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Full-Text Articles in Policy Design, Analysis, and Evaluation

Career-Based Influences On Scientific Recognition In The United States And Europe: Longitudinal Evidence From Curriculum Vitae Data, Jan Youtie, Juan Rogers, Thomas Heinze, Philip Shapira, Li Tang Jun 2012

Career-Based Influences On Scientific Recognition In The United States And Europe: Longitudinal Evidence From Curriculum Vitae Data, Jan Youtie, Juan Rogers, Thomas Heinze, Philip Shapira, Li Tang

Philip Shapira

This paper examines how funding patterns, career pathways and collaboration networks influence scientific recognition. We analyze these institutional factors in the early and middle phases of academic careers through comparison of a group of researchers recognized as creative by their peers with a matched group of researchers. Measurement of scientific recognition is based on survey nominations and research prizes in two growing, laboratory-intensive research domains: nanotechnology and human genetics. Curriculum vitae data is used to compare researchers based in the United States and Europe. In the early career model for the United States, we find that scientific recognition is associated ...


A Trans-Atlantic Conversation On Responsible Innovation And Responsible Governance, Sally Randles, Jan Youtie, David Guston, Barbara Harthorn, Chris Newfield, Philip Shapira, Fern Wickson, Arie Rip, René Von Schomberg, Nick Pidgeon Jan 2012

A Trans-Atlantic Conversation On Responsible Innovation And Responsible Governance, Sally Randles, Jan Youtie, David Guston, Barbara Harthorn, Chris Newfield, Philip Shapira, Fern Wickson, Arie Rip, René Von Schomberg, Nick Pidgeon

Philip Shapira

How can innovation be balanced with responsible governance? Responsible innovation and responsible governance are broad concepts which mean different things to different groups. This paper presents the results of a roundtable held at the Society for Nanotechnology and Emerging Technologies (S.NET) 2011 conference with academics and policymakers from Europe and the US. The results of this roundtable discussion raise issues of definition, lack of consensus, and the role of philosophy versus practical intervention.


The Use Of Environmental Health And Safety Research In Nanotechnology Research, Jan Youtie, Alan L. Porter, Philip Shapira, Li Tang, Troy Benn Jan 2011

The Use Of Environmental Health And Safety Research In Nanotechnology Research, Jan Youtie, Alan L. Porter, Philip Shapira, Li Tang, Troy Benn

Philip Shapira

Environmental, health, and safety (EHS) concerns are receiving considerable attention in the development of nanoscience and nanotechnology (nano) R&D, underscored by the perspective that EHS work should be developed alongside the scientific research rather than subsequent to applications. This positioning of nano EHS suggests the importance of early understanding and measurement of the diffusion of nano EHS science. This research examines the diffusion of nano EHS publications, defined through a set of search terms, into a global nanotechnology R&D database developed at Georgia Tech. The results indicate that nano EHS research is growing rapidly although it is orders ...


Graphene Research Profile: Uk And Us Publications, 2000-2010, Philip Shapira, Jan Youtie, Stephen Carley Oct 2010

Graphene Research Profile: Uk And Us Publications, 2000-2010, Philip Shapira, Jan Youtie, Stephen Carley

Philip Shapira

In this document we provide an overview of graphene research that appears in the Web of Science (WOS) during the timeframe 2000 to 2010, inclusive. WOS databases that contain graphene research articles include SCI-EXPANDED, SSCI and A&HCI. The search strategy used in this profile was a simple one: all WOS articles from 2000 to 2010 whose title contained the keyword ‘graphene’ were downloaded and analyzed using VantagePoint textmining software. The search strategy used resulted in a total of 4,706 publications spanning 11 years, 313 journals, 78 countries, 1,433 institutional affiliations and 7,617 authors. After a brief ...


The Emergence Of Social Science Research In Nanotechnology, Philip Shapira, Jan Youtie, Alan L. Porter Feb 2010

The Emergence Of Social Science Research In Nanotechnology, Philip Shapira, Jan Youtie, Alan L. Porter

Philip Shapira

This article examines the development of social science literature focused on the emerging area of nanotechnology. It is guided by the exploratory proposition that early social science work on emerging technologies will draw on science and engineering literature on the technology in question to frame its investigative activities, but as the technologies and societal investments in them progress, social scientists will increasingly develop and draw on their own body of literature. To address this proposition the authors create a database of nanotechnology-social science literature by merging articles from the Web of Science’s Social Science Citation Index and Arts and ...


Is There A Shift To ‘Active Nanostructures'?, Vrishali Subramanian, Alan L. Porter, Jan Youtie, Philip Shapira Jan 2010

Is There A Shift To ‘Active Nanostructures'?, Vrishali Subramanian, Alan L. Porter, Jan Youtie, Philip Shapira

Philip Shapira

It has been suggested that an important transition in the long-run trajectory of nanotechnology discovery and application is a shift from passive to active nanostructures. Such a shift could present increased societal impacts and need new approaches for risk assessment. The National Science Foundation’s (NSF) Active Nanostructures and Nanosystems (ANN) grant solicitation defines an active nanostructure as “An active nanostructure changes or evolves its state during its operation.” Active nanostructures examples include nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), nanomachines, self-healing materials, targeted drugs and chemicals, energy storage devices, and sensors. This paper considers two questions: (1) Is there a “shift” to active ...


The Innovation System And Innovation Policy In The United States, Philip Shapira, Jan Youtie Jan 2010

The Innovation System And Innovation Policy In The United States, Philip Shapira, Jan Youtie

Philip Shapira

The US has a highly decentralized and diverse innovation system, involving multiple actors, including branches of federal and state governments, public agencies, universi-ties, the private sector, and non-profit and intermediary organizations. The system combines a high-level of R&D (with basic research sponsored particularly by federal government agencies) and a strong orientation towards applications and the market. This chapter provides an overview of the US innovation system and policy including a discussion of the components and participants involved in the US innovation system and its trends in innovation governance. The focus of this chapter is primarily on innovation policies with ...


Public Research Lab And Other Scientific Collaborations Of The Manchester City Region: A Bibliometric Analysis, Philip Shapira, Luciano Kay Oct 2009

Public Research Lab And Other Scientific Collaborations Of The Manchester City Region: A Bibliometric Analysis, Philip Shapira, Luciano Kay

Philip Shapira

This working paper examines the characteristics of the research collaborations of the Manchester City-Region, UK, based on a bibliometric analysis of co-authorship patterns of scientific publications published during the period 2006-2008. The paper focuses on Manchester City-Region collaborations with UK public research laboratories, but to place these in context the paper also contains overview analyses of all of the city-region’s research collaborations in the UK and internationally.


Innovation For The Manchester City Region: A Discussion Paper, Philip Shapira, Michael Luger, Elvira Uyarra, Chiara Marzocchi May 2009

Innovation For The Manchester City Region: A Discussion Paper, Philip Shapira, Michael Luger, Elvira Uyarra, Chiara Marzocchi

Philip Shapira

After considering what is meant by innovation, we conceptualize the uses and sources of innovation at the level of a city-region. We suggest that this conceptualization, drawing on frameworks available in the literature, can provide a useful basis both for interpretation and policy operationalization. We then consider examples from practice, drawing on mini-case studies of innovation strategies in selected multi-area metropolitan agglomerations in other countries. This leads to a discussion of grand challenges and implementation problems of innovation facing the Manchester city-region. Finally, we consider implications strategy development and for the Manchester city-region innovation prospectus itself.


Organizational And Institutional Influences On Creativity In Scientific Research, Thomas Heinze, Philip Shapira, Juan D. Rogers, Jacqueline M. Senker Jan 2009

Organizational And Institutional Influences On Creativity In Scientific Research, Thomas Heinze, Philip Shapira, Juan D. Rogers, Jacqueline M. Senker

Philip Shapira

This paper explores institutional and organizational influences on creativity in scientific research. Using a method for identifying creative scientific research accomplishments in two fields of science (nanotechnology and human genetics) in Europe and the US, the paper summarizes results derived from twenty case studies of highly creative research accomplishments, focusing on contextual patterns at the group, organizational, and institutional levels. We find that creative accomplishments are associated with small group size, organizational contexts with sufficient access to a complementary variety of technical skills, stable research sponsorship, timely access to extramural skills and resources, and facilitating leadership. A potential institutional threat ...


Nanotechnology Development In Latin America, Luciano Kay, Philip Shapira Jan 2009

Nanotechnology Development In Latin America, Luciano Kay, Philip Shapira

Philip Shapira

This article investigates the development of nanotechnology in Latin America with a particular focus on Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay. Based on data for nanotechnology research publications and patents and suggesting a framework for analyzing the development of R&D networks, we identify three potential strategies of nanotechnology research collaboration. Then, we seek to identify the balance of emphasis upon each of the three strategies by mapping the current research profile of those four countries. In general, we find that they are implementing policies and programs to develop nanotechnologies but differ in their collaboration strategies, institutional involvement, and level of ...


Technological Diversity, Scientific Excellence And The Location Of Inventive Activities Abroad: The Case Of Nanotechnology, Andrea Fernández-Ribas, Philip Shapira Jan 2009

Technological Diversity, Scientific Excellence And The Location Of Inventive Activities Abroad: The Case Of Nanotechnology, Andrea Fernández-Ribas, Philip Shapira

Philip Shapira

Our contribution to the expanding literature on the globalization of research and innovation is to investigate the extent to which sector-specific developments in an emerging technology (such as increasing interdisciplinarity and complexity) affect inventive activities developed abroad. We look at how technological diversity and scientific excellence of host countries in the field of nanotechnology affect the development of inventive activities by US multinational companies (MNCs). We identify the most active US-based MNCs in nanotechnology-related patenting and examine location decisions of these companies and their international subsidiaries. Econometric results confirm our hypothesis that technological breadth of host countries positively influence the ...


Emergence Of Nanodistricts In The United States: Path Dependency Or New Opportunities?, Philip Shapira, Jan Youtie Aug 2008

Emergence Of Nanodistricts In The United States: Path Dependency Or New Opportunities?, Philip Shapira, Jan Youtie

Philip Shapira

Multiple economic development theories suggest that research and innovation in emerging technologies will cluster in certain locations rather then distributing equally among all regions. If this is the case, this distributional pattern has implications for where future economic opportunities as well as future risks will be concentrated. In this paper, we probe nanotechnology (hereafter nano) research and commercialization at a regional level. The study examines the top 30 US “nanodistricts” or metropolitan areas which lead in nanotechnology research activity over the 1990-2006 timeframe. We explore the factors underlying the emergence of these 30 metropolitan areas through exploratory cluster analysis. We ...


Eureka! Winning Ways: Analysis Of Early Client Experiences, Lynne Manrique, Kamau Bobb, David Roessner, Jan Youtie, Philip Shapira Aug 2008

Eureka! Winning Ways: Analysis Of Early Client Experiences, Lynne Manrique, Kamau Bobb, David Roessner, Jan Youtie, Philip Shapira

Philip Shapira

The Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has a longstanding record of helping small- and medium-sized (SME) manufacturers to identify and implement technologies and practices that improve manufacturing efficiency and product quality. More recently, MEP has begun to build a growth services portfolio to assist manufacturers with the development of new products, new customers, and new markets. Its first growth services offering, called Eureka! Winning Ways (E!WW), was piloted in late 2006 and has been implemented widely since the beginning of 2008. To explore the nature of early E!WW client experiences ...


Refining Search Terms For Nanotechnology, Alan L. Porter, Jan Youtie, Philip Shapira, David J. Schoeneck May 2008

Refining Search Terms For Nanotechnology, Alan L. Porter, Jan Youtie, Philip Shapira, David J. Schoeneck

Philip Shapira

The ability to delineate the boundaries of an emerging technology is central to obtaining an understanding of the technology’s research paths and commercialization prospects. Nowhere is this more relevant than in the case of nanotechnology (hereafter identified as “nano”) given its current rapid growth and multidisciplinary nature. (Under the rubric of nanotechnology, we also include nanoscience and nanoengineering.) Past efforts have utilized several strategies, including simple term search for the prefix nano, complex lexical and citation-based approaches, and bootstrapping techniques. This research introduces a modularized Boolean approach to defining nanotechnology which has been applied to several research and patenting ...


R&D Policy In The United States: The Promotion Of Nanotechnology, Philip Shapira, Jue Wang Nov 2007

R&D Policy In The United States: The Promotion Of Nanotechnology, Philip Shapira, Jue Wang

Philip Shapira

This case study reviews the evolution of nanotechnology policies and programmes in the United States with a particular focus on three thematic areas: governance, interactions among R&D policies, and interaction between R&D policy and non-R&D policies. Federal R&D policy in nanotechnology has moved through several stages, including initial exploration before the 1980s, the promotion of scientific and technological breakthroughs in the 1980s, policy development in the 1990s and multiagency national initiatives in the 2000s. Since 2001, the major federal R&D policy mechanism in nanotechnology in the US has been the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI). NNI ...


Defining A Research Domain In An Emerging Technology: Vaccine Research In The State Of Georgia, Shannon Barker, Jan Youtie, Philip Shapira Oct 2007

Defining A Research Domain In An Emerging Technology: Vaccine Research In The State Of Georgia, Shannon Barker, Jan Youtie, Philip Shapira

Philip Shapira

This paper presents an approach for measuring emerging technologies in the context of mature industries. In particular, this article focuses on vaccine-related research. Although vaccines comprise an established industry, new developments in biotechnology have led to emerging area in vaccine R&D, including therapeutic vaccines; subunit and DNA-based vaccines; advances in vaccine delivery; and new methodologies for vaccine design, manufacturing, and testing. Defining this field is challenging because it spans multiple disciplines, including biotechnology, public health, and epidemiology. To gain an understanding of the field as it is related to biomedical research, we focused our study parameters to concentrate on these aspects of vaccine ...


Rethinking Regional Innovation And Change: Path Dependency Or Regional Breakthrough?, Gerhard Fuchs, Philip Shapira Jan 2005

Rethinking Regional Innovation And Change: Path Dependency Or Regional Breakthrough?, Gerhard Fuchs, Philip Shapira

Philip Shapira

Rethinking Regional Innovation and Change is an edited volume bringing together papers from leading international scholars in the field of regional development and policy. Contributors to the book examine the interactions between path-dependent developments, institutions, and governance structures in influencing regional innovation capacity. The invariably complex interrelationships between technical and industrial development paths and regional institutions are explored, using cases from both highly developed and lagging regions. The book offers an assessment of the extent to which regional innovative capacity can be increased by strengthening, re-orientating, or creating institutions and policies and examines opportunities for reflexive practice at the regional ...


Learning From Science And Technology Policy Evaluation: Experiences From The United States And Europe, Philip Shapira, Stefan Kuhlmann Jan 2003

Learning From Science And Technology Policy Evaluation: Experiences From The United States And Europe, Philip Shapira, Stefan Kuhlmann

Philip Shapira

Learning from Science and Technology Policy Evaluation, edited by Philip Shapira and Stefan Kuhlmann, presents US and European experiences and insights on the evaluation of policies and programs to foster research, innovation, and technology (RIT). In recent years, policymakers have promoted RIT policies to accelerate scientific and technological development in emerging fields, encourage new patterns of research collaboration and commercialization and enhance national and regional economic competitiveness. At the same time, budgetary pressures and new public management approaches have strengthened demands for RIT performance measurement and evaluation. The contributors, leading experts in science and technology policy and evaluation, analyze and ...


Us Manufacturing Extension Partnerships: Technology Policy Reinvented, Philip Shapira Jan 2001

Us Manufacturing Extension Partnerships: Technology Policy Reinvented, Philip Shapira

Philip Shapira

The US manufacturing extension partnership (MEP) is examined as an example of the new partnership paradigm in US technology policy. The MEP provides technology assistance services, particularly for small and medium-sized enterprises. Influenced by aims to reinvent government and reorient technology policy, the MEP seeks to be comprehensive, collaborative, and demand-driven. However, the MEP’s partnered management style is constrained by political and industrial systems that continue to operate on traditional lines. After probing these tensions, the paper offers insights for the MEP’s future development and for other technology and innovation policies that seek to emulate the MEP’s ...