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Full-Text Articles in Policy Design, Analysis, and Evaluation

Forecasting Innovation Pathways For New And Emerging Science & Technologies, Douglas Kr Robinson, Lu Huang, Ying Guo, Alan L. Porter Jan 2013

Forecasting Innovation Pathways For New And Emerging Science & Technologies, Douglas Kr Robinson, Lu Huang, Ying Guo, Alan L. Porter

alan l porter

New & Emerging Science & Technologies (“NESTs”) promise tremendous innovation potential, but this is coupled with enormous uncertainties and often many unknowns. This paper offers a framework to analyze NESTs to help ascertain likely innovation pathways. We have devised a 10-step framework based on extensive Future-oriented Technology Analyses (“FTA”) experience, enriched by in-depth case analyses. In the paper, we describe our analytical activities in two case studies. The nanobiosensors experience is contrasted with that of deep brain stimulation in relative quantitative and qualitative emphases. We close the paper by reflecting on this systematic FTA framework for emerging science and technologies, for its ...


Innovation Risk Path Assessing For A Newly Emerging Science & Technology: Illustrated For Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells, Tingting Ma, Ying Guo, Alan L. Porter Jan 2012

Innovation Risk Path Assessing For A Newly Emerging Science & Technology: Illustrated For Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells, Tingting Ma, Ying Guo, Alan L. Porter

alan l porter

For “Newly Emerging Science & Technologies” (“NESTs”), uncertainty is the major challenge. Technological innovation for NESTs faces many kinds of risks that dramatically affect their development paths. This paper combines methods of risk utility theory and technology path research and explores a new innovation risk path modeling method for NEST development. Here we apply selected tools from risk utility theory and technology path research to the NEST of special concern—Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs). The case for DSSC commercialization is promising, but challengeable. The prospects for future development of DSSCs are good, with identifiable markets. Multi-party collaboration appears necessary in order ...


Empirically Informing A Technology Delivery System Model For An Emerging Technology: Illustrated For Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells, Ying Guo, Chen Xu, Lu Huang, Alan L. Porter Jan 2012

Empirically Informing A Technology Delivery System Model For An Emerging Technology: Illustrated For Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells, Ying Guo, Chen Xu, Lu Huang, Alan L. Porter

alan l porter

This paper explores how to extract empirical knowledge from R&D, patent, and business literature compilations to help compose an innovation system model. It adapts the key elements and dynamics of “technology delivery system” modeling to a given Newly Emerging Science & Technology. We present a 10-step analytical approach to help characterize the technology, gauge its state of development, and depict the socio-technical system institutions and actors. We apply this to the case of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (“DSSCs”). A new “cross-charting” method appears effective at associating novel technology-enabled capabilities to gain functional advantages, and to link those functions to potential applications ...


A Trans-Atlantic Conversation On Responsible Innovation And Responsible Governance, Sally Randles, Jan Youtie, David Guston, Barbara Harthorn, Chris Newfield, Philip Shapira, Fern Wickson, Arie Rip, René Von Schomberg, Nick Pidgeon Jan 2012

A Trans-Atlantic Conversation On Responsible Innovation And Responsible Governance, Sally Randles, Jan Youtie, David Guston, Barbara Harthorn, Chris Newfield, Philip Shapira, Fern Wickson, Arie Rip, René Von Schomberg, Nick Pidgeon

Philip Shapira

How can innovation be balanced with responsible governance? Responsible innovation and responsible governance are broad concepts which mean different things to different groups. This paper presents the results of a roundtable held at the Society for Nanotechnology and Emerging Technologies (S.NET) 2011 conference with academics and policymakers from Europe and the US. The results of this roundtable discussion raise issues of definition, lack of consensus, and the role of philosophy versus practical intervention.


Public Policy Instruments In (Re)Building National Innovation Capabilities: Cases Of Nanotechnology Development In China, Russia And Brazil, Evgeny A. Klochikhin Sep 2011

Public Policy Instruments In (Re)Building National Innovation Capabilities: Cases Of Nanotechnology Development In China, Russia And Brazil, Evgeny A. Klochikhin

Evgeny A. Klochikhin

In 2001 Goldman Sachs named Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRICs) the most rapidly-growing countries in the world capable of surpassing the United States, Japan and Europe as leading economies by 2050.

Nevertheless, for the last decade we have learned relatively little about the mechanisms of success and failure in these countries. All of them have huge territory and population as well as fast-growing economies that sometimes show two-digit rates of GDP growth per year and surprise the world by their increasing budgets and public spending. In the meantime, most of these countries are believed to be desperately struggling against ...


Nanotechnology Policy In Russia: Can An Emerging Technology Push A Country Onto A New Development Trajectory?, Evgeny A. Klochikhin Jun 2011

Nanotechnology Policy In Russia: Can An Emerging Technology Push A Country Onto A New Development Trajectory?, Evgeny A. Klochikhin

Evgeny A. Klochikhin

In 2001 Goldman Sachs predicted that a group of emerging markets – Brazil, Russia, India and China – will surpass leading economies by 2050. Nevertheless, we seem to have studied little about the mechanisms of success and failure in these countries in the recent decade. In this paper I focus on one of these giants – Russia – which seems seriously understudied but retains important creative and science and technology potential capable of pushing the country onto a new development trajectory.

Russia sees nanotechnology as one of the major technological platforms that could help it achieve the established growth objectives. Despite certain lag, the ...


Characterizing A Technology Development At The Stage Of Early Emerging Applications: Nanomaterial-Enhanced Biosensors, Lu Huang, Ying Guo, Zhengchun Peng, Alan L. Porter Jan 2011

Characterizing A Technology Development At The Stage Of Early Emerging Applications: Nanomaterial-Enhanced Biosensors, Lu Huang, Ying Guo, Zhengchun Peng, Alan L. Porter

alan l porter

We devise Future-oriented Technology Analyses tools to investigate a technology at an interesting development stage of early emerging applications. At this stage, technologies show great potential with little established commercialization. Future development pathways are highly uncertain and heavily dependent on contextual interactions. We apply R&D profiling, R&D-to-Applications cross-charting, and Technology Delivery System modelling to help understand the phenomena that bear upon development prospects. We develop our approach through a two-tier case study: general treatment of nanomaterial-enhanced biosensors, followed by more specialized treatment of one subset of those. Results convey the importance of considering technological and social context factors ...


The Use Of Environmental Health And Safety Research In Nanotechnology Research, Jan Youtie, Alan L. Porter, Philip Shapira, Li Tang, Troy Benn Jan 2011

The Use Of Environmental Health And Safety Research In Nanotechnology Research, Jan Youtie, Alan L. Porter, Philip Shapira, Li Tang, Troy Benn

Philip Shapira

Environmental, health, and safety (EHS) concerns are receiving considerable attention in the development of nanoscience and nanotechnology (nano) R&D, underscored by the perspective that EHS work should be developed alongside the scientific research rather than subsequent to applications. This positioning of nano EHS suggests the importance of early understanding and measurement of the diffusion of nano EHS science. This research examines the diffusion of nano EHS publications, defined through a set of search terms, into a global nanotechnology R&D database developed at Georgia Tech. The results indicate that nano EHS research is growing rapidly although it is orders ...


Graphene Research Profile: Uk And Us Publications, 2000-2010, Philip Shapira, Jan Youtie, Stephen Carley Oct 2010

Graphene Research Profile: Uk And Us Publications, 2000-2010, Philip Shapira, Jan Youtie, Stephen Carley

Philip Shapira

In this document we provide an overview of graphene research that appears in the Web of Science (WOS) during the timeframe 2000 to 2010, inclusive. WOS databases that contain graphene research articles include SCI-EXPANDED, SSCI and A&HCI. The search strategy used in this profile was a simple one: all WOS articles from 2000 to 2010 whose title contained the keyword ‘graphene’ were downloaded and analyzed using VantagePoint textmining software. The search strategy used resulted in a total of 4,706 publications spanning 11 years, 313 journals, 78 countries, 1,433 institutional affiliations and 7,617 authors. After a brief ...


The Emergence Of Social Science Research In Nanotechnology, Philip Shapira, Jan Youtie, Alan L. Porter Feb 2010

The Emergence Of Social Science Research In Nanotechnology, Philip Shapira, Jan Youtie, Alan L. Porter

Philip Shapira

This article examines the development of social science literature focused on the emerging area of nanotechnology. It is guided by the exploratory proposition that early social science work on emerging technologies will draw on science and engineering literature on the technology in question to frame its investigative activities, but as the technologies and societal investments in them progress, social scientists will increasingly develop and draw on their own body of literature. To address this proposition the authors create a database of nanotechnology-social science literature by merging articles from the Web of Science’s Social Science Citation Index and Arts and ...


Is There A Shift To ‘Active Nanostructures'?, Vrishali Subramanian, Alan L. Porter, Jan Youtie, Philip Shapira Jan 2010

Is There A Shift To ‘Active Nanostructures'?, Vrishali Subramanian, Alan L. Porter, Jan Youtie, Philip Shapira

Philip Shapira

It has been suggested that an important transition in the long-run trajectory of nanotechnology discovery and application is a shift from passive to active nanostructures. Such a shift could present increased societal impacts and need new approaches for risk assessment. The National Science Foundation’s (NSF) Active Nanostructures and Nanosystems (ANN) grant solicitation defines an active nanostructure as “An active nanostructure changes or evolves its state during its operation.” Active nanostructures examples include nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), nanomachines, self-healing materials, targeted drugs and chemicals, energy storage devices, and sensors. This paper considers two questions: (1) Is there a “shift” to active ...


Nanotechnology Development In Latin America, Luciano Kay, Philip Shapira Jan 2009

Nanotechnology Development In Latin America, Luciano Kay, Philip Shapira

Philip Shapira

This article investigates the development of nanotechnology in Latin America with a particular focus on Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay. Based on data for nanotechnology research publications and patents and suggesting a framework for analyzing the development of R&D networks, we identify three potential strategies of nanotechnology research collaboration. Then, we seek to identify the balance of emphasis upon each of the three strategies by mapping the current research profile of those four countries. In general, we find that they are implementing policies and programs to develop nanotechnologies but differ in their collaboration strategies, institutional involvement, and level of ...


Technological Diversity, Scientific Excellence And The Location Of Inventive Activities Abroad: The Case Of Nanotechnology, Andrea Fernández-Ribas, Philip Shapira Jan 2009

Technological Diversity, Scientific Excellence And The Location Of Inventive Activities Abroad: The Case Of Nanotechnology, Andrea Fernández-Ribas, Philip Shapira

Philip Shapira

Our contribution to the expanding literature on the globalization of research and innovation is to investigate the extent to which sector-specific developments in an emerging technology (such as increasing interdisciplinarity and complexity) affect inventive activities developed abroad. We look at how technological diversity and scientific excellence of host countries in the field of nanotechnology affect the development of inventive activities by US multinational companies (MNCs). We identify the most active US-based MNCs in nanotechnology-related patenting and examine location decisions of these companies and their international subsidiaries. Econometric results confirm our hypothesis that technological breadth of host countries positively influence the ...


Emergence Of Nanodistricts In The United States: Path Dependency Or New Opportunities?, Philip Shapira, Jan Youtie Aug 2008

Emergence Of Nanodistricts In The United States: Path Dependency Or New Opportunities?, Philip Shapira, Jan Youtie

Philip Shapira

Multiple economic development theories suggest that research and innovation in emerging technologies will cluster in certain locations rather then distributing equally among all regions. If this is the case, this distributional pattern has implications for where future economic opportunities as well as future risks will be concentrated. In this paper, we probe nanotechnology (hereafter nano) research and commercialization at a regional level. The study examines the top 30 US “nanodistricts” or metropolitan areas which lead in nanotechnology research activity over the 1990-2006 timeframe. We explore the factors underlying the emergence of these 30 metropolitan areas through exploratory cluster analysis. We ...


Refining Search Terms For Nanotechnology, Alan L. Porter, Jan Youtie, Philip Shapira, David J. Schoeneck May 2008

Refining Search Terms For Nanotechnology, Alan L. Porter, Jan Youtie, Philip Shapira, David J. Schoeneck

Philip Shapira

The ability to delineate the boundaries of an emerging technology is central to obtaining an understanding of the technology’s research paths and commercialization prospects. Nowhere is this more relevant than in the case of nanotechnology (hereafter identified as “nano”) given its current rapid growth and multidisciplinary nature. (Under the rubric of nanotechnology, we also include nanoscience and nanoengineering.) Past efforts have utilized several strategies, including simple term search for the prefix nano, complex lexical and citation-based approaches, and bootstrapping techniques. This research introduces a modularized Boolean approach to defining nanotechnology which has been applied to several research and patenting ...


R&D Policy In The United States: The Promotion Of Nanotechnology, Philip Shapira, Jue Wang Nov 2007

R&D Policy In The United States: The Promotion Of Nanotechnology, Philip Shapira, Jue Wang

Philip Shapira

This case study reviews the evolution of nanotechnology policies and programmes in the United States with a particular focus on three thematic areas: governance, interactions among R&D policies, and interaction between R&D policy and non-R&D policies. Federal R&D policy in nanotechnology has moved through several stages, including initial exploration before the 1980s, the promotion of scientific and technological breakthroughs in the 1980s, policy development in the 1990s and multiagency national initiatives in the 2000s. Since 2001, the major federal R&D policy mechanism in nanotechnology in the US has been the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI). NNI ...