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2005

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Articles 1 - 30 of 59

Full-Text Articles in Policy Design, Analysis, and Evaluation

Qalys And Policy Evaluation: A New Perspective, Matthew D. Adler Dec 2005

Qalys And Policy Evaluation: A New Perspective, Matthew D. Adler

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

“QALYs” (Quality-Adjusted Life Years) are a metric for health and longevity very widely employed by health researchers. Surveys are used to assign health states a quality ranking on zero-one scale, with zero representing a health state no better than death and one perfect health. The total QALY value of a health profile is calculated as the time spent in its component health states, each weighted by its quality. Until a few years ago, despite the huge academic literature on QALY measurement, this approach was seldom used by policymakers in the U.S. But there have been recent signs of governmental ...


Livestock, Liberalization, And Democracy: Constraints And Opportunities For Rural Livestock Producers In Reforming Uganda, Robin L. Turner Nov 2005

Livestock, Liberalization, And Democracy: Constraints And Opportunities For Rural Livestock Producers In Reforming Uganda, Robin L. Turner

Scholarship and Professional Work - LAS

This paper explores the policy environment surrounding livestock policy improvements in Uganda, a country that has undergone substantial reforms in the last 15 years. It aims to identify opportunities for pro-poor interventions—reforms that would improve the livelihoods of poor rural livestock producers. Towards this end, the paper reviews challenges facing for livestock producers and analyzes the broad political economic context in which livestock sector dynamics are situated. The adoption and implementation of pro-poor livestock sector interventions are in some ways constrained and, in others, enabled by civil conflict in several parts of the country, the semi-authoritarian nature of the ...


Equity Analysis And Natural Hazards Policy, Matthew D. Adler Nov 2005

Equity Analysis And Natural Hazards Policy, Matthew D. Adler

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

What is an “equitable” policy for mitigating the impacts of hurricanes, earthquakes, floods, and other natural hazards? Economists tend to see “equity” or “distribution” as irreducibly political and subjective. But, in truth, equity analysis and cost-benefit analysis are on a par. Both require a normative justification. Moreover, normative argument can help us structure equity analysis, just as it can cost-benefit analysis. This chapter, written for a forthcoming book on natural hazards policy after Katrina, argues that equity is a normative consideration distinct from efficiency or overall well-being. It then argues that equity is individualistic, not group-based; ex post, not ex ...


Federalism And Antitrust Reform, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Oct 2005

Federalism And Antitrust Reform, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Currently the Antitrust Modernization Commission is considering numerous proposals for adjusting the relationship between federal antitrust authority and state regulation. This essay examines two areas that have produced a significant amount of state-federal conflict: state regulation of insurance and the state action immunity for general state regulation. It argues that no principle of efficiency, regulatory theory, or federalism justifies the McCarran-Ferguson Act, which creates an antitrust immunity for state regulation of insurance. What few benefits the Act confers could be fully realized by an appropriate interpretation of the state action doctrine. Second, the current formulation of the antitrust state action ...


The Politic 2005 Fall, The Politic, Inc. Oct 2005

The Politic 2005 Fall, The Politic, Inc.

The Politic

No abstract provided.


Discounts And Exclusions, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Aug 2005

Discounts And Exclusions, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The discounting practices of dominant firms has emerged as one of the most problematic areas of private antitrust enforcement against single-firm conduct. The most difficult discount practices to assess are bundled, or multi-product discounts in situations where no significant rival produces every product that is included in the bundle. A debate has emerged over whether such discounts are properly assessed under a legal test that analogizes them to predatory pricing or to tying. Defendants typically prefer predatory pricing analogies, requiring a showing that the price of the assembled bundle was below a relevant measure of cost, such as marginal cost ...


The African Telecommunications Union: A Pan-African Approach To Telecommunications Reform, Patricia K. Mccormick Aug 2005

The African Telecommunications Union: A Pan-African Approach To Telecommunications Reform, Patricia K. Mccormick

Communication Faculty Research Publications

This article examines the organisational structure and strategic plans of the African Telecommunica- tions Union (ATU). Although the ATU has been restructured to include private telecommunications entities as asso- ciate members, it remains essentially an inter-governmental agency. The article assesses the benefits of a regional approach to telecommunications reform and proposes that regional economic organisations replace the nation states as members of the ATU. Although the goals of the ATU, as articulated in its strategic plans are laudable, clearly de- fined benchmarks and specific strategies to achieve them are needed to make the organisation more effective.


The Politic 2005 Summer, The Politic, Inc. Jul 2005

The Politic 2005 Summer, The Politic, Inc.

The Politic

No abstract provided.


Brief 19: The Dean’S Role In Faculty Evaluation, New England Resource Center For Higher Education, University Of Massachusetts Boston Jun 2005

Brief 19: The Dean’S Role In Faculty Evaluation, New England Resource Center For Higher Education, University Of Massachusetts Boston

New England Resource Center for Higher Education Publications

Faculty work continues to change in response to the increased emphases on diversity requirements in undergraduate education, partnerships between academic and student affairs, and computer technology (O’Meara, et al, 2003). As even more is learned about strategies for the educational success of their students, faculty will be counted on to tailor their skills and pedagogies to new populations of students. At the same time, colleges and universities must keep pace with these changes by ensuring that expectations about faculty work are clearly defined and are reflected in evaluation and reward structures—and that faculty are supported in their efforts ...


Unilateral Refusals To License In The U.S., Herbert J. Hovenkamp, Mark D. Janis, Mark A. Lemley Jun 2005

Unilateral Refusals To License In The U.S., Herbert J. Hovenkamp, Mark D. Janis, Mark A. Lemley

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Most antitrust claims relating to intellectual property involve challenges to agreements, licensing practices or affirmative conduct involving the use or disposition of the intellectual property rights or the products they cover. But sometimes an antitrust claim centers on an intellectual property owner's refusal to use or license an intellectual property right, perhaps coupled with efforts to enforce the intellectual property right against infringers. The allegation may be that the intellectual property right is so essential to competition that it must be licensed across the board, or that a refusal to license it to one particular party was discriminatory, or ...


Generalist Function In Intelligence Analysis, F. Matthew Mihelic May 2005

Generalist Function In Intelligence Analysis, F. Matthew Mihelic

Faculty Publications

While there has been an increasing need to integrate and synthesize the rapidly expanding complexity within intelligence analysis, there has developed an antithetical contemporary deemphasis of generalist orientation and function that can decrease analytical effectiveness. Increases in knowledge and information have naturally led to an increased demand for specialization with consequent increased influence of specialty experts, but this has been at the expense of generalist function, which is becoming increasingly limited to progressively higher administrative levels. A generalist is more than an individual with an eclectic background, rather, successful generalists are best understood by their functional characteristics which include a ...


Public Safety Communications Center Staffing: Do We Have An Emergency?, Steven L. Herrin May 2005

Public Safety Communications Center Staffing: Do We Have An Emergency?, Steven L. Herrin

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The 911 Public Safety Communications Specialist, operator, call taker, dispatcher, or whatever title these behind-the-scenes professionals operate under, they are indeed, the first public safety responder. Whether it is for police protection during criminal activity, fire extinguishment to save a burning house and rescue the victims, or paramedic treatment to remediate a life-threatening medical incident, the first contact the vast majority of these callers will have is with the 911 System.


Dr. Jeff Clawson, president of the National Academies of Emergency Dispatch, and creator of the Medical Priority Dispatch System (MPDS) first coined the term “first, first responder”1 to ...


Examining The Basis For Change In Clark County Non-Conforming Zone Change Process, Was It Needed?, Maria D. Kaseko May 2005

Examining The Basis For Change In Clark County Non-Conforming Zone Change Process, Was It Needed?, Maria D. Kaseko

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

This study reviews Clark County's non-conforming zone change process from 1990 to 2002. A non-conforming zone change, sometimes known as a non-conforming zone boundary amendment is a proposed request that is not within the range of residential densities and/or non-residential intensities indicated on the applicable land use plan map, master plan, or concept plan. This research explores and examines two questions raised by the Clark County's new implementation plan, which was approved in April 2003 to amend the non-conforming zone change process. 1) Clark County assumed there was a public perception that non-conforming zone changes were being ...


Structural Break In India's Growth, Ambrish A. Dongre, Neeraj Hatekar Apr 2005

Structural Break In India's Growth, Ambrish A. Dongre, Neeraj Hatekar

Ambrish A Dongre

How significant was the shift in the economic growth performance that occurred in the 1950s, relative to the shift that is supposed to have occurred in the 1980s? If one were to identify the single most significant break date in India’s growth performance, does it turn out to be 1951-52 or 1980-81 or some such year in the post 1980s? The hypothesis in this paper is that the single most important trend break in GDP growth is to be found not in the 1980s, as the existing literature claims, but in the early 1950s. This is not because the ...


Safeguards In A World Of Ambient Intelligence: Outline Of A Research Agenda On The European Level, Michael Friedewald Apr 2005

Safeguards In A World Of Ambient Intelligence: Outline Of A Research Agenda On The European Level, Michael Friedewald

Michael Friedewald

Ambient Intelligence is a vision of the future information so- ciety stemming from the convergence of ubiquitous computing, ubiqui- tous communication and intelligent user-friendly interfaces. Beyond the possible benefits that are associated with this vision, it also requires a proper balance of a complex diversity of interests and values. These are related to access to information, protection of the individual sphere, trust, security, protection against discrimination, protection of identity, free speech, protection against intrusions by public and private actors and so on. The design of such a balance demands an approach which is not only driven by one or two ...


“As Tough As It Gets”: Women In Boston Politics, 1921-2004, Kristen A. Petersen, Carol Hardy-Fanta Phd, Karla Armenoff Apr 2005

“As Tough As It Gets”: Women In Boston Politics, 1921-2004, Kristen A. Petersen, Carol Hardy-Fanta Phd, Karla Armenoff

Publications from the Center for Women in Politics and Public Policy

This study seeks to answer the question: Given the wealth of talent and resources women possess—and the state offers—why is it so tough for women to gain representation in Boston City Hall? To answer this question, and to document the efforts women have made over almost 100 years, we examine the history of women who have run for and won—or lost—election to the Boston City Council in the 20th century. How does the structure and culture of a given urban political arena (i.e., “Boston politics”) affect women’s opportunities as elected officials? What is women ...


The Politic 2005 Spring, The Politic, Inc. Apr 2005

The Politic 2005 Spring, The Politic, Inc.

The Politic

No abstract provided.


Identifying Robust, Parsimonious Neighborhood Indicators, George Galster, Chris Hayes, Jennifer Johnson Mar 2005

Identifying Robust, Parsimonious Neighborhood Indicators, George Galster, Chris Hayes, Jennifer Johnson

Urban Studies and Planning Faculty Research Publications

Identifying a few indicators that summarily tracked key dimensions of neighborhoods would be invaluable for neighborhood monitoring and measuring impacts of interventions. Our goal is to search empirically for such robust, parsimonious indicators. In five cities we analyze the interrelationships among a broad set of census tract indicators related to: mortgage market activity; home prices; jobs and firms; demographic, socio-economic, and housing stock characteristics; crime; and public assistance and health. Through factor analysis we identify four to six neighborhood dimensions among these indicators that are common across cities. Using regression we identify a parsimonious number of indicators that are inexpensive ...


Against 'Individual Risk': A Sympathetic Critique Of Risk Assessment, Matthew D. Adler Mar 2005

Against 'Individual Risk': A Sympathetic Critique Of Risk Assessment, Matthew D. Adler

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

"Individual risk" currently plays a major role in risk assessment and in the regulatory practices of the health and safety agencies that employ risk assessment, such as EPA, FDA, OSHA, NRC, CPSC, and others. Risk assessors use the term "population risk" to mean the number of deaths caused by some hazard. By contrast, "individual risk" is the incremental probability of death that the hazard imposes on some particular person. Regulatory decision procedures keyed to individual risk are widespread. This is true both for the regulation of toxic chemicals (the heartland of risk assessment), and for other health hazards, such as ...


The Accelerating Degradation Of American Criminal Codes, Paul H. Robinson, Michael T. Cahill Mar 2005

The Accelerating Degradation Of American Criminal Codes, Paul H. Robinson, Michael T. Cahill

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

No abstract provided.


Monitoring And Evaluation For Cost-Effectiveness In Development Management, Paul Clements Jan 2005

Monitoring And Evaluation For Cost-Effectiveness In Development Management, Paul Clements

Paul Clements

No abstract provided.


Model Polityki Rozwoju Regionalnego A Konkurencyjność Województw Na Przykładzie Województwa Małopolskiego, Dariusz Woźniak Jan 2005

Model Polityki Rozwoju Regionalnego A Konkurencyjność Województw Na Przykładzie Województwa Małopolskiego, Dariusz Woźniak

Dariusz Woźniak

An abstract of unpublished (avalaible only in printed form) ph.d. thesis, which was directed to evaluation of regional policy in Poland, in years 2001-2003. In abstract the main findings from the dissertation were placed.


‘Empowering Europe’S Citizens’? Towards A Charter For Services Of General Interest, Judith Clifton, Daniel Díaz-Fuentes, Francisco Comín Jan 2005

‘Empowering Europe’S Citizens’? Towards A Charter For Services Of General Interest, Judith Clifton, Daniel Díaz-Fuentes, Francisco Comín

Judith Clifton

This article analyses the development of the European Union (EU) project of a Charter for Services of General Interest (SGI) from the mid-1990s to the publication of the White Paper on Services of General Interest and the draft European Constitution in 2004. Though service charters are often associated with New Public Management (NPM) reforms related to privatization, they are also an integral part of the process of EU institution building, and need to be understood alongside developments such as the Charter of Fundamental Rights. Using a four-stage model of international NPM convergence analysis four phases of the Charter for SGI ...


Rethinking The Puzzles Of The Science-Policy Nexus: From Knowledge Utilization And Science Technology Studies To Types Of Boundary Arrangements, Robert Hoppe Jan 2005

Rethinking The Puzzles Of The Science-Policy Nexus: From Knowledge Utilization And Science Technology Studies To Types Of Boundary Arrangements, Robert Hoppe

Robert Hoppe

No abstract provided.


Science/Policy Boundaries: A Changing Division Of Labour In Dutch Scientific Policy Advice., Robert Hoppe, Willem Halffman Jan 2005

Science/Policy Boundaries: A Changing Division Of Labour In Dutch Scientific Policy Advice., Robert Hoppe, Willem Halffman

Robert Hoppe

No abstract provided.


Rethinking Regional Innovation And Change: Path Dependency Or Regional Breakthrough?, Gerhard Fuchs, Philip Shapira Jan 2005

Rethinking Regional Innovation And Change: Path Dependency Or Regional Breakthrough?, Gerhard Fuchs, Philip Shapira

Philip Shapira

Rethinking Regional Innovation and Change is an edited volume bringing together papers from leading international scholars in the field of regional development and policy. Contributors to the book examine the interactions between path-dependent developments, institutions, and governance structures in influencing regional innovation capacity. The invariably complex interrelationships between technical and industrial development paths and regional institutions are explored, using cases from both highly developed and lagging regions. The book offers an assessment of the extent to which regional innovative capacity can be increased by strengthening, re-orientating, or creating institutions and policies and examines opportunities for reflexive practice at the regional ...


Perspectives Of Ambient Intelligence In The Home Environment, Michael Friedewald, Olivier Da Costa, Yves Punie, Petteri Alahuhta, Sirkka Heinonen Jan 2005

Perspectives Of Ambient Intelligence In The Home Environment, Michael Friedewald, Olivier Da Costa, Yves Punie, Petteri Alahuhta, Sirkka Heinonen

Michael Friedewald

Ambient Intelligence is a vision of the future information society stemming from the convergence of ubiquitous computing, ubiquitous communication and intelligent user-friendly interfaces. It offers an op- portunity to realise an old dream, i.e. the smart or intelligent home. Will it fulfil the promises or is it just an illusion – offering apparently easy living while actually increasing the complexity of life? This article touches upon this question by discussing the technologies, applications and social implications of ambient intelligence in the home environment. It explores how Ambient Intelligence may change our way of life. It concludes that there are great ...


Science And Technology Roadmapping For Policy Intelligence: Lessons For Future Projects, Olivier Da Costa, Mark Boden, Michael Friedewald Jan 2005

Science And Technology Roadmapping For Policy Intelligence: Lessons For Future Projects, Olivier Da Costa, Mark Boden, Michael Friedewald

Michael Friedewald

No abstract provided.


Limits Of Truth: Exploring Epistemological Approaches To Argumentation, Michael H.G. Hoffmann Jan 2005

Limits Of Truth: Exploring Epistemological Approaches To Argumentation, Michael H.G. Hoffmann

Michael H.G. Hoffmann

Some proponents of epistemological approaches to argumentation (Biro, Siegel, Lumer, Goldman) assume that it should be possible to develop non-relative criteria of argument evaluation. By contrast, this paper argues that any evaluation of an argument depends (a) on the cognitive situation of the evaluator, (b) on background knowledge that is available for this evaluator in a certain situation, and (c)—in some cases—on the belief-value-system this person shares.


Logical Argument Mapping: A Method For Overcoming Cognitive Problems Of Conflict Management, Michael H.G. Hoffmann Jan 2005

Logical Argument Mapping: A Method For Overcoming Cognitive Problems Of Conflict Management, Michael H.G. Hoffmann

Michael H.G. Hoffmann

A crucial problem of conflict management is that whatever happens in negotiations will be interpreted and framed by stakeholders based on their different belief-value systems and world views. This problem will be discussed in the first part of this article as the main cognitive problem of conflict management. The second part develops a general semiotic solution of this problem, based on Charles Peirce's concept of "diagrammatic reasoning." The basic idea is that by representing one 's thought in diagrams, the conditions that determine interpretations can become visible, we can "experiment" with them, and we can change them eventually. The ...