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Full-Text Articles in Policy Design, Analysis, and Evaluation

The Story Of Colours In Traffic Accidents, Singapore Management University Aug 2019

The Story Of Colours In Traffic Accidents, Singapore Management University

Perspectives@SMU

Research reveals yellow taxis cause fewer accidents than blue taxis in Singapore


Designing For Sustainable Outcomes: Espousing Behavioral Change Into Co-Production Programs, Ishani Mukherjee, Nilanjana Mukherjee Sep 2018

Designing For Sustainable Outcomes: Espousing Behavioral Change Into Co-Production Programs, Ishani Mukherjee, Nilanjana Mukherjee

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

This paper uses a policy design perspective with which to examine the formulation of programmes that are based on the concept of co-production. In doing so, the paper reviews essential literature on policy design and co-production to identify that a limited focus on outcomes and specifically how behavioural change can make these outcomes sustainable represents a major gap in the current discussion of co-production. We firstly argue that in designing programmes involving co-production, outcomes need to be considered at the initial design stages where broad policy objectives are being defined. Secondly, we argue that for these outcomes to be sustainable ...


Capacities And Customization In Policy Design, Ishani Mukherjee, Azad Bali Aug 2018

Capacities And Customization In Policy Design, Ishani Mukherjee, Azad Bali

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

Most policy designers face complex and intractable challenges that require assembling the mostappropriate set of policy instruments to address complex policy goals, especially when sometimesthese goals may emerge out of unforeseen policy problems. In the ideal case of policy design, themost suitable instruments can be chosen and assembled into new policy packages that are appropriately calibrated and customized to address the new policy problem context. Such exceptionaldesign circumstances would also mean that relevant policy actors and organizations engaged inthe design activity are endowed with the necessary analytical, operational and political policycapacities.


Policy Design And Non-Design: A Continuum Of Formulation Modalities, Michael Howlett, Ishani Mukherjee Aug 2018

Policy Design And Non-Design: A Continuum Of Formulation Modalities, Michael Howlett, Ishani Mukherjee

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

Public policies are the result of efforts made by governments to alter aspects of behavior—both that of their own agents and of society at large—in order to carry out some end or purpose. They are comprised of complex arrangements of policy goals and policy means matched through some decision-making process. These policymaking efforts can be more, or less, systematic in attempting to match ends and means in a logical fashion or can result from much less systematic or rational processes. ‘Policy design’ implies a knowledge-based process in which the choice of means or mechanisms through which policy goals ...


Crowdsourcing: A New Tool For Policy-Making?, Araz Taeihagh Nov 2017

Crowdsourcing: A New Tool For Policy-Making?, Araz Taeihagh

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

Crowdsourcing is rapidly evolving and applied in situations where ideas, labour, opinion or expertise of large groups of people is used. Crowdsourcing is now used in various policy-making initiatives; however, this use has usually focused on open collaboration platforms and specific stages of the policy process, such as agenda-setting and policy evaluations. Other forms of crowdsourcing have been neglected in policy-making, with a few exceptions. This article examines crowdsourcing as a tool for policy-making and explores the nuances of the technology and its use and implications for different stages of the policy process. The article addresses questions surrounding the role ...


Instrument Constituencies And Public Policy-Making: An Introduction, Daniel Beland, Michael Howlett, Ishani Mukherjee Sep 2017

Instrument Constituencies And Public Policy-Making: An Introduction, Daniel Beland, Michael Howlett, Ishani Mukherjee

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

For many years, policy-making has been envisioned as a process in which subsets of policy actors engage in specific types of interactions involved in the definition of policy problems, the articulation of solutions and their matching or enactment. This activity involves the definition of policy goals (both broad and specific), the creation or identification of the means and mechanisms that need to be implemented to realize these goals, and the set of bureaucratic, partisan, electoral and other political struggles involved in their acceptance and transformation into action. While past research on policy subsystems has often assumed or implied that these ...


Instrument Constituencies And Public Policy-Making: An Introduction, Daniel Beland, Michael Howlett, Ishani Mukherjee Sep 2017

Instrument Constituencies And Public Policy-Making: An Introduction, Daniel Beland, Michael Howlett, Ishani Mukherjee

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

For many years, policy-making has been envisioned as a process in which subsets of policy actors engage in specific types of interactions involved in the definition of policy problems, the articulation of solutions and their matching or enactment. This activity involves the definition of policy goals (both broad and specific), the creation or identification of the means and mechanisms that need to be implemented to realize these goals, and the set of bureaucratic, partisan, electoral and other political struggles involved in their acceptance and transformation into action. While past research on policy subsystems has often assumed or implied that these ...


Examination Of Crowdsourcing As A Tool For Policy Making, Araz Taeihagh Jun 2017

Examination Of Crowdsourcing As A Tool For Policy Making, Araz Taeihagh

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

Crowdsourcing is rapidly evolving and applied in situations where ideas, labour, opinion or expertise of large groups of people are used. Crowdsourcing is now used in various policy making initiatives; however, this use has usually been focused on open collaboration platforms and specific stages of the policy process such as agenda- setting and policy evaluations. Moreover, other forms of crowdsourcing have been neglected in policy making with a few exceptions. This article examines crowdsourcing as a tool for policy making and explores the nuances of the technology and its use and implications for different stages of the policy process. The ...


Policy Learning And Policy Networks In Theory And Practice: The Role Of Policy Brokers In The Indonesian Biodiesel Policy Network, Michael Howlett, Ishani Mukherjee, Joop Koppenjan May 2017

Policy Learning And Policy Networks In Theory And Practice: The Role Of Policy Brokers In The Indonesian Biodiesel Policy Network, Michael Howlett, Ishani Mukherjee, Joop Koppenjan

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

This paper examines how learning has been treated, generally, in policy network theories and what questions have been posed, and answered, about this phenomenon to date. We examine to what extent network characteristics and especially the presence of various types of brokers impede or facilitate policy learning. Next, a case study of the policy network surrounding the sustainability of palm oil biodiesel in Indonesia over the past two decades is presented using social network analysis. This case study focuses on sustainability-oriented policy learning in the Indonesian biodiesel governance network and illustrates how network features and especially forms of brokerage influence ...


Policy Design: From Tools To Patches, Michael Howlett, Ishani Mukherjee Mar 2017

Policy Design: From Tools To Patches, Michael Howlett, Ishani Mukherjee

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

Policy design involves the purposive attempt by governments to link pol-icy instruments or tools to the goals they would like to realize. The studyof policy design focuses on these tools, their advantages and disadvan-tages and better understanding the processes around their selectio n anddeployment in order to improve policy-making efforts and outcomes.The road map for the development of this approach to the policy sciencesstretches from early works in public policy studies around the identifica-tion of policy tools and the classification of instrument types in the 1960sand early 1970s (Design 1.0), to present-day studies that strive to effec-tively formulate ...


Policy Analysis: A Rich Array Of Country And Comparative Insights, Joselyn Muhleisen, Ishani Mukherjee Aug 2016

Policy Analysis: A Rich Array Of Country And Comparative Insights, Joselyn Muhleisen, Ishani Mukherjee

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

The International Library of Policy Analysis (ILPA) series, edited by Iris Geva-May and Michael Howlett, is a collection of books assessing the state of the discipline of policy analysis in eight countries. The books address the academic development of policy analysis, its practical applications, the diverse range of actors involved, and pertinent academic instruction. Alhough the state of policy analysis - and, importantly, the state of policy analysis scholarship - varies considerably in the countries studied, the series is able to sythesise existing knowledge through empirical research and institutional analyses of the governmental and non-governmental organisations that provide policy advice and analysis ...


An Asian Perspective On Policy Instruments: Policy Styles, Governance Modes And Critical Capacity Challenges, Ishani Mukherjee, Michael Howlett Sep 2015

An Asian Perspective On Policy Instruments: Policy Styles, Governance Modes And Critical Capacity Challenges, Ishani Mukherjee, Michael Howlett

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

Does Asia have a distinct policy style? If so, what does it look like, and why does it take the shape it does? This article argues that in the newly reinvigorated emphasis of policy studies on policy instruments and their design lies the basis of an analysis of a dominant policy style in the Asian region, with significant implications for understanding the roles played by specific kinds of policy capacities. There is a distinctly Asian policy style based on a specific pattern of policy capacities and governance modes. In this style, a failure to garner initial policy legitimacy in the ...


An Asian Perspective On Policy Instruments: Policy Styles, Governance Modes And Critical Capacity Challenges, Ishani Mukherjee, Michael Howlett Sep 2015

An Asian Perspective On Policy Instruments: Policy Styles, Governance Modes And Critical Capacity Challenges, Ishani Mukherjee, Michael Howlett

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

Does Asia have a distinct policy style? If so, what does it look like, and why does it take the shape it does? This article argues that in the newly reinvigorated emphasis of policy studies on policy instruments and their design lies the basis of an analysis of a dominant policy style in the Asian region, with significant implications for understanding the roles played by specific kinds of policy capacities. There is a distinctly Asian policy style based on a specific pattern of policy capacities and governance modes. In this style, a failure to garner initial policy legitimacy in the ...


From Tools To Toolkits In Policy Design Studies: The New Design Orientation Towards Policy Formulation Research, Michael Howlett, Ishani Mukherjee, Jun Jie Woo Apr 2015

From Tools To Toolkits In Policy Design Studies: The New Design Orientation Towards Policy Formulation Research, Michael Howlett, Ishani Mukherjee, Jun Jie Woo

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

A roadmap for `new policy design' studies now exists in the orientation which has emerged in recent years towards the formulation of complex policy mixes.The new design orientation focuses on bundles or portfolios of tools and the interactive effects which occur when multiple tools are used over time in policy packages designed to address multiple goals, and upon more complex multi-policy and multi-level design contexts.This review article examines the differences between the `old' instrument orientation and the `new' design one, setting out the current research agenda in this field and its rationale.


Policy Design And Non-Design: Towards A Spectrum Of Policy Formulation Types, Michael Howlett, Ishani Mukherjee Nov 2014

Policy Design And Non-Design: Towards A Spectrum Of Policy Formulation Types, Michael Howlett, Ishani Mukherjee

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

Public policies are the result of efforts made by governments to alter aspects of behaviour—both that of their ownagents and of society at large—in order to carry out some end or purpose. They are comprised of arrangements of policygoals and policy means matched through some decision-making process. These policy-making efforts can be more,or less, systematic in attempting to match ends and means in a logical fashion or can result from much less systematicprocesses. “Policy design” implies a knowledge-based process in which the choice of means or mechanisms throughwhich policy goals are given effect follows a logical process ...


Marriage And Child Bearing, Kong Weng Ho Jul 2014

Marriage And Child Bearing, Kong Weng Ho

Research Collection School Of Economics

This chapter considers the impact of existing incentives and policies to encourage marriage and child-birth, and other direct and indirect ways to raise the total fertility rate (TFR).


The Elements Of Effective Program Design: A Two-Level Analysis, Michael Howlett, Ishani Mukherjee, Jeremy Rayner Jun 2014

The Elements Of Effective Program Design: A Two-Level Analysis, Michael Howlett, Ishani Mukherjee, Jeremy Rayner

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

Policy and program design is a major theme of contemporary policy research, aimed at improving the understanding of how the processes, methods and tools of policy-making are employed to better formulate effective policies and pro-grams, and to understand the reasons why such designs are not forthcoming. However while many efforts have been made to evaluate policy design, less work has focused on program designs. This article sets out to fill this gap in knowledge of design practices in policy-making. It outlines the nature of the study of policy design with a particular focus on the nature of programs and the ...


Crowdsourcing The Policy Cycle, John Prpić, Araz Taeihagh, James Melton Jun 2014

Crowdsourcing The Policy Cycle, John Prpić, Araz Taeihagh, James Melton

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

Crowdsourcing is beginning to be used for policymaking. The “wisdom of crowds” [Surowiecki 2005], and crowdsourcing [Brabham 2008], are seen as new avenues that can shape all kinds of policy, from transportation policy [Nash 2009] to urban planning [Seltzer and Mahmoudi 2013], to climate policy. In general, many have high expectations for positive outcomes with crowdsourcing, and based on both anecdotal and empirical evidence, some of these expectations seem justified [Majchrzak and Malhotra 2013]. Yet, to our knowledge, research has yet to emerge that unpacks the different forms of crowdsourcing in light of each stage of the well-established policy cycle ...


Foresight And Policy: Thinking About Singapore's Future(S), Adrian W. J. Kuah Jan 2013

Foresight And Policy: Thinking About Singapore's Future(S), Adrian W. J. Kuah

Social Space

The last three decades have seen the Singapore government’s strategic foresight enterprise shift from the area of defence and security to the socio-aspirational space. Lead Strategist, Dr Adrian W. J. Kuah discusses how strategic planning in the governing of Singapore has evolved over the years.


The Eu Polity And Foreign Policy Coherence, Clara Portela, Kolja Raube Jan 2012

The Eu Polity And Foreign Policy Coherence, Clara Portela, Kolja Raube

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

The present article examines the character of the European Union (EU) as a polity by looking at the mechanisms it employs to ensure the coherence of its foreign policies. It first contrasts three ideal polity types. The methods chosen to ensure coherence in foreign policy actions differ according to each of the three polity types. The article then explores how the EU ensures coherence through institutional reform, and subsequently looks in detail at two illustrative policy fields: aid sanctions and civilian crisis-management. The investigation concludes that the organisation of EU foreign policies combines elements from different polity types.


Lien Centre For Social Innovation: Highlights Of The Start-Up Years, Lien Centre For Social Innovation Jan 2010

Lien Centre For Social Innovation: Highlights Of The Start-Up Years, Lien Centre For Social Innovation

Social Space

This year, the Lien Centre for Social Innovation celebrates its fifth anniversary as an institution that’s dedicated to being a thought leader and catalyst for positive social change in Singapore and Asia. As we continue to refine and broaden our efforts to fulfil the Centre’s mandate, this article highlights some of the key activities and accomplishments in our start-up years, grouped in terms of our key areas of focus:

- Research

- Catalysing Social Innovation Initiatives

- Platforms

- Capacity Building


Subnational Credit Rating: A Comparative Review, Lili Liu, Kim Song Tan Aug 2009

Subnational Credit Rating: A Comparative Review, Lili Liu, Kim Song Tan

Research Collection School Of Economics

This paper surveys methodological issues in subnational credit ratings and highlights key challenges for developing countries. Subnational borrowing from capital markets has been on the rise owing to fiscal decentralization and demand for infrastructure investments. A prerequisite for accessing capital markets, subnational credit ratings have also emerged as a part of broader reform for fiscal sustainability. They facilitate a more transparent budgetary and financial management system. The global financial crisis makes subnational credit ratings more relevant, as they contribute to fiscal risk evaluations and fiscal adjustment. In addition to subnationals’ own credit strength, the creditworthiness of the sovereign and the ...


(In-)Coherence In Eu Foreign Policy: Exploring Sources And Remedies, Clara Portela, Kolja Raube Apr 2009

(In-)Coherence In Eu Foreign Policy: Exploring Sources And Remedies, Clara Portela, Kolja Raube

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

How does the EU deal with incoherence and coherence? In this paper we try to answer this research question in order to draw conclusions on the specific nature of the EU as a foreign policy actor. We define coherence and incoherence in EU foreign policy as our dependent variable in a first step. Coherence is understood as a principle guiding foreign policies in the EU as well as other international actors. Effectiveness is crucially linked to the principle of coherence, not only in the EU. However, the way in which the principle of coherence is implemented differs in ideal type ...


Climate Change, Cities And The Poor, John Cleveland, Peter Plastrik Jan 2009

Climate Change, Cities And The Poor, John Cleveland, Peter Plastrik

Social Space

Climate change on its own is an intractable issue. What if we look at climate change through a social equity lens? John Cleveland and Peter Plastrik analyse current climate adaption strategies and deliberate a more active role by ‘people on the ground’.


Overseas Giving: Should Charity Begin At Home?, Chi Chiu Tan Jan 2008

Overseas Giving: Should Charity Begin At Home?, Chi Chiu Tan

Social Space

In extending a hand overseas with developmental and humanitarian aid, is Singapore doing what is best for itself and the recipient communities? And what role does its government have to play in this arena? Dr Tan Chi Chiu weighs in.


Sleepless In Singapore, Jack Sim Jan 2008

Sleepless In Singapore, Jack Sim

Social Space

Is it time for Singapore to adopt a new social and business model? Jack Sim, the inimitable founder of World Toilet Organization, unveils his ‘not-so-wild-and-far-fetched’ vision of a timeless zone in Singapore.


Congestion Control And Vehicle Ownership Restriction: The Choice Of An Optimal Quota Policy, Winston T. H. Koh Jan 2004

Congestion Control And Vehicle Ownership Restriction: The Choice Of An Optimal Quota Policy, Winston T. H. Koh

Research Collection School Of Economics

Singapore introduced a vehicle quota system (VQS) in 1990 as part of its overall policy to control urban congestion. While the VQS has reduced the annual growth rate of the vehicle population to about 3 per cent, it has created uncertainty in the cost of vehicle ownership due to the fluctuations in licence prices. This paper discusses three issues relating to the optimal design of a VQS: licence transferability, sub-categorisation, and the choice of an auction format. The analysis shows that licence transferability is not unambiguously desirable, sub-categorisation is highly regressive, and an open auction format results in less aggressive ...