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2017

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Full-Text Articles in Urban Studies

Responsible Pet Ownership: Dog Parks And Demographic Change In Portland, Oregon, Matthew Harris Dec 2017

Responsible Pet Ownership: Dog Parks And Demographic Change In Portland, Oregon, Matthew Harris

Dissertations and Theses

Dog parks are the fastest growing type of park in U.S. cities; however, their increasing popularity has been met with increasing criticism of pets in public space. Dogs have shown to be a deep source of neighborhood conflict, and the provision of dog parks, or off-leash areas, is a seemingly intractable controversy for city officials. In 2003, Portland, Oregon established a network of 33 off-leash areas which remains the second largest both in count and per capita in the country. The purpose of my research is to understand the public debate over off leash dogs during the establishment of ...


Of Rats And Men, Thomas S. Walsh Dec 2017

Of Rats And Men, Thomas S. Walsh

Capstones

This capstone is a data-driven investigation into New York City's rat problem. By using publicly available government data to map rat activity in NYC, I identified several socio-economic variables that correlate with rat populations at the community district, borough, and city-scale. I used these findings (mainly that rat problems are linked to lower incomes) as the basis of an investigation, which includes interviews with residents, experts, and city officials. Prof. Bobby Corrigan, urban rodentologist and formerly with the NYC Department of Health criticizes the city's efforts for the first time on the record.

https://thomasseiyawalsh.wixsite.com/ratstone


Hair Is The Root Of A Revolution: How Black Women Are Embracing Their Identity With Hair, Shanel Dawson Dec 2017

Hair Is The Root Of A Revolution: How Black Women Are Embracing Their Identity With Hair, Shanel Dawson

Capstones

For years, black women have been demeaned for their features; their noses, complexions and hair. Straight hair and wavy hair have been considered “good hair.” And for centuries these ideas have been perpetuated by images in the media, cultural messages and even policies in schools and professional settings.

Today black women, nationwide, are rejecting straightening chemicals and embracing their natural hair as a point of pride. I spoke with several black women who are attempting to distance themselves from these negative narratives by honoring their roots.

For black women in America, hair has been the easiest way to connect on ...


Health Starts In The Home: An Assessment Of Efforts To Improve Occupant Health Through Healthy Building Materials In San Francisco’S Affordable Housing, Staci Hoell Dec 2017

Health Starts In The Home: An Assessment Of Efforts To Improve Occupant Health Through Healthy Building Materials In San Francisco’S Affordable Housing, Staci Hoell

Master's Projects and Capstones

Americans spend 90% of their lives indoors, and much of this time is spent at home, surrounded by building materials that typically have added chemicals like flame retardants, highly fluorinated compounds, and antimicrobials. Recent research has linked these chemicals to adverse health outcomes such as asthma, endocrine disruption, cancer, neurodevelopmental issues, and reproductive problems (Bayer et al., n.d.; Green Science Policy Institute). Furthermore, these chronic health conditions disproportionately affect low-income populations. Fortunately, substantial efforts in research, practice, and policy are working to reduce the use of these potentially harmful chemicals in building materials, particularly in San Francisco’s affordable ...


The Impact Of Casino Revenue-Sharing On Tourism Efforts In Niagara Falls Usa: 2006-2016, Anthony L. Astran Dec 2017

The Impact Of Casino Revenue-Sharing On Tourism Efforts In Niagara Falls Usa: 2006-2016, Anthony L. Astran

Public Administration Master’s Projects

This qualitative case study examines the intersection of a Native-owned casino, revenue-sharing with its host community, and the impact of tourism marketing efforts vis-à-vis funds provided to the community’s tourism agency. Specifically, this report studies downtown Niagara Falls USA from the time period between 2006 and 2016, and seeks to determine whether and how funds from Seneca Niagara Resort & Casino boosted tourism marketing efforts by Niagara Tourism & Convention Corporation (NTCC). Background research and a series of elite interviews with city officials and tourism agency leaders uncovered overall positivity in terms of growth in Niagara Falls USA’s tourism efforts ...


New Probe Data Sources To Measure Cycling Behavior And Safety, Christopher Cherry Dec 2017

New Probe Data Sources To Measure Cycling Behavior And Safety, Christopher Cherry

TREC Friday Seminar Series

Emerging probe data sources from smartphones on on-board devices are able to measure behavior of cyclists with very high resolution. From this, for the first time, we are able to measure relatively precise behavior that allows new insights into exposure, route choice, safety behavior, or technology choice. Probe data, merged with other data sources, can begin to develop a more complete picture of cyclists on-road behavior.

This presentation will offer examples of analyses done to investigate cyclists behavior using app-based and on-board GPS data in the context of individual cyclists behavior (i.e., app users) and behavior of bikeshare users ...


Improving Bicycle Crash Prediction For Urban Road Segments, Krista Nordback, Sirisha Kothuri, Wesley Marshall, Geoff Gibson, Nick Ferenchak Dec 2017

Improving Bicycle Crash Prediction For Urban Road Segments, Krista Nordback, Sirisha Kothuri, Wesley Marshall, Geoff Gibson, Nick Ferenchak

TREC Final Reports

The 2010 Highway Safety Manual (HSM) provides methods for predicting the number of motor vehicle crashes on various roadway facilities. However, it includes only a rudimentary method for predicting the number of bicycle-related crashes. Despite research demonstrating that bicycle volume is an important factor in estimating number of bicycle crashes, the method does not include the volume of bicyclists using the roadway. To remedy this, this project will investigate the potential of various simplified methods to include bicycle volumes in future versions of the HSM. By studying locations where bicycle traffic volumes, motor vehicle traffic volumes, bicycle collisions, and roadway ...


Breaking Barriers To Bike Share: Insights From Bike Share Users, Nathan Mcneil, Jennifer Dill, John Macarthur, Joseph Broach Dec 2017

Breaking Barriers To Bike Share: Insights From Bike Share Users, Nathan Mcneil, Jennifer Dill, John Macarthur, Joseph Broach

TREC Final Reports

This report seeks to provide more information about lower-income people and people of color who engage in bike share, including why they choose to become members, how they use the system, and how they benefit. The report looks at current and past bike share members, along with those who were involved in some type of equity-based outreach program. The findings draw from a survey intended to reach lower-income and/or people of color known to have engaged in bike share, either through membership or participating in events such as organized rides, in the same three cities studied in the resident ...


Lgbtq+ Nondiscrimination Laws In Kentucky., Christopher M Wales Dec 2017

Lgbtq+ Nondiscrimination Laws In Kentucky., Christopher M Wales

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis explores the political and demographic obstacles facing the Fairness movement in Kentucky in regards to local employment protection ordinances for LGBTQ+ persons (Fairness Ordinances). Using case studies on recent Fairness debates in Berea and Bowling Green, this thesis explores the concern some Kentuckians have about LGBTQ+ nondiscrimination ordinances in their communities. From these cases studies, it can be concluded that many of the concerns espoused by opponents of Fairness are simple scare tactics with no evidence supporting their claims. This thesis then utilizes a logistical regression to uncover what demographic characteristics increase the odds of a municipality possessing ...


Community-Engaged Operations Research: Trends, New Frontiers And Current Applications, Michael P. Johnson Jr. Nov 2017

Community-Engaged Operations Research: Trends, New Frontiers And Current Applications, Michael P. Johnson Jr.

Michael P. Johnson

Community-engaged operations research is an extension of multiple OR/MS traditions to support participatory scholarship, localized impact and social change. It applies critical thinking, evidence-based policy analysis, community participation and decision modeling to local interventions. It emphasizes the needs, voices and values of disadvantaged and marginalized populations. Through a survey of current scholarship in two complementary areas of inquiry, ‘community operational research’ (referring to work by primarily UK-based researchers) and ‘community-based operations research’ (referring to work by primarily US-based researchers), we develop principles for community-engaged OR, present critical questions that represent opportunities to expand the impact of this work, and ...


Assessing The Impact Of Land Use And Travel On Carbon Dioxide Emissions In Portland, Oregon, Zakari Mumuni Nov 2017

Assessing The Impact Of Land Use And Travel On Carbon Dioxide Emissions In Portland, Oregon, Zakari Mumuni

Dissertations and Theses

The negative consequences of sprawling metropolitan regions have attracted attention in both academia and in practice regarding how to better design settlements and alter travel behavior in a quest to curtail vehicle emissions. Studies that have attempted to understand the nexus between land use, travel and vehicle emissions have not been able to address the issue of self-selection in a satisfactory manner. Self-selection occurs when households choose their residential location based, in part, on expected travel behavior. This non-random experience makes the use of traditional regression frameworks that strongly rely on random sampling, unsuitable. This replication study's purpose was ...


"Naturally Occurring" Or "Until Market Speculation Starts": Investigating The Precarity Of Affordable Rental Housing And The Potential For Displacement Along Planned Transit Lines, Lisa K. Bates Nov 2017

"Naturally Occurring" Or "Until Market Speculation Starts": Investigating The Precarity Of Affordable Rental Housing And The Potential For Displacement Along Planned Transit Lines, Lisa K. Bates

Urban Studies and Planning Faculty Publications and Presentations

New transit infrastructure is a double-edged sword for low-income renters: one the one hand, increased mobility supports access to jobs and critical services; but if transit-oriented development fails to include and preserve affordable housing, they may be pushed out by rising rents. The question of whether public investments spur gentrification and displacement have created intense controversy around planned transit extensions in our region. My research on precarious rental housing illuminates the specific mechanisms of housing displacement and challenges for housing affordability in the single-family/duplex and the large multifamily rental market. The loss of low-cost housing is occurring even without ...


Deconstruction In Portland: Summary Of Activity, Emma Willingham, Peter Hulseman, Mike Paruszkiewicz Nov 2017

Deconstruction In Portland: Summary Of Activity, Emma Willingham, Peter Hulseman, Mike Paruszkiewicz

Northwest Economic Research Center Publications and Reports

On October 31st, 2016, the City of Portland instituted an ordinance requiring the deconstruction of all residential homes and duplexes built prior to 1917 or possessing a historical designation. Deconstruction is a relatively new industry, and with this local regulatory encouragement, several new contractors became certified to participate in the expanded market. This report provides background on the industry, largely from the 2016 report researched and written by the Northwest Economic Research Center (NERC) in anticipation of the requirement, and an examination of what has occurred in the year following the ordinance’s passage, using deconstruction and demolition permit data ...


Accessing Blue Spaces: Social And Geographic Factors Structuring Familiarity With, Use Of, And Appreciation Of Urban Waterways, Melissa Haeffner, Douglas Jackson-Smith, Martin Buchert, Jordan Risley Nov 2017

Accessing Blue Spaces: Social And Geographic Factors Structuring Familiarity With, Use Of, And Appreciation Of Urban Waterways, Melissa Haeffner, Douglas Jackson-Smith, Martin Buchert, Jordan Risley

Environmental Science and Management Faculty Publications and Presentations

Are urban waterways amenities, and if so, are there inequities in household access? While urban waterways represent a potential site for access to nature within the urban environment, there have been few studies on the accessibility and interactions with water features in particular, what we refer to as “blue spaces." This study drew on a sample of households in Northern Utah living in neighborhoods with a nearby river or canal to ask if local waterways provide positive impacts to households and if proximity to them increased the likelihood of households spending time at them and being familiar with them. We ...


Building Planner Commitment: Are California’S Sb 375 And Oregon’S Sb 1059 Models For Climate-Change Mitigation?, Keith Bartholomew, David Proffitt Nov 2017

Building Planner Commitment: Are California’S Sb 375 And Oregon’S Sb 1059 Models For Climate-Change Mitigation?, Keith Bartholomew, David Proffitt

TREC Final Reports

California’s Sustainable Communities and Climate Protection Act (SB 375) and the Oregon Sustainable Transportation Initiative (SB 1059) have made them the first states in the nation to try and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions using the transportation-planning process. Evaluating how these pioneering laws have changed local planning processes – as well as plans themselves – in each state provides insight into the laws’ effectiveness at changing development patterns in a way that reduces GHG emissions, without waiting decades to see the effects in the built environment. Both states’ laws require metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) and the municipalities that comprise them to ...


Evaluation Of Roadway Reallocation Projects: Analysis Of Before-And-After Travel Speeds And Congestion Utilizing High-Resolution Bus Transit Data, Miguel Figliozzi, Travis B. Glick Nov 2017

Evaluation Of Roadway Reallocation Projects: Analysis Of Before-And-After Travel Speeds And Congestion Utilizing High-Resolution Bus Transit Data, Miguel Figliozzi, Travis B. Glick

TREC Final Reports

The traditional process of identifying corridors for road diet improvements involves selecting potential corridors (mostly based on identifying fourlane roads) and conducting a traffic impact analysis of proposed changes on a selected roadway before implementing changes. The evaluation of roadway reallocation projects should include the analysis of traffic volumes, level of service, speeds, queue lengths and bus operations. There are tools and equipment to evaluate effectively traffic volumes and level of service changes in before-and-after studies. However, the detailed evaluation of speed and queue length distributions along a segment are significantly more cumbersome. In addition, the exhaustive evaluation of bus ...


Using The Planning Process To Mitigate Climate Change, Keith Bartholomew Nov 2017

Using The Planning Process To Mitigate Climate Change, Keith Bartholomew

TREC Project Briefs

This research evaluates how Oregon’s SB 1059 and California’s SB 375 have integrated climate change mitigation strategies into local planning processes, and seeks to understand how transportation planning can help slow climate change.


Evaluation Of Roadway Reallocation Projects, Miguel Figliozzi Nov 2017

Evaluation Of Roadway Reallocation Projects, Miguel Figliozzi

TREC Project Briefs

This NITC study offers a new methodology for evaluating the before-and-after effects of roadway space reallocation projects.


Preserving Housing Choice And Opportunity: A Study Of Apartment Building Sales And Rents, Seyoung Sung, Lisa K. Bates Nov 2017

Preserving Housing Choice And Opportunity: A Study Of Apartment Building Sales And Rents, Seyoung Sung, Lisa K. Bates

Urban Studies and Planning Faculty Publications and Presentations

NOAH sales show precariousness of this rental housing at a regional scale.

  • Active transactions of multifamily rental properties have been disproportionately NOAH. There have been over two thousand transactions of NOAH buildings in the Portland metro area from 2006 to 2017 — over 68,000 units of housing. These sales are accelerating, with over 20 percent occurring in just the last 18 months.
  • Sales prices for multifamily rental properties have increased substantially, making preservation of affordable rents more challenging. Regionally, the average sale price increased by 78 percent between 2010 and 2017; during this period there was a 43 percent increase ...


Webinar: Transportation Benefits Of Parking Cash-Out, Pre-Tax Commuter Benefits, And Parking Surtaxes, Allen Greenberg, James Choe, Sonika Sethi, Colleen Stoll Oct 2017

Webinar: Transportation Benefits Of Parking Cash-Out, Pre-Tax Commuter Benefits, And Parking Surtaxes, Allen Greenberg, James Choe, Sonika Sethi, Colleen Stoll

TREC Webinar Series

The vast majority of employers provide their employees free parking at work, which encourages employees to drive alone. Multiple strategies exist to level the playing field between travel modes and allow employees to select the travel option most beneficial to them without suffering a financial penalty. The U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration sponsored a study to understand the effect parking cash out, pre-tax commuter benefits, and parking surtaxes can have on congestion, emissions, and other driving-related externalities. The study is part of the Administration’s ongoing efforts to increase awareness of solutions to address the transportation issues ...


Housing Diversity In Children’S Literature, Carla Earhart Oct 2017

Housing Diversity In Children’S Literature, Carla Earhart

Charleston Library Conference

Previous studies have examined diversity in children’s literature: Gender diversity, racial diversity, religious diversity, and diversity in family composition. This project examines an often overlooked diversity issue in children’s literature: Housing diversity. In the stories they read and the accompanying images, children need to see a variety of housing environments and need to see the settings and the people portrayed in a positive manner.

Renting an apartment is an increasingly popular housing option for many families. However, many children’s books glamorize living in a traditional house. Using a rubric designed by the course instructor, students in a ...


Uneven Urban Metabolisms: Toward An Integrative (Ex)Urban Political Ecology Of Sustainability In And Around The City, Innisfree Mckinnon, Patrick T. Hurley, Colleen C. Myles, Megan Maccaroni, Trina Filan Oct 2017

Uneven Urban Metabolisms: Toward An Integrative (Ex)Urban Political Ecology Of Sustainability In And Around The City, Innisfree Mckinnon, Patrick T. Hurley, Colleen C. Myles, Megan Maccaroni, Trina Filan

Environmental Studies Faculty Publications

Expanding cities present a sustainability challenge, as the uneven proliferation of hybrid landscape types becomes a major feature of 21st century urbanization. To fully address this challenge, scholars must consider the broad range of land uses that being produced beyond the urban core and how land use patterns in one location may be tied to patterns in other locations. Diverse threads within political ecology provide useful insights into the dynamics that produce uneven urbanization. Specifically, urban political ecology (UPE) details how economic power influences the development decision-making that proliferate urban forms, patterns of uneven access, and modes of decision-making ...


Municipal Co-Distribution Of Goods – Business Models, Stakeholders And Driving Forces For Change, Olof Moen Oct 2017

Municipal Co-Distribution Of Goods – Business Models, Stakeholders And Driving Forces For Change, Olof Moen

TREC Friday Seminar Series

The presentation provides background information and illustrates driving forces of the development of municipal co-distribution of goods in Sweden. The business model is “somewhat unique” to Sweden, given the country’s comprehensive welfare sector through which local governments are often the main transport buyers in smaller municipalities without industries or commerce. In this respect, Sweden has been a pioneer in streamlining public administration at all levels replacing manual work procedures and paperwork with the use of computers and digital information, with an overall aim to allow for spending on social and political reform policies. The main business model used in ...


Advisory Bike Lanes In North America, Michael Williams Oct 2017

Advisory Bike Lanes In North America, Michael Williams

TREC Friday Seminar Series

Despite being used successfully for decades in Europe, Advisory Bike Lanes are an emerging facility type in North America and can be an effective tool for communities wishing to provide bicycle lanes on streets that are otherwise too narrow to accommodate them. This talk will introduce the concept and operation of advisory bike lanes and look at some lessons learned from the early installations of this facility in the U.S. and Canada.


Improving Decision-Making Skills Of Nonprofit Professionals, Michael P. Johnson Jr., George Chichirau, Jason Wright Oct 2017

Improving Decision-Making Skills Of Nonprofit Professionals, Michael P. Johnson Jr., George Chichirau, Jason Wright

Michael P. Johnson

Nonprofits face gaps in organizational capacity, including program design and evaluation, but previous research suggests that capacity-building exercises have a positive effect. We describe a data analytics training workshop with staff from Boston-area nonprofits reflecting a wide range of sectors. Through analysis of participant work on case studies provided by the instructor, we examine how participants made sense of training materials, the various strategies employed by participants to solve three case study problems, and participant feedback about the session. Our findings provide a basis for novel interventions in community based operations research. 


How Useful Is Gsv As An Environmental Observation Tool? An Analysis Of The Evidence So Far., Katherine Nesse, Leah Airt Oct 2017

How Useful Is Gsv As An Environmental Observation Tool? An Analysis Of The Evidence So Far., Katherine Nesse, Leah Airt

SPU Works

Researchers in many disciplines have turned to Google Street View to replace pedestrian- or carbased in-person observation of streetscapes. It is most prevalent within the research literature on the relationship between neighborhood environments and public health but has been used as diverse as disaster recovery, ecology and wildlife habitat, and urban design. Evaluations of the tool have found that the results of GSV-based observation are similar to the results from in-person observation although the similarity depends on the type of characteristic being observed. Larger, permanent and discrete features showed more consistency between the two methods and smaller, transient and judgmental ...


2017 Point-In-Time: Count Of Homelessness In Portland/Gresham/Multnomah County, Oregon, Uma Krishnan, Deborah Elliott Oct 2017

2017 Point-In-Time: Count Of Homelessness In Portland/Gresham/Multnomah County, Oregon, Uma Krishnan, Deborah Elliott

Publications, Reports and Presentations

The 2017 Point-in-Time (PIT) Count of Homelessness provides a snapshot of people who were experiencing homelessness on the night of Wednesday, February 22, 2017, in Portland, Gresham, and Multnomah County, Oregon. The US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) requires communities to count people living in emergency shelters, transitional housing or places not meant for human habitation (these people are collectively known as “HUD homeless”) on a single night (a “point in time”) at least once every two years. This enumeration is one way of understanding the levels and trends in unmet need for shelter and permanent housing within ...


Food Justice In The Trump Age: Priorities For Urban Food Advocates, Nevin Cohen, Janet Poppendieck, Nicholas Freudenberg Oct 2017

Food Justice In The Trump Age: Priorities For Urban Food Advocates, Nevin Cohen, Janet Poppendieck, Nicholas Freudenberg

Publications and Research

Every constituency – regardless of political ideology – must analyze the effects of the election of Republican majorities in Congress and Donald J. Trump as President of the United States. This is particularly true for advocates involved in eliminating food insecurity and hunger, fighting malnutrition and health inequality, and ensuring sustainable and fair urban food systems with high quality jobs. Anticipating the new administration’s efforts that may undermine food justice enables advocates, researchers, and policy makers to choose priorities and forge strategic partnerships.


Portland Msa Economic & Population Outlook October 2017, Thomas Potiowsky, Portland State University. Northwest Economic Research Center Oct 2017

Portland Msa Economic & Population Outlook October 2017, Thomas Potiowsky, Portland State University. Northwest Economic Research Center

Northwest Economic Research Center Publications and Reports

NERC's binannual forecast of employment, income, housing permits, and house prices for the Portland MSA. The October release does not reiterate the population forecast from the April edition, but does include a long-run income forecast.


Racial Bias In Drivers' Yielding Behavior At Crosswalks: Understanding The Effect, Kimberly Barsamian Kahn, Jean M. Mcmahon, Tara Goddard, Arlie Adkins Oct 2017

Racial Bias In Drivers' Yielding Behavior At Crosswalks: Understanding The Effect, Kimberly Barsamian Kahn, Jean M. Mcmahon, Tara Goddard, Arlie Adkins

TREC Final Reports

This project explores social identity factors (race and gender) that influence drivers’ behavior in interactions with pedestrians at crosswalks. One dangerous potential point of conflict for pedestrians within the transportation system is interactions with drivers at crosswalks (NHTSA, 2009). In 2010, there was one crash-related pedestrian death every two hours and an injury every eight minutes, and racial minorities are disproportionately represented in these pedestrian fatalities (CDC, 2013). In light of this disparity, this project examines whether racial discrimination occurs at crosswalks, which may lead to disparate crossing experiences and disproportionate safety outcomes. Racial minorities experience racial discrimination across various ...