Computer Ethics - Philosophical Enquiry (CEPE) Proceedings

The following article compares the temporality of the life-world with the digital processing. The temporality of the life-world is determined to be stretched and spontaneous. The temporality of the digital is given by discrete step-by-step points of time. Most ethical issues can be traced back to a mismatch of these two ways of processing. This creates a foundation for the ethics of the digital processing. Methodologically, phenomenological considerations are merged with media-philosophical considerations in the article.


Rethinking Algorithmic Bias Through Phenomenology And Pragmatism, Johnathan C. Flowers May 2019

Rethinking Algorithmic Bias Through Phenomenology And Pragmatism, Johnathan C. Flowers

Computer Ethics - Philosophical Enquiry (CEPE) Proceedings

In 2017, Amazon discontinued an attempt at developing a hiring algorithm which would enable the company to streamline its hiring processes due to apparent gender discrimination. Specifically, the algorithm, trained on over a decade’s worth of resumes submitted to Amazon, learned to penalize applications that contained references to women, that indicated graduation from all women’s colleges, or otherwise indicated that an applicant was not male. Amazon’s algorithm took up the history of Amazon’s applicant pool and integrated it into its present “problematic situation,” for the purposes of future action. Consequently, Amazon declared the project a failure ...


Autonomous Vehicles And The Ethical Tension Between Occupant And Non-Occupant Safety, Jason Borenstein, Joseph Herkert, Keith W. Miller May 2019

Autonomous Vehicles And The Ethical Tension Between Occupant And Non-Occupant Safety, Jason Borenstein, Joseph Herkert, Keith W. Miller

Computer Ethics - Philosophical Enquiry (CEPE) Proceedings

Autonomous vehicle manufacturers, people inside an autonomous vehicle (occupants), and people outside the vehicle (non-occupants) are among the distinct stakeholders when addressing ethical issues inherent in systems that include autonomous vehicles. As responses to recent tragic cases illustrate, advocates for autonomous vehicles tend to focus on occupant safety, sometimes to the exclusion of non-occupant safety. Thus, we aim to examine ethical issues associated with non-occupant safety, including pedestrians, bicyclists, motorcyclists, and riders of motorized scooters. We also explore the ethical implications of technical and policy ideas that some might propose to improve non-occupant safety. In addition, if safety (writ large ...


Cultivating Knowledge: Agrarian Science And Ecological Engagements In Southern Ontario Agriculture, Kelly Linton May 2019

Cultivating Knowledge: Agrarian Science And Ecological Engagements In Southern Ontario Agriculture, Kelly Linton

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Agriculture and climate change are interconnected processes, with agriculture implicated in rising green house gas emissions, deforestation, soil and water pollution, and reductions in biodiversity. Conversely, changes within ecology (including a warming climate), alter growing conditions for farmers. Farmers face changes in both temperature and precipitation, as well as an increase in adverse weather events that significantly threaten productivity and livelihoods.

Based on 40 unstructured interviews as well as informal conversations conducted among farmers in southern Ontario, Canada between the spring of 2014 and the winter of 2017, this dissertation seeks to contribute to a growing body of work that ...


The Right To Human Intervention: Law, Ethics And Artificial Intelligence, Maria Kanellopoulou - Botti, Fereniki Panagopoulou, Maria Nikita, Anastasia Michailaki May 2019

The Right To Human Intervention: Law, Ethics And Artificial Intelligence, Maria Kanellopoulou - Botti, Fereniki Panagopoulou, Maria Nikita, Anastasia Michailaki

Computer Ethics - Philosophical Enquiry (CEPE) Proceedings

The paper analyses the new right of human intervention in use of information technology, automatization processes and advanced algorithms in individual decision-making activities. Art. 22 of the new General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) provides that the data subject has the right not to be subject to a fully automated decision on matters of legal importance to her interests, hence the data subject has a right to human intervention in this kind of decisions.


Social Media And Othering: Philosophy, Algorithms, And The Essence Of Being Human, Mark Ehlebracht May 2019

Social Media And Othering: Philosophy, Algorithms, And The Essence Of Being Human, Mark Ehlebracht

Consensus

No abstract provided.


Shayna T. Blum: Design Research, Shayna Blum May 2019

Shayna T. Blum: Design Research, Shayna Blum

Shayna Blum

No abstract provided.


Teacher Perceptions Of Environmental Science In Rural Northwestern New Mexico Public Schools, Marie Quiahuitl Julienne May 2019

Teacher Perceptions Of Environmental Science In Rural Northwestern New Mexico Public Schools, Marie Quiahuitl Julienne

Organization, Information and Learning Sciences ETDs

In this study, I explored what teachers perceive as the factors that impact their teaching of environmental science in rural secondary level schools in northwestern New Mexico. I adapted Bronfenbrenner’s (1994) ecological systems model, based on four environmental subsystem levels (microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, and macrosystem), as the conceptual framework to address the major research question of this study, and developed 18 interview questions to explore teachers’ perceptions of factors that influence their teaching of environmental science. I investigated the perspectives science teachers have about environmental science topics and the influences they perceive that affect how they teach environmental science ...


The Age Of The Library, Michael J. Paulus Jr. May 2019

The Age Of The Library, Michael J. Paulus Jr.

Michael J. Paulus, Jr.

In 2018, the Seattle Pacific University Library launched a minor in Information Studies. This multidisciplinary program explores the dynamic relationships between information, technology, and people and how our lives are changing in our emerging information and technological environment. Why would a library create such a program, and what does it reveal about the present and future role of the library?


Returns On Library Investment: A Study Of The Leading Engineering And Technology Institutes In India, Shivendra Singh, Ramesh Pandita Mr. May 2019

Returns On Library Investment: A Study Of The Leading Engineering And Technology Institutes In India, Shivendra Singh, Ramesh Pandita Mr.

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

The study is based on the secondary data compiled by the Ministry of Human Resource & Development, Govt., of India for the period 2012-13, 2013-14 & 2014-15 and was released as the ranking list of Institutes of Engineering and Technology in India for the year 2016. The study aims to assess the Returns on Investment (ROI) of the twenty leading libraries of the Institutes of Engineering and Technology in India in the form of institutional research output. An attempted has also been made to rank the each individual library on the basis of seven different parameters chosen for the study and worked ...


Pulling It All Together: Managing The Syriac Galen Palimpsest Project, Michael Toth May 2019

Pulling It All Together: Managing The Syriac Galen Palimpsest Project, Michael Toth

Manuscript Studies

During a two-year period, from 2009 to 2010, a multidisciplinary team conducted multispectral imaging, digital processing and data management of the Syriac Galen Palimpsest. This contractor-led team applied the turnkey multispectral imaging techniques developed in earlier advanced imaging projects to this palimpsest. This required new management techniques and work processes to provide useful results efficiently and quickly, while minimizing risk. In the initial risk-mitigation study phase, the team first imaged several leaves of the bound SGP in 2009 to characterize the imaging and processing challenges. Building on the findings from this first phase, they then imaged all the disbound leaves ...


Difference Between Current High-Speed Connectivity-4g And Coming High-Speed Connectivity-5g May 2019

Difference Between Current High-Speed Connectivity-4g And Coming High-Speed Connectivity-5g

Smith johnson

It is said that be it good, bad or indifferent if a company is not investing in new technology, it is going to be left behind. Every once in a while a new technology, an old problem, and great ideas would turn altogether into innovation and so is 5G. The new trend in tech industries, be it telecom industry or software industry speed is the key factor that is demanded by the users. This is the reason for industries trying persistently to make it even faster. With every technology empowerment that is seen in the world, society is becoming more ...


Every Data Point Counts: Political Elections In The Age Of Digital Analytics, Julian Kehle, Samir Naimi May 2019

Every Data Point Counts: Political Elections In The Age Of Digital Analytics, Julian Kehle, Samir Naimi

Honors Thesis

Synthesizing the investigative research and cautionary messages from experts in the fields of technology, political science, and behavioral science, this project explores the ways in which digital analytics has begun to influence the American political arena. Historically, political parties have constructed systems to target voters and win elections. However, rapid changes in the field of technology (such as big data, artificial intelligence, and the prevalence of social media) threaten to undermine the integrity of elections themselves. Future political campaigns will utilize profiling to micro-target individuals in order to manipulate and persuade them with hyper-personalized political content. Most dangerously, the average ...


A Smartphone App Survey To Encourage Sustainable And Healthy Travel Mode Choices, Paul Rivers May 2019

A Smartphone App Survey To Encourage Sustainable And Healthy Travel Mode Choices, Paul Rivers

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Can access to carbon footprint and health [calorie and fat burn] information influence transportation behavior? Survey methods are used in conjunction with a smartphone GPS mobile app to measure transportation tendencies in weekdays – weekends, and willingness to undertake modal shift based on app experience over one week.


Public Utilities' Disaster Response And Management Plans: An Evaluation Of National Grid And New York State Electric & Gas, Taylor N. Vishion May 2019

Public Utilities' Disaster Response And Management Plans: An Evaluation Of National Grid And New York State Electric & Gas, Taylor N. Vishion

Public Administration Master’s Projects

Societal dependence on electricity has rapidly increased as technological advancement has occurred, thus requiring electric utilities to advance their emergency response and repair procedures. Disaster management and response is a relatively new field for electric utilities, and despite the adoption of the Incident Command System created by FEMA, there are still opportunities for all utilities to improve. This project aims to assess the disaster response and management procedures of National Grid U.S. and NYSEG and identify opportunities for improvement. This study interviewed emergency management professionals experienced with electric utilities and found both National Grid U.S. and NYSEG can ...