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2015

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Articles 1 - 30 of 176

Full-Text Articles in Policy Design, Analysis, and Evaluation

Fish Landings At The World’S Commercial Fishing Ports, Tim Huntington, Fiona Nimmo, Graeme Macfadyen Dec 2015

Fish Landings At The World’S Commercial Fishing Ports, Tim Huntington, Fiona Nimmo, Graeme Macfadyen

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

In 2009, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) adopted the Agreement on Port State Measures to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) fishing (PSMA). Countries that ratify the treaty commit to exert greater control at ports over foreign-flagged vessels to detect IUU catch before it is offloaded from vessels, and prevent the ill-gotten catch from entering the world’s markets. The PSMA, when effectively implemented globally, will be a major deterrent to IUU fishing. A major challenge to selecting ports for enhanced controls has been the lack of data on which ports are the world ...


Advocacy In Action: A Framework For Implementation Of The American Counselors Association Advocacy Competencies On A Local Level, Jeffrey M. Lown Dec 2015

Advocacy In Action: A Framework For Implementation Of The American Counselors Association Advocacy Competencies On A Local Level, Jeffrey M. Lown

Educational Specialist

Despite calls from within the professional field and external forces, counselors have faced ongoing challenges in their efforts to be effective advocates for their clients and themselves. A review of the literature reveals that throughout the history of the profession, prominent figures have called on counselors to assume advocacy roles, and that some initiatives have been successful in fostering lasting change. However, as counselors and their clients’ needs continue to evolve, so too must strategies to address these needs be reevaluated and new initiatives put into place.

In this paper, I have outlined a committee structure and agenda that seeks ...


Adapting To Climate Change: The Case Of Multi-Level Governance And Municipal Adaptation Planning In Nova Scotia, Canada, Brennan A. Vogel Dec 2015

Adapting To Climate Change: The Case Of Multi-Level Governance And Municipal Adaptation Planning In Nova Scotia, Canada, Brennan A. Vogel

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Nova Scotia is the only province in Canada to use the gas tax as a financial incentive to create a regulatory mandate for ‘Municipal Climate Change Action Plans’ (MCCAPs). The MCCAP adaptation policy mandate initiated and enabled climate change vulnerability assessment and the development of climate risk priorities and adaptation plans to uniformly occur at the local scale in 53 Nova Scotian municipalities. This dissertation seeks to answer the question: What are the social factors that impacted municipal climate change adaptation policy and planning processes in the multi-level governance context of Nova Scotia’s MCCAP?

The study develops and operationalizes ...


Opening Address: Mark Ensalaco, University Of Dayton Human Rights Center, Mark Ensalaco Dec 2015

Opening Address: Mark Ensalaco, University Of Dayton Human Rights Center, Mark Ensalaco

Mark Ensalaco

No abstract provided.


Applications Of Cultural Theory And Empirical Analysis Of Sustainable Energy Policy Preferences In Arkansas, John Henry Kester Iii Dec 2015

Applications Of Cultural Theory And Empirical Analysis Of Sustainable Energy Policy Preferences In Arkansas, John Henry Kester Iii

Theses and Dissertations

The local policy arena is ripe for research on policy elite decisionmaking because where policy diffusion is concerned, previous studies focus on state-to-state and city-to-city dynamics. Therefore, there is a significant opportunity to expand understanding about the adoption of policies and policy diffusion at the local level. Identification of individual level determinants that signify policy adoption is a cornerstone to fostering this knowledge. This study examines such preference indicators found among policy elites in select Arkansas cities. For this research, the primary theoretical perspective for evaluating individual determinants is cultural theory, which has shown strong correlation to individual policy preference ...


Plenary Dialogue: Sustainable Human Development, J. Brinkmoeller, Ejim Dike, Kate Donald, Natalie Hudson, Jane Sloane Nov 2015

Plenary Dialogue: Sustainable Human Development, J. Brinkmoeller, Ejim Dike, Kate Donald, Natalie Hudson, Jane Sloane

Natalie Florea Hudson

J. Mark Brinkmoeller is director of the Center for Faith-based and Community Initiatives with the U.S. Agency for International Development. Ejim Dike is executive director of the U.S. Human Rights Network. Kate Donald is director of the Human Rights in Development program at the Center for Economic and Social Rights. Natalie Hudson is director of the Human Rights Studies program at the University of Dayton. Jane Sloane is vice president of programs for the Global Fund for Women.


Improving Intelligence Analysis With Decision Science, Mandeep K. Dhami, David R. Mandel, Barbara A. Mellers, Philip E. Tetlock Nov 2015

Improving Intelligence Analysis With Decision Science, Mandeep K. Dhami, David R. Mandel, Barbara A. Mellers, Philip E. Tetlock

Marketing Papers

Intelligence analysis plays a vital role in policy decision making. Key functions of intelligence analysis include accurately forecasting significant events, appropriately characterizing the uncertainties inherent in such forecasts, and effectively communicating those probabilistic forecasts to stakeholders. We review decision research on probabilistic forecasting and uncertainty communication, drawing attention to findings that could be used to reform intelligence processes and contribute to more effective intelligence oversight. We recommend that the intelligence community (IC) regularly and quantitatively monitor its forecasting accuracy to better understand how well it is achieving its functions. We also recommend that the IC use decision science to improve ...


Economic Wealth And Social Welfare: A Longitudinal Analysis Of Transnational Well-Being, Kelly Brooke Martin Oct 2015

Economic Wealth And Social Welfare: A Longitudinal Analysis Of Transnational Well-Being, Kelly Brooke Martin

KELLY B MARTIN

Macro changes in the financial arena have prompted ongoing research focused on global economic trends. As America emerges from an era of stagnant wages, rising unemployment, and growing class stratification it is necessary to explore differences in cross-national socioeconomic behavior to address the changing needs of our country. Many studies attempt to describe statistical correlations between economic wealth and social well-being domestically and abroad by utilizing methodological perspectives that do not account for longitudinal change. To address the gap in existing research, this study seeks to measure variations in econometric indicators between the U.S. and Nordic countries to further ...


Presentation: Malawi Research Practicum, Richard Ghere Oct 2015

Presentation: Malawi Research Practicum, Richard Ghere

Richard K. Ghere

To train future human rights advocates and development professionals, the University of Dayton Department of Political Science sponsors an applied research practicum for undergraduate students in Malawi. Working closely with Determined to Develop, a Karonga-based NGO founded and directed by the University of Dayton alumnus Matt Maroon '06, practicum students spend eight weeks living, learning, and serving in the northern region of Malawi. Mr. Maroon serves as the practicum’s in-country coordinator and hosts the students at his economic development lodge, Maji Zuwa. Working closely with the local community leaders and organizations and other Malawian university students, each practicum student ...


Contemporary Rhetoric, Ethics, And Human Rights Advocacy (Abstract), Richard K. Ghere, Kathleen Brittamart Watters Oct 2015

Contemporary Rhetoric, Ethics, And Human Rights Advocacy (Abstract), Richard K. Ghere, Kathleen Brittamart Watters

Richard K. Ghere

This paper will discuss how rhetorical analysis might interpret current ethics conversation related to governance and re-position some of its touchstone rationales. Specifically, efforts in this paper will apply the ideas of preeminent rhetorician Gerald Hauser (the current editor of Philosophy and Rhetoric) about human rights discourses and of a reticulate (variegated) public sphere to intersection of governance and human rights advocacy. Specifically, our paper will examine the rhetoric of various “exemplars” who advocate for causes and actions pertaining to human rights in particular contexts. In particular, we will incorporate case studies reviewing the public actions of the Russian rock ...


Literature And Human Rights Violations In U.S. Borderlands (Abstract), Tereza M. Szeghi Oct 2015

Literature And Human Rights Violations In U.S. Borderlands (Abstract), Tereza M. Szeghi

Tereza M. Szeghi

This paper offers a comparative assessment of how Ana Castillo (in The Guardians) and Louise Erdrich (in The Round House) craft overtly didactic novels as a means of raising awareness about contemporary human rights violations in the U.S-Mexico and Ojibwe borderlands, respectively. I argue that placing their novels in conversation with one another calls attention to the ways that excess policing of borders and ambiguities regarding jurisdiction in border zones both (albeit differentially) contribute to human rights violations. It is not part of the general U.S. consciousness to think about our internal borderlands (i.e., those surrounding tribal ...


The Trouble With Truth-Telling: Preliminary Reflections On Truth And Justice In Post-War Liberia, Gabriel Twose Ph.D., Caitlin O. Mahoney Ph.D. Oct 2015

The Trouble With Truth-Telling: Preliminary Reflections On Truth And Justice In Post-War Liberia, Gabriel Twose Ph.D., Caitlin O. Mahoney Ph.D.

Peace and Conflict Studies

This study investigates perceptions of the Liberian Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC), particularly focusing on understandings of, and the links between, truth, justice, and reconciliation. Forty-five semi-structured interviews were conducted at three research sites in Liberia. Findings indicate that although most Liberians agreed with the TRC in principle, most of those who followed its proceedings saw major problems in its implementation, harming perceptions of reconciliation. Participants expressed concerns that the Commission had failed to discover the full truth of wartime abuses, that the truth that was discovered was not told in the right way, and that there had been problems ...


Privacy And Freedom Of Information In Organizational Contexts: Human Rights Issues In An Era Of Big Data (Abstract), Jo Ann Oravec Oct 2015

Privacy And Freedom Of Information In Organizational Contexts: Human Rights Issues In An Era Of Big Data (Abstract), Jo Ann Oravec

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

Large-scale information collection and dissemination practices are acquiring greater economic and political significance in the everyday lives of citizens. Privacy and freedom of information issues are becoming more complex as “big data” and machine learning replace traditional forms of dossier collection, statistical analysis, and archiving. This paper explores the varieties of human rights issues that are emerging. The enormous amounts of data associated with social media systems and mobile applications have increased the number of facial recognition, locational tracking, socioeconomic analysis, and related practices being conducted by corporations as well as governmental agencies.

Often corporations and governmental agencies couple their ...


Human Rights-Based Activism: Lessons From Health Activism In South Africa And Brazil (Abstract), Kristi Heather Kenyon, Regiane Garcia Oct 2015

Human Rights-Based Activism: Lessons From Health Activism In South Africa And Brazil (Abstract), Kristi Heather Kenyon, Regiane Garcia

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

Drawing on South Africa and Brazil’s experiences of health activism, this paper aims to provide a full illustration of how human rights-based (HRB) activism can function as an influential agency-based social determinant of health. Social determinants of health (SDH) are usually understood as circumstances and structures that disadvantage individuals by increasing their vulnerability to disease and injury. SDH are typically conceived of as conditions that act upon individuals and communities who are relatively powerless to react against the health impacts of context such as poverty and marginalization.

In addition to this ‘passive’ understanding of SDH, we put forward an ...


International Organizations As Normative Agenda Setters: Social Influence And Reputational Costs In The Effects Of The International Human Rights Regime, Alejandro Anaya-Muñoz, Aldo F. Ponce Oct 2015

International Organizations As Normative Agenda Setters: Social Influence And Reputational Costs In The Effects Of The International Human Rights Regime, Alejandro Anaya-Muñoz, Aldo F. Ponce

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

This paper focuses on the question of how International Organizations (IOs) influence states. In particular, we assess the role of the mechanism of social influence in shaping states’ normative (discursive) behavior, by looking at the “reporting procedure” of the Human Rights Committee (HRC) of the United Nations (UN). Our study finds that in the definition of the substantive content of their “periodic reports,” states follow the human rights agenda set by the HRC in its “concluding observations.” In this sense, we provide systematic evidence that shows that, through social influence, even poorly “legalized” IOs can have an influence over state ...


Social Movements, Protest, And Human Rights: Latin America And Beyond (Abstract), James C. Franklin Oct 2015

Social Movements, Protest, And Human Rights: Latin America And Beyond (Abstract), James C. Franklin

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

The basis of this paper is research I have conducted into protests in Latin America. By recording the demands and actors involved in protests, I have been able to assess human rights-related protests. This, in turn, allows a systematic investigation of the relationship between social movements and human rights. One principal finding is that there are two different types of human rights contention. Argentina and Guatemala experienced national human rights movements, led by human rights organizations and focused on general human rights problems and solutions.

The other countries I studied in the region (Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Venezuela) experienced ...


Turn Up The Volume: The Amplification Of Shame (Abstract), Baekkwan Park, Amanda Murdie, David Davis Oct 2015

Turn Up The Volume: The Amplification Of Shame (Abstract), Baekkwan Park, Amanda Murdie, David Davis

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

One important strategy that HROs, and other actors, employ to call attention to human rights abuses around the world is “naming and shaming.” By calling attention to governments for their human rights violations, HROs hope to galvanize world public opinion and increase pressure on these states to halt abuses. While some HROs, like Amnesty International, communicate directly with their large membership bases, the vast majority of HROs rely on the international media to communicate their message to the international community.

Issuing reports and press releases is a major part of their strategy the international community aware of abuses The more ...


Catholic Social Teaching And Economic Rights (Abstract), John Sniegocki Oct 2015

Catholic Social Teaching And Economic Rights (Abstract), John Sniegocki

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

Catholic Social Teaching (CST) has much to contribute to ongoing discussions of human rights. One important feature of CST is its holistic understanding of human rights, which includes social and economic rights along with political/civil rights. This paper will explore the understandings of economic rights and of economic democracy that are developed in the Catholic social tradition, with particular attention to the thought of Pope John Paul II and Pope Francis.

Some implications of these concepts for current realities in the United States and globally will be highlighted. Attention will also be given to critics of economic rights and ...


De-Centering The Human: Moroccan Islamists And Human Rights (Abstract), Ahmed Khanani Oct 2015

De-Centering The Human: Moroccan Islamists And Human Rights (Abstract), Ahmed Khanani

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

In a critical contribution to contemporary rights conversations, Blattberg argues that “human rights talk” is simply too “thin” (2009). In particular, he argues that a flaw in scholarly conversations is the move to abstraction: the human is insufficient because it is impersonal. Blattberg lodges this criticism against a host of liberal thinkers, including Nussbaum and Walzer, and contends that the move to abstraction hinders calls to justice insofar as it fails to invest actors in the plights of other people. Yet, even as Blattberg calls to personalize the people to be protected, he does not elaborate on how to flesh ...


Religious Freedom And The Right To Convert: Laws Against Forcible Or Induced Conversion In India (Abstract), Laura Dudley Jenkins Oct 2015

Religious Freedom And The Right To Convert: Laws Against Forcible Or Induced Conversion In India (Abstract), Laura Dudley Jenkins

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

In early 2015 several Hindu nationalist leaders India have called for a national law against forcible or induced conversion. Laws against “forcible conversion” have been proposed and enacted an increasing number of Indian states in recent years. Some laws include higher penalties for conversions of lower castes or women, reinforcing paternalistic assumptions that they lack the agency or ability to determine their own religion. Based on their timing, anti-conversion laws seem to be politically motivated, used to rally the Hindu majority during elections by playing on fears of their declining numbers and potential threats of mass conversions. Both proponents and ...


Reciprocal Critique: A Dialectical Engagement Of Theology And Human Rights Discourse (Abstract), Diane Yeager Oct 2015

Reciprocal Critique: A Dialectical Engagement Of Theology And Human Rights Discourse (Abstract), Diane Yeager

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

Nicholas Wolterstorff puts the problem baldly: “The relation of Christians to human rights is a troubled relationship. It was not always so; it became so in the twentieth century.” A reviewer has accurately (if perhaps overdramatically) pointed out that “the assumption that rights talk is anathema to theology” functions as the ”chief impetus” propelling Ethna Regan’s ambitious and provocative Theology and the Boundary Discourse of Human Rights (2010).

While much of the discussion generated by Regan’s argument has centered on her efforts to show the constructive convergence of moral theology and the human rights movement (which she manages ...


Putting It On The Line: Social Justice Frameworks For Human Rights Fieldwork (Abstract), Michael Loadenthal Oct 2015

Putting It On The Line: Social Justice Frameworks For Human Rights Fieldwork (Abstract), Michael Loadenthal

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

Research methodology is often understood as a dry, sterile arena of IRB forms and transcription. While this is a common portrayal, things get a fair bit livelier when our field work runs amuck of extrajudicial assassinations, police infiltration and academic isolationism. Investigating social movements and individual respondents who are actively engaged in criminality presents challenging dilemmas to researchers attempting to gain respond trust while simultaneous avoid repressive State security forces. In this discussion, I will examine two venues in which this difficult navigation surfaced: ethnographically investigating Palestinian armed fighters (Nablus: 2006-2007), and interviewing clandestine Animal Liberation Front (ALF) activists (UK ...


Status Of Public Access To Government Information As An International Human Right (Abstract), Amin Amiri Oct 2015

Status Of Public Access To Government Information As An International Human Right (Abstract), Amin Amiri

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

Freedom of information, according to which the public has a right to have access to government-held information, is largely considered as a tool for improving transparency and accountability in governments, and as a requirement of self-governance and good governance. So far, more than ninety countries have recognized citizens’ right to have access to public information. This recognition often took place through the adoption of an act referred to as “freedom of information act”, “access to public records act,” and so on.

Some steps have been taken at the national and international level towards the recognition of freedom of information as ...


Detaining Dialogue: Framing Treatment During The 2013 Guantánamo Hunger Strike (Abstract), Kristen Traynor Oct 2015

Detaining Dialogue: Framing Treatment During The 2013 Guantánamo Hunger Strike (Abstract), Kristen Traynor

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

In recent years, prisoner treatment during the “War on Terror” has re-emerged as a prominent topic in news headlines and government debate. However, the media’s framing of such treatment toward prisoners at Guantánamo Bay has received scant scholarly attention compared to that of Abu Ghraib.

With a focus on elite and media framing of treatment during the prisoner hunger strike from February to August of 2013, the goal of this paper is to explain whether government portrayal of prisoner treatment influenced the way the media framed the situation or whether the media acted with more autonomy. In the study ...


The Potentiality Of A Digital Revolution: Alienated Activists And The Surveillance State (Abstract), Jennifer Grubbs Oct 2015

The Potentiality Of A Digital Revolution: Alienated Activists And The Surveillance State (Abstract), Jennifer Grubbs

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

The following paper will examine the ways in which digital media is used by both activists engaged in struggles of inequity as well as the State. Specifically, the paper focuses on the use of digital media in the antiracist organizing following the murders of Trayvon Martin in Sanford, Florida, Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri and Eric Garner in Staten Island, New York. Activists relied on digital media to share information, narratives, as well as create networks for mobilization. The State relied on digital media to provide counter-narratives and promulgate a fear-based rhetoric depicting activists as “looters.”

This paper emphasizes the ...


Human Rights In The Digital Age: Opportunities And Constraints (Abstract), Mahmood Monshipouri Oct 2015

Human Rights In The Digital Age: Opportunities And Constraints (Abstract), Mahmood Monshipouri

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

By making information more accessible than ever before, digital technologies have come to shape societies and cultures in many respects. These technologies also offer tools for resistance and change that can be effectively deployed to influence existing power relations. People around the world have increasingly used digital media to present political reactions against authoritarian rule or to speak out against failed policies. In contrast to the all-too familiar centralized, vertically integrated social movements, theories Social Movements argue for a new way of doing politics—namely, “network politics.” More importance is attached to social and cultural concerns in these movements, and ...


On Solid Ground: Evaluating The Effects Of Foundational Arguments On Human Rights Attitudes (Abstract), Stephen Arves, Joe Braun Oct 2015

On Solid Ground: Evaluating The Effects Of Foundational Arguments On Human Rights Attitudes (Abstract), Stephen Arves, Joe Braun

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

What makes some human rights campaigns denouncing prisoner abuse and torture more effective than others? Specifically, what convinces individuals to support, accept, and take action on behalf of calls to stop prisoner abuse and torture? Some normative theoretical literature has argued that justifications for human rights matter, with multiple traditions offering their own versions of rights foundationalism Other theoretical literature, however, has argued that foundations used to legitimate human rights are unimportant. Despite these theoretical arguments, there is a dearth of empirical investigation into the actual appeal of different foundational arguments. This is surprising, because foundational arguments by their nature ...


Silencing Women’S Agency And Forgetting Sexual Violence: Challenges In Realizing Women Survivors’ Human Rights (Abstract), Katarina Lucas Oct 2015

Silencing Women’S Agency And Forgetting Sexual Violence: Challenges In Realizing Women Survivors’ Human Rights (Abstract), Katarina Lucas

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

Almost twenty years after the signing of the Dayton Peace Accords, which ended the physical violence of the Bosnian War, there remains minimal success in effectively realizing the social and economic human rights of women survivors of wartime sexual violence. Women survivors across ethnic groups continue to have limited or no access to health, social and economic services they are entitled to under international law, essential for their empowerment and agency as rights-holders. Employing a gender lens and findings based on interviews and an in-depth review of secondary resources, this research uses the stalled draft Programme for Victims of Wartime ...


Lights, Camera, Policy? Examining Celebrity-Driven Anti-Sex Trafficking Campaigns (Abstract), Samantha Majic Oct 2015

Lights, Camera, Policy? Examining Celebrity-Driven Anti-Sex Trafficking Campaigns (Abstract), Samantha Majic

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

Celebrities—persons who attract large audiences and are well known in the realm of popular culture (sports, entertainment, and fashion)—are increasingly vocal about sex trafficking. Although they often lack knowledge about or experience with the issue, they commonly testify before Congress, serve as Goodwill Ambassadors for the UN, and act in public service announcements (PSA), to name just some examples. As a result, celebrities arguably play a role in shaping related policy developments, namely by fostering particular discourses about the issue.

To explore celebrities’ engagement with sex trafficking, my paper considers a very prominent case: Demi Moore’s and ...


Double Jeopardy: The Rights Of Refugees In Marginalized Communities In The Middle East (Abstract), Eugene Sensenig-Dabbous Oct 2015

Double Jeopardy: The Rights Of Refugees In Marginalized Communities In The Middle East (Abstract), Eugene Sensenig-Dabbous

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

The plight of Syrian, Iraqi, and Palestinian refugees in Lebanon was been well documented in recent years. Less attention has been paid to the impact these large refugee populations have had on the already marginalized regions in the northern (Akkar), eastern (Bakaa), and southern (Tyre & Nabatiye) parts of the country. Basic human rights such as education, health care, childhood development, family, employment, and equal protection before the law are being undermined through the ‘double burden’ of a largely unregulated and under-serviced refugee population, which is now threatening to exceed 2 million by the end of 2015.

This paper will deal ...