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Full-Text Articles in Urban Studies

Do Natural Experiments Of Changes In Neighborhood Built Environment Impact Physical Activity And Diet? A Systematic Review, Freya Macmillan, Emma S. George, Xiaoqi Feng, Dafna Merom, Andrew Bennie, Amelia Cook, Taren Sanders, Genevieve Dwyer, Bonnie Pang, Justin M. Guagliano, Gregory S. Kolt, Thomas Astell-Burt Jan 2018

Do Natural Experiments Of Changes In Neighborhood Built Environment Impact Physical Activity And Diet? A Systematic Review, Freya Macmillan, Emma S. George, Xiaoqi Feng, Dafna Merom, Andrew Bennie, Amelia Cook, Taren Sanders, Genevieve Dwyer, Bonnie Pang, Justin M. Guagliano, Gregory S. Kolt, Thomas Astell-Burt

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Physical activity and diet are major modifiable risk factors for chronic disease and have been shown to be associated with neighborhood built environment. Systematic review evidence from longitudinal studies on the impact of changing the built environment on physical activity and diet is currently lacking. A systematic review of natural experiments of neighborhood built environment was conducted. The aims of this systematic review were to summarize study characteristics, study quality, and impact of changes in neighborhood built environment on physical activity and diet outcomes among residents. Natural experiments of neighborhood built environment change, exploring longitudinal impacts on physical activity and ...


Impact Of The Social And Natural Environment On Preschool-Age Children Weight, Inga Petraviciene, Regina Grazuleviciene, Sandra Andrusaityte, Audrius Dedele, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen Jan 2018

Impact Of The Social And Natural Environment On Preschool-Age Children Weight, Inga Petraviciene, Regina Grazuleviciene, Sandra Andrusaityte, Audrius Dedele, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background:
The complex impact of environmental and social factors on preschool children being overweight/obese is unclear. We examined the associations between the levels of green space exposure and the risk of being overweight/obese for 4–6 year-old children and assessed the impact of maternal education on these associations.
Methods:
This cross-sectional study included 1489 mother-child pairs living in Kaunas, Lithuania, in 2012–2013. We assessed children overweight/obesity by standardized questionnaires using international body mass index cut-off points, and the level of greenness exposures by satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of each child’s home and by ...


Socioeconomic Inequalities In Urban And Transport Planning Related Exposures And Mortality: A Health Impact Assessment Study For Bradford, Uk, Natalie Mueller, David Rojas-Rueda, Haneen Khreis, Marta Cirach, Carles Mila, Ana Espinosa, Maria Foraster, R. R. C. Mceachan, Brian Kelly, John Wright, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen Jan 2018

Socioeconomic Inequalities In Urban And Transport Planning Related Exposures And Mortality: A Health Impact Assessment Study For Bradford, Uk, Natalie Mueller, David Rojas-Rueda, Haneen Khreis, Marta Cirach, Carles Mila, Ana Espinosa, Maria Foraster, R. R. C. Mceachan, Brian Kelly, John Wright, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background
Cities have unique geographic, environmental and sociocultural characteristics that influence the health status of their citizens. Identification and modification of these characteristics may help to promote healthier cities.
Objective
We estimated premature mortality impacts of breaching international exposure guidelines for physical activity (PA), air pollution, noise and access to green space for Bradford (UK) adult residents (n = 393,091).
Methods
We applied the Urban and TranspOrt Planning Health Impact Assessment (UTOPHIA) methodology and estimated mortality, life expectancy (LE) and economic impacts of non-compliance with recommended exposure levels. We also investigated the distribution of the mortality burden among the population ...


Residential Surrounding Greenness And Cognitive Decline: A 10-Year Follow-Up Of The Whitehall Ii Cohort, Carmen De Keijzer, C. Tonne, Xavier Basagaña, A. Valentín, Archana Singh-Manoux, Jordi Alonso, Josep M. Antó, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Jordi Sunyer, Payam Dadvand Jan 2018

Residential Surrounding Greenness And Cognitive Decline: A 10-Year Follow-Up Of The Whitehall Ii Cohort, Carmen De Keijzer, C. Tonne, Xavier Basagaña, A. Valentín, Archana Singh-Manoux, Jordi Alonso, Josep M. Antó, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Jordi Sunyer, Payam Dadvand

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background:
Evidence on beneficial associations of green space with cognitive function in older adults is very scarce and mainly limited to cross-sectional studies.
Objectives:
We aimed to investigate the association between long-term residential surrounding greenness and cognitive decline.
Methods:
This longitudinal study was based on three waves of data from the Whitehall II cohort, providing a 10-y follow-up (1997–1999 to 2007–2009) of 6,506 participants (45–68 y old) from the United Kingdom. Residential surrounding greenness was obtained across buffers of 500 and 1,000m around the participants’ residential addresses at each follow-up using satellite images on greenness ...


The Urban Exposome During Pregnancy And Its Socioeconomic Determinants, Oliver Robinson, Ibon Tamayo, Montserrat De Castro, A. Valentín, Lise Giorgis-Allemand, Norun Hjertager Krog, Gunn Marit Aasvang, Albert Ambros, Ferran Ballester, Pippa Bird, Leda Chatzi, Marta Cirach, Audrius Dėdelė, David Donaire Gonzalez, Regina Gražuleviciene, Minas Iakovidis, Jesus Ibarluzea, Mariza Kampouri, Johanna Lepeule, Léa Maitre, R. R. C. Mceachan, Bente Oftedal, Valerie Siroux, Rémy Slama, Euripides Stephanou, Jordi Sunyer, Jose Urquiza, Kjell Vegard Weyde, John Wright, Martine Vrijheid, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Xavier Basagaña Jan 2018

The Urban Exposome During Pregnancy And Its Socioeconomic Determinants, Oliver Robinson, Ibon Tamayo, Montserrat De Castro, A. Valentín, Lise Giorgis-Allemand, Norun Hjertager Krog, Gunn Marit Aasvang, Albert Ambros, Ferran Ballester, Pippa Bird, Leda Chatzi, Marta Cirach, Audrius Dėdelė, David Donaire Gonzalez, Regina Gražuleviciene, Minas Iakovidis, Jesus Ibarluzea, Mariza Kampouri, Johanna Lepeule, Léa Maitre, R. R. C. Mceachan, Bente Oftedal, Valerie Siroux, Rémy Slama, Euripides Stephanou, Jordi Sunyer, Jose Urquiza, Kjell Vegard Weyde, John Wright, Martine Vrijheid, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Xavier Basagaña

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background:
The urban exposome is the set of environmental factors that are experienced in the outdoor urban environment and that may influence child development.
Objective:
The authors’ goal was to describe the urban exposome among European pregnant women and understand its socioeconomic determinants.
Methods:
Using geographic information systems, remote sensing and spatio-temporal modeling we estimated exposure during pregnancy to 28 environmental indicators in almost 30,000 women from six population-based birth cohorts, in nine urban areas from across Europe. Exposures included meteorological factors, air pollutants, traffic noise, traffic indicators, natural space, the built environment, public transport, facilities, and walkability. Socioeconomic ...


The Association Between Lifelong Greenspace Exposure And 3-Dimensional Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging In Barcelona School Children, Payam Dadvand, Jesus Pujol, Dídac Macià, Gerard Martínez-Vilavella, Laura Blanco-Hinojo, Marion Mortamais, Mar Alvarez-Pedrerol, Raquel Fenoll, Mikel Esnaola, Albert Dalmau-Bueno, Mónica López-Vicente, Xavier Basagaña, Michael Jerrett, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Jordi Sunyer Jan 2018

The Association Between Lifelong Greenspace Exposure And 3-Dimensional Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging In Barcelona School Children, Payam Dadvand, Jesus Pujol, Dídac Macià, Gerard Martínez-Vilavella, Laura Blanco-Hinojo, Marion Mortamais, Mar Alvarez-Pedrerol, Raquel Fenoll, Mikel Esnaola, Albert Dalmau-Bueno, Mónica López-Vicente, Xavier Basagaña, Michael Jerrett, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Jordi Sunyer

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Proponents of the biophilia hypothesis believe that contact with nature, including green spaces, has a crucial role in brain development in children. Currently, however, we are not aware of evidence linking such exposure with potential effects on brain structure. Objective: We determined whether lifelong exposure to residential surrounding greenness is associated with regional differences in brain volume based on 3-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3D MRI) among children attending primary school. Methods: We performed a series of analyses using data from a subcohort of 253 Barcelona schoolchildren from the Brain Development and Air Pollution Ultrafine Particles in School Children (BREATHE ...


Do Associations Between Objectively-Assessed Physical Activity And Neighbourhood Environment Attributes Vary By Time Of The Day And Day Of The Week? Ipen Adult Study, Ester Cerin, Josef Mitas, Kelli Cain, Terry Conway, Mark Adams, Grant Schofield, Olga Sarmiento, Rodrigo Reis, Jasper Schipperijn, Rachel Davey, Deborah Salvo, Rosario Orzanco-Garralda, Duncan J. Macfarlane, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Neville Owen, Jim Sallis, Delfien Van Dyck Jan 2017

Do Associations Between Objectively-Assessed Physical Activity And Neighbourhood Environment Attributes Vary By Time Of The Day And Day Of The Week? Ipen Adult Study, Ester Cerin, Josef Mitas, Kelli Cain, Terry Conway, Mark Adams, Grant Schofield, Olga Sarmiento, Rodrigo Reis, Jasper Schipperijn, Rachel Davey, Deborah Salvo, Rosario Orzanco-Garralda, Duncan J. Macfarlane, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Neville Owen, Jim Sallis, Delfien Van Dyck

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: To more accurately quantify the potential impact of the neighbourhood environment on adults’ physical activity (PA), it is important to compare environment-PA associations between periods of the day or week when adults are more versus less likely to be in their neighbourhood and utilise its PA resources. We examined whether, among adults from 10 countries, associations between objectively-assessed neighbourhood environment attributes and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) varied by time of the day and day of the week. The secondary aim was to examine whether such associations varied by employment status, gender and city. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 6 ...


Bluehealth: A Study Programme Protocol For Mapping And Quantifying The Potential Benefits To Public Health And Well-Being From Europe's Blue Spaces, James Grellier, Mathew P. White, Maria Albin, Simon Bell, Lewis R. Elliott, Mireia Gascon, Silvio Gualdi, Laura Mancini, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Denis A. Sarigiannis, Matilda Van Den Bosch, Tanja Wolf, Susanne Wuijts, Lora E. Fleming Jan 2017

Bluehealth: A Study Programme Protocol For Mapping And Quantifying The Potential Benefits To Public Health And Well-Being From Europe's Blue Spaces, James Grellier, Mathew P. White, Maria Albin, Simon Bell, Lewis R. Elliott, Mireia Gascon, Silvio Gualdi, Laura Mancini, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Denis A. Sarigiannis, Matilda Van Den Bosch, Tanja Wolf, Susanne Wuijts, Lora E. Fleming

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Introduction
Proximity and access to water have long been central to human culture and accordingly deliver countless societal benefits. Over 200 million people live on Europe's coastline, and aquatic environments are the top recreational destination in the region. In terms of public health, interactions with ‘blue space’ (eg, coasts, rivers, lakes) are often considered solely in terms of risk (eg, drowning, microbial pollution). Exposure to blue space can, however, promote health and well-being and prevent disease, although underlying mechanisms are poorly understood.
Aims and methods
The BlueHealth project aims to understand the relationships between exposure to blue space and ...


Urban And Transport Planning, Environmental Exposures And Health-New Concepts, Methods And Tools To Improve Health In Cities, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen Jan 2016

Urban And Transport Planning, Environmental Exposures And Health-New Concepts, Methods And Tools To Improve Health In Cities, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: The majority of people live in cities and urbanization is continuing worldwide. Cities have long been known to be society’s predominant engine of innovation and wealth creation, yet they are also a main source of pollution and disease. Methods: We conducted a review around the topic urban and transport planning, environmental exposures and health and describe the findings. Results: Within cities there is considerable variation in the levels of environmental exposures such as air pollution, noise, temperature and green space. Emerging evidence suggests that urban and transport planning indicators such as road network, distance to major roads, and ...


Mental Health Benefits Of Long-Term Exposure To Residential Green And Blue Spaces: A Systematic Review, Mireia Gascon, Margarita Triguero-Mas, David Martínez, Payam Dadvand, Joan Forns, Antoni Plasència, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen Jan 2015

Mental Health Benefits Of Long-Term Exposure To Residential Green And Blue Spaces: A Systematic Review, Mireia Gascon, Margarita Triguero-Mas, David Martínez, Payam Dadvand, Joan Forns, Antoni Plasència, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Many studies conducted during the last decade suggest the mental health benefits of green and blue spaces. We aimed to systematically review the available literature on the long-term mental health benefits of residential green and blue spaces by including studies that used standardized tools or objective measures of both the exposures and the outcomes of interest. We followed the PRISMA statement guidelines for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analysis. In total 28 studies were included in the systematic review. We found limited evidence for a causal relationship between surrounding greenness and mental health in adults, whereas the evidence was inadequate in ...


Natural Outdoor Environments And Mental And Physical Health: Relationships And Mechanisms, Margarita Triguero-Mas, Payam Dadvand, Marta Cirach, David Martínez, Antonia Medina, Anna Mompart, Xavier Basagaña, Regina Gražulevičienė, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen Jan 2015

Natural Outdoor Environments And Mental And Physical Health: Relationships And Mechanisms, Margarita Triguero-Mas, Payam Dadvand, Marta Cirach, David Martínez, Antonia Medina, Anna Mompart, Xavier Basagaña, Regina Gražulevičienė, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background
Evidence is growing for the beneficial impacts of natural outdoor environments on health. However, most of the evidence has focused on green spaces and little evidence is available on health benefits of blue spaces and about possible mediators and modifiers of such impacts. We investigated the association between natural outdoor environments (separately for green and blue spaces) and health (general and mental) and its possible mediators and modifiers.
Methods
Cross-sectional data from adults interviewed in Catalonia (Spain) between 2010 and 2012 as part of the Catalonia Health Survey were used. The collected data included sociodemographic characteristics, self-perceived general health ...


A Study Of The Combined Effects Of Physical Activity And Air Pollution On Mortality In Elderly Urban Residents: The Danish Diet, Cancer, And Health Cohort, Zorana J. Andersen, Audrey De Nazelle, Michelle Mendez, Judith Garcia-Aymerich, Ole Hertel, Anne Tjonneland, Kim Overvad, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen Jan 2015

A Study Of The Combined Effects Of Physical Activity And Air Pollution On Mortality In Elderly Urban Residents: The Danish Diet, Cancer, And Health Cohort, Zorana J. Andersen, Audrey De Nazelle, Michelle Mendez, Judith Garcia-Aymerich, Ole Hertel, Anne Tjonneland, Kim Overvad, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Physical activity reduces, whereas exposure to air pollution increases, the risk of premature mortality. Physical activity amplifies respiratory uptake and deposition of air pollutants in the lung, which may augment acute harmful effects of air pollution during exercise. Objectives: We aimed to examine whether benefits of physical activity on mortality are moderated by long-term exposure to high air pollution levels in an urban setting. Methods: A total of 52,061 subjects (50–65 years of age) from the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort, living in Aarhus and Copenhagen, reported data on physical activity in 1993–1997 and were ...


Accessibility And Use Of Urban Green Spaces, And Cardiovascular Health: Findings From A Kaunas Cohort Study, Abdonas Tamosiunas, Regina Grazuleviciene, Dalia Luksiene, Audrius Dedele, Regina Reklaitiene, Migle Baceviciene, Jone Vencloviene, Gailute Bernotiene, Ricardas Radisauskas, Vilija Malinauskiene, Egle Milinaviciene, Martin Bobak, Anne Peasey, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen Jan 2014

Accessibility And Use Of Urban Green Spaces, And Cardiovascular Health: Findings From A Kaunas Cohort Study, Abdonas Tamosiunas, Regina Grazuleviciene, Dalia Luksiene, Audrius Dedele, Regina Reklaitiene, Migle Baceviciene, Jone Vencloviene, Gailute Bernotiene, Ricardas Radisauskas, Vilija Malinauskiene, Egle Milinaviciene, Martin Bobak, Anne Peasey, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: The aims of this study were to explore associations of the distance and use of urban green spaces with the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and its risk factors, and to evaluate the impact of the accessibility and use of green spaces on the incidence of CVD among the population of Kaunas city (Lithuania). Methods: We present the results from a Kaunas cohort study on the access to and use of green spaces, the association with cardiovascular risk factors and other health-related variables, and the risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. A random sample of 5,112 individuals aged ...