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Full-Text Articles in Policy Design, Analysis, and Evaluation

A Taxonomy Of Independent Electoral Reapportionment Systems, James Ruley Jan 2017

A Taxonomy Of Independent Electoral Reapportionment Systems, James Ruley

Indiana Journal of Constitutional Design

This paper addresses a means of checking legislative gerrymandering, which I have called the Independent Electoral Reapportionment Commission (IERC). Its purpose is to prevent self-interested politicians from drawing biased constituency lines. While scholars have researched gerrymandering, few scholars have researched commissions designed to limit such gerrymandering, and no comprehensive work details the global means of accomplishing this goal.

Thus, the purpose of this paper is not to normatively prescribe the best practices for composing and empowering an IERC, but rather to descriptively show how different countries conduct this process. While Part II makes some determinations about which commissions may conceptually ...


Impacts Of Environmental Quality On The Demographics Of Three Nations, Emily Hummel May 2016

Impacts Of Environmental Quality On The Demographics Of Three Nations, Emily Hummel

Honors Projects

This study will examine how the correlation between air and water quality and the population demographics of India, South Africa, and the United States. India is a country with a growing population, increasing income inequality, and gender roles that reflect its status as a developing nation. South Africa is much smaller in area and the population is beginning to level off, but South Africa’s income inequality is growing much faster than India’s and gender inequality is less of an issue in South Africa. The population of the United States is decreasing and gender roles are fairly equal, despite ...


Regulating E-Cigarettes: Why Policies Diverge, Eric A. Feldman Apr 2016

Regulating E-Cigarettes: Why Policies Diverge, Eric A. Feldman

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This paper, part of a festschrift in honor of Professor Malcolm Feeley, explores the landscape of e-cigarette policy globally by looking at three jurisdictions that have taken starkly different approaches to regulating e-cigarettes—the US, Japan, and China. Each of those countries has a robust tobacco industry, government agencies entrusted with protecting public health, an active and sophisticated scientific and medical community, and a regulatory structure for managing new pharmaceutical, tobacco, and consumer products. All three are signatories of the World Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, all are signatories of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual ...


Drug Policy Along The U.S.-Mexico Border: How Gendered Experiences Rule Current Policy Ineffective, Michelle Sosa-Acosta Jan 2016

Drug Policy Along The U.S.-Mexico Border: How Gendered Experiences Rule Current Policy Ineffective, Michelle Sosa-Acosta

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This paper focuses on reevaluating current U.S. drug policy through the use of intersectional, feminist research.


Corporate Governance And Social Welfare In The Common Law World, David A. Skeel Jr. Jan 2014

Corporate Governance And Social Welfare In The Common Law World, David A. Skeel Jr.

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The newest addition to the spate of recent theories of comparative corporate governance is Corporate Governance in the Common-Law World: The Political Foundations of Shareholder Power, an important new book by Christopher Bruner. Focusing on the U.S., the U.K., Canada and Australia, Bruner argues that the robustness of the country’s social welfare system is the key determinant of the extent to which its corporate governance is shareholder-centered. This explains why corporate governance is so shareholder-oriented in the United Kingdom, which has universal healthcare and generous unemployment benefits, while shareholders’ powers are more attenuated in the United States ...


The Modern Streetcar In The United States: Do Cities Have The Information Needed To Make Informed Choices?, Elle Hull Jan 2014

The Modern Streetcar In The United States: Do Cities Have The Information Needed To Make Informed Choices?, Elle Hull

MPA/MPP Capstone Projects

Streetcars have made a comeback in cities in North American in the last several decades; there are now over 45 cities operating, building, or planning streetcars. The majority of these streetcars are viewed primarily as catalysts for economic development, rather than as a means of public transportation. However, the streetcar’s claim of promoting development is backed by surprisingly little evidence.

Although carrying out an analysis of the impact of streetcars on economic development is beyond the scope of this paper due to problems with data availability, methods of performing such an analysis are discussed. This includes a list of ...


Spending For Affordable Housing: How Lexington-Fayette Urban County, Ky Compares To Similar Cities In The U.S., Chenglin Zhao Jan 2014

Spending For Affordable Housing: How Lexington-Fayette Urban County, Ky Compares To Similar Cities In The U.S., Chenglin Zhao

MPA/MPP Capstone Projects

Objectives: The shortage of affordable housing in Lexington-Fayette urban county has become an important policy issue. The analysis in this study is designed to find out does Lexington-Fayette Urban County do better or worse in financing affordable housing for low-income residents.

Method: By comparing Lexington-Fayette Urban County with 11 similar cities in U.S., there may reveal options for the Lexington-Fayette Urban County government to improve housing supply financing assistance services, find new funding sources for affordable housing and ensure more low-income residents can find affordable housing.

Key finding: Nonprofit housing operations play meaningful roles in addressing the supply of ...


Regulation Of Hydraulic Fracturing Of Shale Gas Formations In The United States, Fatemeh Bagheri Jun 2013

Regulation Of Hydraulic Fracturing Of Shale Gas Formations In The United States, Fatemeh Bagheri

Pepperdine Policy Review

The practice of hydraulic fracturing has become increasingly common over the years since it has been looked at to replace energy derived from coal. Though hydraulic fracturing may be one of the better forms of obtaining energy, it comes with its own set of problems ranging from environmental problems to health problems if the appropriate safeguards are not implemented when completing the process. Regulations at the local, state, and federal level are assessed to determine which entity should regulate the practice and many technologies are reviewed in order to offer suggestions which allow the process to be completed without significant ...


Beyond High Hopes And Unmet Expectations: Judicial Selection Reforms In The States, Rebecca D. Gill May 2013

Beyond High Hopes And Unmet Expectations: Judicial Selection Reforms In The States, Rebecca D. Gill

Political Science Faculty Publications

The scholarly debate about how to select state judges has been ongoing for decades; the public debate on the issue spans more than a century. Proponents on each side seem confident that their preferred method of judicial selection is the best. Reformers argued that, “judicial elections deserve the limelight in the variety show of threats to judicial independence.” Defenders of judicial elections have countered that judicial reformers are “waging war on democratic processes and the rights of citizens to maintain control over government.” The empirical evidence to date, however, has largely resulted in a draw. The more we learn about ...


Career-Based Influences On Scientific Recognition In The United States And Europe: Longitudinal Evidence From Curriculum Vitae Data, Jan Youtie, Juan Rogers, Thomas Heinze, Philip Shapira, Li Tang Jun 2012

Career-Based Influences On Scientific Recognition In The United States And Europe: Longitudinal Evidence From Curriculum Vitae Data, Jan Youtie, Juan Rogers, Thomas Heinze, Philip Shapira, Li Tang

Philip Shapira

This paper examines how funding patterns, career pathways and collaboration networks influence scientific recognition. We analyze these institutional factors in the early and middle phases of academic careers through comparison of a group of researchers recognized as creative by their peers with a matched group of researchers. Measurement of scientific recognition is based on survey nominations and research prizes in two growing, laboratory-intensive research domains: nanotechnology and human genetics. Curriculum vitae data is used to compare researchers based in the United States and Europe. In the early career model for the United States, we find that scientific recognition is associated ...


United States Sovereign Debt: A Thought Experiment On Default And Restructuring, Charles W. Mooney Jr. Jan 2012

United States Sovereign Debt: A Thought Experiment On Default And Restructuring, Charles W. Mooney Jr.

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This chapter adopts the working assumption that it is conceivable that at some time in the future it would be in the interest of the United States to restructure its sovereign debt (i.e., to reduce the principal amount). It addresses in particular U.S. Treasury Securities. The chapter first provides an overview of the intermediated, tiered holding system for book-entry Treasuries. For the first time the chapter then explores whether and how—logistically and legally—such a restructuring could be effected. It posits the sort of dire scenario that might make such a restructuring advantageous. It then outlines a ...


Graphene Research Profile: Uk And Us Publications, 2000-2010, Philip Shapira, Jan Youtie, Stephen Carley Oct 2010

Graphene Research Profile: Uk And Us Publications, 2000-2010, Philip Shapira, Jan Youtie, Stephen Carley

Philip Shapira

In this document we provide an overview of graphene research that appears in the Web of Science (WOS) during the timeframe 2000 to 2010, inclusive. WOS databases that contain graphene research articles include SCI-EXPANDED, SSCI and A&HCI. The search strategy used in this profile was a simple one: all WOS articles from 2000 to 2010 whose title contained the keyword ‘graphene’ were downloaded and analyzed using VantagePoint textmining software. The search strategy used resulted in a total of 4,706 publications spanning 11 years, 313 journals, 78 countries, 1,433 institutional affiliations and 7,617 authors. After a brief ...


The Innovation System And Innovation Policy In The United States, Philip Shapira, Jan Youtie Jan 2010

The Innovation System And Innovation Policy In The United States, Philip Shapira, Jan Youtie

Philip Shapira

The US has a highly decentralized and diverse innovation system, involving multiple actors, including branches of federal and state governments, public agencies, universi-ties, the private sector, and non-profit and intermediary organizations. The system combines a high-level of R&D (with basic research sponsored particularly by federal government agencies) and a strong orientation towards applications and the market. This chapter provides an overview of the US innovation system and policy including a discussion of the components and participants involved in the US innovation system and its trends in innovation governance. The focus of this chapter is primarily on innovation policies with ...


Emergence Of Nanodistricts In The United States: Path Dependency Or New Opportunities?, Philip Shapira, Jan Youtie Aug 2008

Emergence Of Nanodistricts In The United States: Path Dependency Or New Opportunities?, Philip Shapira, Jan Youtie

Philip Shapira

Multiple economic development theories suggest that research and innovation in emerging technologies will cluster in certain locations rather then distributing equally among all regions. If this is the case, this distributional pattern has implications for where future economic opportunities as well as future risks will be concentrated. In this paper, we probe nanotechnology (hereafter nano) research and commercialization at a regional level. The study examines the top 30 US “nanodistricts” or metropolitan areas which lead in nanotechnology research activity over the 1990-2006 timeframe. We explore the factors underlying the emergence of these 30 metropolitan areas through exploratory cluster analysis. We ...


R&D Policy In The United States: The Promotion Of Nanotechnology, Philip Shapira, Jue Wang Nov 2007

R&D Policy In The United States: The Promotion Of Nanotechnology, Philip Shapira, Jue Wang

Philip Shapira

This case study reviews the evolution of nanotechnology policies and programmes in the United States with a particular focus on three thematic areas: governance, interactions among R&D policies, and interaction between R&D policy and non-R&D policies. Federal R&D policy in nanotechnology has moved through several stages, including initial exploration before the 1980s, the promotion of scientific and technological breakthroughs in the 1980s, policy development in the 1990s and multiagency national initiatives in the 2000s. Since 2001, the major federal R&D policy mechanism in nanotechnology in the US has been the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI). NNI ...


Us Manufacturing Extension Partnerships: Technology Policy Reinvented, Philip Shapira Jan 2001

Us Manufacturing Extension Partnerships: Technology Policy Reinvented, Philip Shapira

Philip Shapira

The US manufacturing extension partnership (MEP) is examined as an example of the new partnership paradigm in US technology policy. The MEP provides technology assistance services, particularly for small and medium-sized enterprises. Influenced by aims to reinvent government and reorient technology policy, the MEP seeks to be comprehensive, collaborative, and demand-driven. However, the MEP’s partnered management style is constrained by political and industrial systems that continue to operate on traditional lines. After probing these tensions, the paper offers insights for the MEP’s future development and for other technology and innovation policies that seek to emulate the MEP’s ...


Assessing The Health Of The Body Politic: Are The Cures Worse Than The Disease?, Margaret A. Shannon Oct 1995

Assessing The Health Of The Body Politic: Are The Cures Worse Than The Disease?, Margaret A. Shannon

Challenging Federal Ownership and Management: Public Lands and Public Benefits (October 11-13)

7 pages.

Contains footnotes.


Thinking The Unthinkable: States As Public Land Managers, Sally K. Fairfax Oct 1995

Thinking The Unthinkable: States As Public Land Managers, Sally K. Fairfax

Challenging Federal Ownership and Management: Public Lands and Public Benefits (October 11-13)

27 pages.

Contains references.


Privatizing Public Lands: A Bad Idea, Scott Lehmann Oct 1995

Privatizing Public Lands: A Bad Idea, Scott Lehmann

Challenging Federal Ownership and Management: Public Lands and Public Benefits (October 11-13)

8 pages.

Contains references.


Reforming Public Land Management With New Incentives, Randal O'Toole Oct 1995

Reforming Public Land Management With New Incentives, Randal O'Toole

Challenging Federal Ownership and Management: Public Lands and Public Benefits (October 11-13)

9 pages.

Contains references.


Charging Public Land Users For Recreational Uses, Chip Dennerlein Oct 1995

Charging Public Land Users For Recreational Uses, Chip Dennerlein

Challenging Federal Ownership and Management: Public Lands and Public Benefits (October 11-13)

11 pages.


Why We’Re Unhappy? [Synopsis], Louise Liston Oct 1995

Why We’Re Unhappy? [Synopsis], Louise Liston

Challenging Federal Ownership and Management: Public Lands and Public Benefits (October 11-13)

2 pages.


“Storm Across The West’S Rangelands—In The Eye Of The Cyclone”: From Conflict And Confrontation Toward Consensus And Compromise? [Outline], Ken Spann Oct 1995

“Storm Across The West’S Rangelands—In The Eye Of The Cyclone”: From Conflict And Confrontation Toward Consensus And Compromise? [Outline], Ken Spann

Challenging Federal Ownership and Management: Public Lands and Public Benefits (October 11-13)

3 pages.


Values And The Public Lands, Dale Jamieson Oct 1995

Values And The Public Lands, Dale Jamieson

Challenging Federal Ownership and Management: Public Lands and Public Benefits (October 11-13)

11 pages.

Contains 3 pages of references.


Local Autonomy, Educational Equity, And School Choice: Constitutional Criticism Of School Reform, James J. Hilton Jun 1994

Local Autonomy, Educational Equity, And School Choice: Constitutional Criticism Of School Reform, James J. Hilton

New England Journal of Public Policy

Many critics of America's public education system hail parental or school choice, a program that allows public school systems to compete against one another and, under some proposals, against private educational institutions, for students and educational funding, as the answer to Americas educational crisis. Proponents argue that competition will force public schools to offer students a quality education or close. This article does not evaluate the claims of the parental-choice proposals; rather, it examines the difficulties inherent in funding such a system through traditional school finance mechanisms.