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Articles 1 - 30 of 53

Full-Text Articles in Policy Design, Analysis, and Evaluation

Religion, Administration & Public Goods: Experimental Evidence From Russia, Theocharis N. Grigoriadis Dec 2016

Religion, Administration & Public Goods: Experimental Evidence From Russia, Theocharis N. Grigoriadis

Theocharis Grigoriadis

In this paper, I argue that religion matters for the provision of public goods. I identify three normative foundations of Eastern Orthodox monasticism with strong economic implications: 1. solidarity, 2. obedience, and 3. universal discipline. I propose and solve a public goods game with a three-tier hierarchy, where these norms are modeled as treatments. Obedience and universal discipline facilitate the provision of threshold public goods in equilibrium, whereas solidarity does not. Empirical evidence is drawn from public goods experiments run with regional bureaucrats in Tomsk and Novosibirsk, Russia. The introduction of the same three norms as experimental treatments produces different ...


Reconstructing Neighborhoods: Case Studies In Foreclosed Housing Acquisition And Redevelopment By Community Development Corporations, David A. Turcotte, Michael P. Johnson Jr., Emily Vidrine, Rachel B. Drew, Felicia M. Sullivan Dec 2014

Reconstructing Neighborhoods: Case Studies In Foreclosed Housing Acquisition And Redevelopment By Community Development Corporations, David A. Turcotte, Michael P. Johnson Jr., Emily Vidrine, Rachel B. Drew, Felicia M. Sullivan

Michael P. Johnson

Community development corporations (CDCs) play a central role in addressing the foreclosed housing crisis in America’s urban neighborhoods. The success of CDCs, however, is closely tied to market forces, neighborhood characteristics, and policies at multiple levels, as well as factors internal to CDCs. What factors support or impede the success of CDCs that operate in such complex environments? We examine the experiences of two CDCs serving two small, ethnically diverse cities in Massachusetts regarding resources, policy, practices and local markets related to neighborhood revitalization. We derive lessons about the factors internal and external to these CDCs that affect their ...


Value Focused Thinking For Community-Based Organizations: Objectives And Acceptance In Local Development, Jeffrey Keisler, David A. Turcotte, Rachel B. Drew, Michael P. Johnson Jr. Nov 2014

Value Focused Thinking For Community-Based Organizations: Objectives And Acceptance In Local Development, Jeffrey Keisler, David A. Turcotte, Rachel B. Drew, Michael P. Johnson Jr.

Michael P. Johnson

A multi-site case study applies value-focused thinking methods in a community engaged research framework within three organizations. All three organizations are community development corporations (CDCs), a type of community based organization (CBO) who direct assets and efforts toward housing stock and neighborhood improvement. Objectives hierarchies were developed for the three sites. A set of common aspects of these structures suggest ways to operationalize the generic mission of CDCs. Other aspects which vary across sites can be related to specific characteristics of the organizations and the communities in which they operate. The process of applying value-focused thinking is also compared across ...


Electronic Supplement: Value Focused Thinking For Community-Based Organizations: Objectives And Acceptance In Local Development, Jeffrey Keisler, David A. Turcotte, Rachel B. Drew, Michael P. Johnson Jr. Nov 2014

Electronic Supplement: Value Focused Thinking For Community-Based Organizations: Objectives And Acceptance In Local Development, Jeffrey Keisler, David A. Turcotte, Rachel B. Drew, Michael P. Johnson Jr.

Michael P. Johnson

This is an electronic supplement to the manuscript "Value Focused Thinking for Community-Based Organizations: Objectives and Acceptance in Local Development", published by the EURO Journal on Decision Processes.


An Assessment Of Goal-Free Evaluation: Case Studies Of Four Goal-Free Evaluations, Brandon Youker, Allyssa Ingraham, Nicholas Bayer Sep 2014

An Assessment Of Goal-Free Evaluation: Case Studies Of Four Goal-Free Evaluations, Brandon Youker, Allyssa Ingraham, Nicholas Bayer

Brandon W. Youker Ph.D

This article provides a descriptive review of four goal-free program evaluations (GFE). GFE is an evaluation model where the independent evaluator is intentionally screened from the program’s stated goals and objectives in hopes of reducing potential goal-related tunnel vision. The findings from these GFE case studies are focused in three areas: (1) elements of the programs that were evaluated and their existing evaluation contexts (e.g., pre-evaluation conditions, size of evaluation budget), (2) design of the GFEs (e.g., screening method, data collection methods), and (3) expertise of the goal-free evaluators (e.g., training, degrees attained). The findings indicate ...


Stochastic Models For Strategic Resource Allocation In Nonprofit Foreclosed Housing Acquisitions, Armagan Bayram, Senay Solak, Michael P. Johnson Jr. Jan 2014

Stochastic Models For Strategic Resource Allocation In Nonprofit Foreclosed Housing Acquisitions, Armagan Bayram, Senay Solak, Michael P. Johnson Jr.

Michael P. Johnson

Increased rates of mortgage foreclosures in the U.S. have had devastating social and economic impacts during and after the 2008 financial crisis. As part of the response to this problem, non-profit organizations such as community development corporations (CDCs) have been trying to mitigate the negative impacts of mortgage foreclosures by acquiring and redeveloping foreclosed properties. We consider the strategic resource allocation decisions for these organizations which involve budget allocations to different neighborhoods under cost and return uncertainty. Based on interactions with a CDC, we develop stochastic integer programming based frame- works for this decision problem, and assess the practical ...


An Evaluation Of The Effectiveness Of Farmland Protection Policy In China, Man Li Dec 2013

An Evaluation Of The Effectiveness Of Farmland Protection Policy In China, Man Li

Man Li

This paper examines the effectiveness of the Basic Farmland Protection Regulation in protecting high-quality farmland from urban development in China in the first decade after it came into effect (1995‒2005). The theoretical basis for this study is a spatial urban development model with a splitting equation. The empirical evaluation is conducted with georeferenced, longitudinal data on more than 2,000 counties in the country. Results indicate that the Regulation was effective in preserving farmland with high productivity potential only during the period 1995‒2000. There is no evidence of effectiveness of the Regulation in protecting lands with good irrigation ...


The Case Of Performance Measurement In Mobility Management Programs, Sarmistha Majumdar, Lalita Sen, Meredith Highsmith, Linda Cherrington Nov 2013

The Case Of Performance Measurement In Mobility Management Programs, Sarmistha Majumdar, Lalita Sen, Meredith Highsmith, Linda Cherrington

Sarmistha R Majumdar

The concept of mobility management has gained popularity over the last few decades. It refers to the provision of accessible, affordable, and multimodal transportation for all, including those who cannot or do not drive due to age, disability, or lower income. Mobility management programs can be found in large cities, urban areas, and rural areas. Evaluation of these programs is difficult in the absence of national guidelines. Consequently, many programs have developed their own measures, while others lag in performance measurement. This case study investigates the performance measures used to evaluate some established mobility management programs. Based on analysis of ...


Property Value Impacts Of Foreclosed Housing Acquisitions Under Uncertainty, Michael P. Johnson Jr., Senay Solak, Rachel B. Drew, Jeffrey Keisler Aug 2013

Property Value Impacts Of Foreclosed Housing Acquisitions Under Uncertainty, Michael P. Johnson Jr., Senay Solak, Rachel B. Drew, Jeffrey Keisler

Michael P. Johnson

Community development corporations seek to stabilize neighborhoods affected by the recent foreclosure crisis through acquisition and redevelopment of distressed properties. One rationale for this work is the alleviation or avoidance of negative foreclosure impacts. We estimate the lost value to proximate properties associated with a single foreclosure through a Markov chain representing probabilistic transitions between foreclosure stages. We apply our model to a case study of foreclosure properties in Chelsea, MA. A rank ordering by estimated property value impacts indicates significant potential gains in social value as compared to current community development practice. We extend our basic model to address ...


Maintain, Demolish, Re-Purpose: Policy Design For Vacant Land Management Using Decision Models, Michael P. Johnson Jr., Justin Hollander, Alma Hallulli Jul 2013

Maintain, Demolish, Re-Purpose: Policy Design For Vacant Land Management Using Decision Models, Michael P. Johnson Jr., Justin Hollander, Alma Hallulli

Michael P. Johnson

Decline, measured in population growth rates, population levels, housing stock and economic activity, and associated increases in vacant land in urban areas, is a reality for cities and regions within the United States. However, planners increasingly see ‘decline’ as a development state to anticipate and a development strategy to consider. For example, a place may lose population while continuing to provide a high quality of life and social value. Vacant land is central to planning issues related to decline: some currently-occupied housing may likely become abandoned and demolished, yielding vacant lots, while some currently vacant lots may be inputs to ...


The Motivations Behind Municipal Climate Engagement: An Empirical Assessment Of How Local Objectives Shape The Production Of A Public Good, Rachel Krause Feb 2013

The Motivations Behind Municipal Climate Engagement: An Empirical Assessment Of How Local Objectives Shape The Production Of A Public Good, Rachel Krause

Rachel M. Krause

Cities engage in greenhouse gas mitigation efforts because of some combination of desires to achieve local co-benefits, respond to the preferences and pressures of influential political actors, and contribute to the public good by minimizing climate change. The relative importance of each motivation is hypothesized to affect the composition and comprehensiveness of subsequent climate initiatives. In some cities, initiatives appear to be ad hoc collections of tangentially related actions, whereas in others they are the result of a strategic planning process. This article uses survey-based data collected from U.S. cities that are explicitly involved in climate-change mitigation efforts and ...


The Metamorphosis Of Leadership In A Democratic Mexico (2010), By Roderic Ai Camp, José Villalobos Dec 2012

The Metamorphosis Of Leadership In A Democratic Mexico (2010), By Roderic Ai Camp, José Villalobos

José D. Villalobos

No abstract provided.


Minority Women In The Healthcare Workforce In New England, Carol Hardy-Fanta, Erika Kates, Helen Levine, Kate Peery-Wolf Nov 2012

Minority Women In The Healthcare Workforce In New England, Carol Hardy-Fanta, Erika Kates, Helen Levine, Kate Peery-Wolf

Helen J. Levine

Research on health disparities affecting people of color typically focuses on their health status, health treatment and health outcomes with a particular emphasis on the relatively high rates of morbidity and mortality from selected diseases for ethnic and racial minority groups. This fact sheet offers a different but related focus on gender and race/ethnicity in the health care workforce. Our rationale is that the Sullivan Commission on Diversity in the Healthcare Workforce concluded that the lack of minority doctors, nurses and dentists is a significant cause of racial/ethnic health disparities and that the ability to recruit, train and ...


Verifiable And Non-Verifiable Anonymous Mechanisms For Regulating A Polluting Monopolist, James Prieger, Nicholas Sanders Oct 2012

Verifiable And Non-Verifiable Anonymous Mechanisms For Regulating A Polluting Monopolist, James Prieger, Nicholas Sanders

James E. Prieger

Optimal regulation of a polluting natural monopolist must correct for both external damages and market power to achieve a social optimum. Existing non-Bayesian regulatory methods require knowledge of the demand function, while Bayesian schemes require knowledge of the underlying cost distribution. We introduce mechanisms adapted to use less information. Our Price-based Subsidy (PS) mechanisms give the firm a transfer that matches or approximates the incremental surplus generated each period. The regulator need not observe the abatement activity or know the demand, cost, or damage functions of the firm. All of the mechanisms induce the firm to price at marginal social ...


What Is A Strategic Acquisition? Decision Modeling In Support Of Foreclosed Housing Redevelopment, Michael P. Johnson Jr., Rachel B. Drew, Jeffrey Keisler, David Turcotte Aug 2012

What Is A Strategic Acquisition? Decision Modeling In Support Of Foreclosed Housing Redevelopment, Michael P. Johnson Jr., Rachel B. Drew, Jeffrey Keisler, David Turcotte

Michael P. Johnson

This paper describes and develops a model for calculating location-based strategic values of foreclosed properties considered for acquisition and redevelopment by community development corporations (CDCs). A property’s strategic value refers to its proximity to site-specific neighborhood amenities and disamenities (e.g. schools, public transit, distressed properties), given the relative importance of that proximity to CDC organizational and community objectives. We operationalize the concept of strategic value, and apply this concept to a salient public sector decision problem. Using data and value assessments from a CDC engaged in foreclosed housing redevelopment, we compute measures of strategic value for a set ...


Selection Bias In College Admissions Test Scores, Jesse Rothstein, Melissa Clark, Diane Schanzenbach Apr 2012

Selection Bias In College Admissions Test Scores, Jesse Rothstein, Melissa Clark, Diane Schanzenbach

Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach

Data from college admissions tests can provide a valuable measure of student achievement, but the non-representativeness of test-takers is an important concern. We examine selectivity bias in both state-level and school-level SAT and ACT averages. The degree of selectivity may differ importantly across and within schools, and across and within states. To identify within-state selectivity, we use a control function approach that conditions on scores from a representative test. Estimates indicate strong selectivity of test-takers in "ACT states," where most college- bound students take the ACT, and much less selectivity in SAT states. To identify within- and between-school selectivity, we ...


An Assessment Of The Impact That Participation In Local Climate Networks Has On Cities’ Implementation Of Climate, Energy, And Transportation Policies, Rachel Krause Dec 2011

An Assessment Of The Impact That Participation In Local Climate Networks Has On Cities’ Implementation Of Climate, Energy, And Transportation Policies, Rachel Krause

Rachel M. Krause

Much of the attention surrounding local climate protection in the United States is associated with two networks: ICLEI’s Cities for Climate Protection and the U.S. Conference of Mayors’ Climate Protection Agreement (MCPA). However, the impact of these networks on member-city actions has not been clearly established. This paper examines whether, and to what extent, participation in climate networks leads to the implementation of GHG-reducing policies, above and beyond what would have been done in their absence. To account for the possibility that cities which join climate networks are systematically different from those that do not and control for ...


Project Website: Decision Models For Foreclosed Housing Acquisition And Redevelopment, Michael Johnson, Senay Solak, David Turcotte, Jeffrey Keisler, Rachel Drew, Armagan Bayram, Emily Vidrine Dec 2011

Project Website: Decision Models For Foreclosed Housing Acquisition And Redevelopment, Michael Johnson, Senay Solak, David Turcotte, Jeffrey Keisler, Rachel Drew, Armagan Bayram, Emily Vidrine

Michael P. Johnson

No abstract provided.


The Trouble With Unity: Latino Politics And The Creation Of Identity (2010), By Cristina Beltrán, José Villalobos Oct 2011

The Trouble With Unity: Latino Politics And The Creation Of Identity (2010), By Cristina Beltrán, José Villalobos

José D. Villalobos

No abstract provided.


Community-Based Operations Research: Decision Modeling For Local Impact And Diverse Populations, Michael P. Johnson Jr. Oct 2011

Community-Based Operations Research: Decision Modeling For Local Impact And Diverse Populations, Michael P. Johnson Jr.

Michael P. Johnson

This edited volume is an introduction to diverse methods and applications in operations research focused on local populations and community-based organizations that have the potential to improve the lives of individuals and communities in tangible ways. The book's themes include: space, place and community; disadvantaged, underrepresented or underserved populations; international and transnational applications; multimethod, cross-disciplinary and comparative approaches and appropriate technology; and analytics. The book is comprised of eleven original submissions, a re-print of a 2007 article by Johnson and Smilowitz that introduces CBOR, and an introductory chapter that provides policy motivation, antecedents to CBOR in OR/MS, a ...


Community-Based Operations Research: Introduction, Theory And Applications, Michael P. Johnson Jr. Oct 2011

Community-Based Operations Research: Introduction, Theory And Applications, Michael P. Johnson Jr.

Michael P. Johnson

Community-based operations research is the name of a new sub-discipline within operations research and the management sciences. CBOR synthesizes previous practice and research traditions within OR/MS to address problems within the public sector that are often of a localized nature, that address the concerns of citizens affiliated through characteristics of race, ethnicity and class and other ties and that are solved using diverse qualitative and quantitative methods. Solutions to these problems are developed and implemented by formal and informal organizations, and embody a critical perspective towards traditional notions of decisionmakers, stakeholders and analytic methods. The most proximate antecedents of ...


Can Health Insurance Reduce School Absenteeism?, Ryan Yeung Aug 2011

Can Health Insurance Reduce School Absenteeism?, Ryan Yeung

Ryan Yeung

Enacted in 1997, the State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) represented the largest expansion of U.S. public health care coverage since the passage of Medicare and Medicaid 32 years earlier. Although the program has recently been reauthorized, there remains a considerable lack of thorough and well-designed evaluations of the program. In this study, we use school attendance as a measure of the program’s impact. Utilizing state-level data and the use of fixed-effects regression techniques, we conclude that SCHIP has had a positive and significant effect on state average daily attendance rates, as measured by both SCHIP participation ...


What Is A "Constitutional Conservative" Anyway?, Brian Glenn Jul 2011

What Is A "Constitutional Conservative" Anyway?, Brian Glenn

Brian J. Glenn

No abstract provided.


Nixon’S Super-Secretaries: The Last Grand Presidential Reorganization Effort (2010), By Mordecai Lee, José Villalobos May 2011

Nixon’S Super-Secretaries: The Last Grand Presidential Reorganization Effort (2010), By Mordecai Lee, José Villalobos

José D. Villalobos

No abstract provided.


Handling Anticipated Exceptions In Clinical Care: Investigating The Benefits And Consequences Of Providing “Exit Strategies” In Computerized Clinical Information Systems, Kai Zheng, David Hanauer, Rema Padman, Michael Johnson, Anwar Hussain, Wen Ye, Xiaomu Zhou, Herbert Diamond Apr 2011

Handling Anticipated Exceptions In Clinical Care: Investigating The Benefits And Consequences Of Providing “Exit Strategies” In Computerized Clinical Information Systems, Kai Zheng, David Hanauer, Rema Padman, Michael Johnson, Anwar Hussain, Wen Ye, Xiaomu Zhou, Herbert Diamond

Michael P. Johnson

Unpredictable yet frequently occurring exception situations pervade clinical care. Handling them properly often requires aberrant actions temporarily departing from normal practice. In this study, the authors investigated several exception-handling procedures provided in an electronic health records system for facilitating clinical documentation, which the authors refer to as ‘data entry exit strategies.’ Through a longitudinal analysis of computer-recorded usage data, the authors found that (1) utilization of the exit strategies was not affected by postimplementation system maturity or patient visit volume, suggesting clinicians' needs to ‘exit’ unwanted situations are persistent; and (2) clinician type and gender are strong predictors of exit-strategy ...


Political Decision-Making And The Local Provision Of Public Goods: The Case Of Municipal Climate Protection, Rachel Krause Dec 2010

Political Decision-Making And The Local Provision Of Public Goods: The Case Of Municipal Climate Protection, Rachel Krause

Rachel M. Krause

The municipal political decision-making dynamic has typically been studied in regard to the provision of locally public goods and services whose benefits, while diffuse, are tied to a particular geography. This research extends current knowledge by empirically examining the local production of a globally public good: climate protection. It utilizes an original nation-wide dataset on the greenhouse gas-reducing activities that have been implemented by city governments in the United States. This data enables the development of a more comprehensive measure of local climate protection than has been used in previous quantitative research. Several theories of local political decision-making are tested ...


Searching For Contracting Patterns Over Time: Do Prime Contractor And Subcontractor Relations Follow Similar Patterns For Professional Services Provision?, Branco Ponomariov, Gordon Kingsley, Craig Boardman Dec 2010

Searching For Contracting Patterns Over Time: Do Prime Contractor And Subcontractor Relations Follow Similar Patterns For Professional Services Provision?, Branco Ponomariov, Gordon Kingsley, Craig Boardman

Craig Boardman

This paper compares over a 12-year period (1) patterns of contracting between a state transportation agency and its prime contractors providing engineering design services with (2) patterns between these prime contractors and their subcontractors. We find evidence of different contracting patterns at each level that emerge over time and coexist in the same contracting context. While patterns at the agency–prime level are characterized by repeated contracts, patterns at the prime–sub level indicate fewer repeats and more contractor turnover. Implications for outsourcing practice and theory are discussed.


A Preliminary Assessment Of The Potential For 'Team Science' In Doe Energy Innovation Hubs And Energy Frontier Research Centers, Craig Boardman, Branco Ponomariov Dec 2010

A Preliminary Assessment Of The Potential For 'Team Science' In Doe Energy Innovation Hubs And Energy Frontier Research Centers, Craig Boardman, Branco Ponomariov

Craig Boardman

President Obama has called for the development of new energy technologies to address our national energy needs and restore US economic competitiveness. In response, the Department of Energy has established new R&D modalities for energy research and development designed to facilitate collaboration across disciplinary, institutional, and sectoral boundaries. In this research note, we provide a preliminary assessment of the potential for essential mechanisms for coordinated problem solving among diverse actors within two new modalities at the DOE: Energy Innovation Hubs and Energy Frontier Research Centers.


Industry Involvement In University Patents: Before And After The Invention, Branco Ponomariov, Craig Boardman Nov 2010

Industry Involvement In University Patents: Before And After The Invention, Branco Ponomariov, Craig Boardman

Craig Boardman

No abstract provided.


Federal Food Assistance Programs: Part Of The Early Childhood Obesity Solution Or Part Of The Problem?, Elizabeth Rigby, Rachel Kimbro Feb 2010

Federal Food Assistance Programs: Part Of The Early Childhood Obesity Solution Or Part Of The Problem?, Elizabeth Rigby, Rachel Kimbro

Elizabeth Rigby

Amid growing concern about childhood obesity, the United States spends billions of dollars on food assistance: providing meals and subsidizing food purchases. We examine the relationship between food assistance and body mass index (BMI) for young, low-income children, who are a primary target population for federal food programs and for efforts to prevent childhood obesity. Our findings indicate that food assistance may unintentionally contribute tot he childhood obesity problem in cities with high food prices. We also find that subsidized meals at school or day care are beneficial for children's weight status, and we argue that expanding access to ...