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Full-Text Articles in Policy Design, Analysis, and Evaluation

Decision Models For Foreclosed Housing Acquisition And Redevelopment: A University Of Massachusetts Multi-Campus Collaborative Project - Processes And Findings To Date, Michael P. Johnson Jr., Jeffrey Keisler, Senay Solak, David Turcotte, Rachel B. Drew, Armagan Bayram, Emily Vidrine Dec 2011

Decision Models For Foreclosed Housing Acquisition And Redevelopment: A University Of Massachusetts Multi-Campus Collaborative Project - Processes And Findings To Date, Michael P. Johnson Jr., Jeffrey Keisler, Senay Solak, David Turcotte, Rachel B. Drew, Armagan Bayram, Emily Vidrine

Jeffrey Keisler

The recent housing foreclosure crisis has had devastating impacts on individuals, communities, organizations and government. In response, several community development corporations (CDCs) have sought new ways to assist neighborhoods suffering from the myriad effects of high foreclosures, including neighborhood instability, increased vandalism and crime, lower property values, and economic disinvestment. This research project focuses on activities of community-based organizations that acquire and redevelop foreclosed properties to support neighborhood stabilization and revitalization. However, the costs of pursuing this strategy far exceed the resources available to typical CDCs. Thus, our project seeks to solve the following decision problem: What subset of a ...


2011 Global Go To Think Tanks Index Report, James G. Mcgann Dec 2011

2011 Global Go To Think Tanks Index Report, James G. Mcgann

TTCSP Global Go To Think Tank Index Reports

The 2011 Global Go To Think Tank Rankings marks the fifth edition of the annual report. As in previous years, the Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program (TTCSP) at the University of Pennsylvania’s International Relations Program has relied on the indexing criteria and process developed by James G. McGann for ranking think tanks around the world. The Program’s Rankings remain the first and most comprehensive ranking of the world’s top think tanks, and are based on an annual global peer and expert survey of close to 1500 scholars, policymakers, journalists, and regional and subject area experts. Given ...


El Paso Economic Development System Review & Recommendations, Edward Feser Nov 2011

El Paso Economic Development System Review & Recommendations, Edward Feser

Edward J Feser

This report, commissioned by the City of El Paso, recommends that El Paso city government undertake a substantial reform of its economic development effort and that public and private sector stakeholders in the broader El Paso region mobilize to create an organizational vehicle for the kind of public‐private collaboration that is driving innovative economic development in many other major city‐regions in the United States. The analysis also calls for a stronger integration of physical, land use, and economic development planning activities in the city and region, consistent with a trend in international best practice in local and regional ...


Community-Based Operations Research: Decision Modeling For Local Impact And Diverse Populations, Michael P. Johnson Jr. Oct 2011

Community-Based Operations Research: Decision Modeling For Local Impact And Diverse Populations, Michael P. Johnson Jr.

Michael P. Johnson

This edited volume is an introduction to diverse methods and applications in operations research focused on local populations and community-based organizations that have the potential to improve the lives of individuals and communities in tangible ways. The book's themes include: space, place and community; disadvantaged, underrepresented or underserved populations; international and transnational applications; multimethod, cross-disciplinary and comparative approaches and appropriate technology; and analytics. The book is comprised of eleven original submissions, a re-print of a 2007 article by Johnson and Smilowitz that introduces CBOR, and an introductory chapter that provides policy motivation, antecedents to CBOR in OR/MS, a ...


Community-Based Operations Research: Introduction, Theory And Applications, Michael P. Johnson Jr. Oct 2011

Community-Based Operations Research: Introduction, Theory And Applications, Michael P. Johnson Jr.

Michael P. Johnson

Community-based operations research is the name of a new sub-discipline within operations research and the management sciences. CBOR synthesizes previous practice and research traditions within OR/MS to address problems within the public sector that are often of a localized nature, that address the concerns of citizens affiliated through characteristics of race, ethnicity and class and other ties and that are solved using diverse qualitative and quantitative methods. Solutions to these problems are developed and implemented by formal and informal organizations, and embody a critical perspective towards traditional notions of decisionmakers, stakeholders and analytic methods. The most proximate antecedents of ...


Can Health Insurance Reduce School Absenteeism?, Ryan Yeung Aug 2011

Can Health Insurance Reduce School Absenteeism?, Ryan Yeung

Ryan Yeung

Enacted in 1997, the State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) represented the largest expansion of U.S. public health care coverage since the passage of Medicare and Medicaid 32 years earlier. Although the program has recently been reauthorized, there remains a considerable lack of thorough and well-designed evaluations of the program. In this study, we use school attendance as a measure of the program’s impact. Utilizing state-level data and the use of fixed-effects regression techniques, we conclude that SCHIP has had a positive and significant effect on state average daily attendance rates, as measured by both SCHIP participation ...


Decision Models For Housing And Community Development, Michael P. Johnson Jr. Jul 2011

Decision Models For Housing And Community Development, Michael P. Johnson Jr.

Public Policy and Public Affairs Faculty Publication Series

Decision science provides tools and methods to support strategy design and operations in housing and community development by generating guidance regarding the number, type, location and development process of housing units in order to balance objectives such as social benefits and costs, tenure mix and equity. These decision models address the needs of multiple stakeholders, reflect the public and private nature of housing, and incorporate best-available evidence regarding markets, policies and impacts of housing and community development. This chapter reviews applications over the past 30 years and describe current applications in decision support for housing and community development, including: affordable ...


Handling Anticipated Exceptions In Clinical Care: Investigating The Benefits And Consequences Of Providing “Exit Strategies” In Computerized Clinical Information Systems, Kai Zheng, David Hanauer, Rema Padman, Michael Johnson, Anwar Hussain, Wen Ye, Xiaomu Zhou, Herbert Diamond Apr 2011

Handling Anticipated Exceptions In Clinical Care: Investigating The Benefits And Consequences Of Providing “Exit Strategies” In Computerized Clinical Information Systems, Kai Zheng, David Hanauer, Rema Padman, Michael Johnson, Anwar Hussain, Wen Ye, Xiaomu Zhou, Herbert Diamond

Michael P. Johnson

Unpredictable yet frequently occurring exception situations pervade clinical care. Handling them properly often requires aberrant actions temporarily departing from normal practice. In this study, the authors investigated several exception-handling procedures provided in an electronic health records system for facilitating clinical documentation, which the authors refer to as ‘data entry exit strategies.’ Through a longitudinal analysis of computer-recorded usage data, the authors found that (1) utilization of the exit strategies was not affected by postimplementation system maturity or patient visit volume, suggesting clinicians' needs to ‘exit’ unwanted situations are persistent; and (2) clinician type and gender are strong predictors of exit-strategy ...


Innovation Cooperation: Energy Biosciences And Law, Prof. Elizabeth Burleson Jan 2011

Innovation Cooperation: Energy Biosciences And Law, Prof. Elizabeth Burleson

Prof. Elizabeth Burleson

This Article analyzes the development and dissemination of environmentally sound technologies that can address climate change. Climate change poses catastrophic health and security risks on a global scale. Universities, individual innovators, private firms, civil society, governments, and the United Nations can unite in the common goal to address climate change. This Article recommends means by which legal, scientific, engineering, and a host of other public and private actors can bring environmentally sound innovation into widespread use to achieve sustainable development. In particular, universities can facilitate this collaboration by fostering global innovation and diffusion networks.


Judging Women, Stephen J. Choi, G. Mitu Gulati, Mirya R. Holman, Eric A. Posner Jan 2011

Judging Women, Stephen J. Choi, G. Mitu Gulati, Mirya R. Holman, Eric A. Posner

Mirya R Holman

Judge Sonia Sotomayor’s assertion that female judges might be better than male judges has generated accusations of sexism and potential bias. An equally controversial claim is that male judges are better than female judges because the latter have benefited from affirmative action. These claims are susceptible to empirical analysis. Primarily using a dataset of all the state high court judges in 1998-2000, we estimate three measures of judicial output: opinion production, outside state citations, and co-partisan disagreements. For many of our tests, we fail to find significant gender effects on judicial performance. Where we do find significant gender effects ...


Gender And Regime Politics In U.S. Cities, Mirya R. Holman Jan 2011

Gender And Regime Politics In U.S. Cities, Mirya R. Holman

Mirya R Holman

The scholarship on urban politics often focuses on the political economy provided by regimes, or long-term coalitions between local politicians and private actors like the business community. Notably absent from the regime scholarship is any substantial investigation of the role that urban regimes play in the promotion of the interests of women living in urban areas. A comparison of the priorities of urban regimes with the interests of women in politics suggests substantial conflicts. The implications for women serving in urban governance are explored, as are the consequences for urban politics, women in politics, and democracy.


Evaluating Political And Environmental Behavior In The Face Of A Green Crisis: An Experimental Analysis, Mirya R. Holman, Travis G. Coan Jan 2011

Evaluating Political And Environmental Behavior In The Face Of A Green Crisis: An Experimental Analysis, Mirya R. Holman, Travis G. Coan

Mirya R Holman

Incidents such as the Japanese Nuclear Meltdowns and the British Petroleum oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico remind us that environmental issues can be central to activating political activity and influencing political opinions. While the literature suggesting a relationship between environmental risk and action is extensive, few scholars directly examine the relationship between perceived environmental threat and political behavior, and even fewer adopt research designs appropriate for making causal inferences. Building on a growing literature in political psychology that examines the effects of crises and emotions on political opinions, we examine the relationship between environmental threat and political behavior ...


Gender And Power In American Cities: Investigations Of The Effect Of Mayoral Gender On Deliberation, Representation, And Policymaking In U.S. Cities, Mirya R. Holman Jan 2011

Gender And Power In American Cities: Investigations Of The Effect Of Mayoral Gender On Deliberation, Representation, And Policymaking In U.S. Cities, Mirya R. Holman

Mirya R Holman

The representation of historically marginalized groups in the democratic policy process serves many purposes, including introducing new and differing perspectives to the policymaking process, opening the policymaking process up to disenfranchised groups, and changing the deliberative process of urban policymaking. In this paper, I investigate the effect of gender on policy priorities and policy outcomes of mayors in U.S. cities. Using a combination of interview data and coded city council minutes, I examine the effect of mayoral gender on the discussion of issues of importance to female constituents, the nature of deliberation in city councils, and the engagement of ...


Community-Based Operations Research: Introduction, Theory And Applications, Michael P. Johnson Jr. Jan 2011

Community-Based Operations Research: Introduction, Theory And Applications, Michael P. Johnson Jr.

Public Policy and Public Affairs Faculty Publication Series

Community-based operations research is the name of a new sub-discipline within operations research and the management sciences. CBOR synthesizes previous practice and research traditions within OR/MS to address problems within the public sector that are often of a localized nature, that address the concerns of citizens affiliated through characteristics of race, ethnicity and class and other ties and that are solved using diverse qualitative and quantitative methods. Solutions to these problems are developed and implemented by formal and informal organizations, and embody a critical perspective towards traditional notions of decisionmakers, stakeholders and analytic methods. The most proximate antecedents of ...


Transaction Costs And Environmental Policy: An Assessment Framework And Literature Review, Kerry Krutilla Rachel M. Krause Dec 2010

Transaction Costs And Environmental Policy: An Assessment Framework And Literature Review, Kerry Krutilla Rachel M. Krause

Rachel M. Krause

This article develops a “transaction cost” framework for the analysis of environmental policy, and uses it to organize a discussion of recent literature on policy design and evaluation. We also consider the implications of this framework for optimal environmental policy-making and benefit-cost analysis. The conceptual orientation motivating the work is influenced by the neoinstitutional economics perspective developed by Eggertsson (1990), and others, which itself is influenced by the fundamental work of Coase (1937, 1960).

This transaction cost framework will emphasize the costs of establishing the rights to use environmental resources and the costs of the ex post monitoring and enforcement ...


Political Decision-Making And The Local Provision Of Public Goods: The Case Of Municipal Climate Protection, Rachel Krause Dec 2010

Political Decision-Making And The Local Provision Of Public Goods: The Case Of Municipal Climate Protection, Rachel Krause

Rachel M. Krause

The municipal political decision-making dynamic has typically been studied in regard to the provision of locally public goods and services whose benefits, while diffuse, are tied to a particular geography. This research extends current knowledge by empirically examining the local production of a globally public good: climate protection. It utilizes an original nation-wide dataset on the greenhouse gas-reducing activities that have been implemented by city governments in the United States. This data enables the development of a more comprehensive measure of local climate protection than has been used in previous quantitative research. Several theories of local political decision-making are tested ...


An Assessment Of The Greenhouse Gas Reducing Activities Being Implemented In Us Cities, Rachel Krause Dec 2010

An Assessment Of The Greenhouse Gas Reducing Activities Being Implemented In Us Cities, Rachel Krause

Rachel M. Krause

Local climate protection initiatives are receiving increased attention and support. However, most of the current understanding about their content, motivation, and impact is based on qualitative studies, whose findings cannot be generalized, or quantitative studies, which consider superficial measures of policy adoption. There is a lack of information about the type and extent of GHG-reducing actions that “typical” cities have implemented, whether or not they are explicitly framed as part of a broader climate protection strategy. In an effort to address this gap, this paper examines original data collected from a nation-wide sample of U.S. cities on their implementation ...


Symbolic Or Substantive Policy? Measuring The Extent Of Local Commitment To Climate Protection, Rachel Krause Dec 2010

Symbolic Or Substantive Policy? Measuring The Extent Of Local Commitment To Climate Protection, Rachel Krause

Rachel M. Krause

Over 1,000 U.S. municipalities have formally committed to reduce their local greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through participation in one of several climate protection networks. This has attracted the attention of researchers interested in theories of free-riding and local political decision making who question why municipalities become engaged in this global effort. However, whereas joining a climate protection network or adopting an emissions reduction goal are relatively low cost acts, the implementation of such policies entails higher costs. This raises legitimate questions about the extent and type of follow-through made on municipal climate protection commitments. This paper begins to ...