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Full-Text Articles in Policy Design, Analysis, and Evaluation

The Controversial F-35 Joint Strike Fighter: America's Most Expensive Weapons System And Its Global Impact, Bert Chapman Apr 2019

The Controversial F-35 Joint Strike Fighter: America's Most Expensive Weapons System And Its Global Impact, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Creative Materials

Presentation describing my 2019 Palgrave Macmillan book Global Defense Procurement and the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter. It describes this aircraft and places particular emphasis on the government information resources from multiple countries used in writing this book.


Decentralized Space Traffic Management, Ruth Stilwell Feb 2019

Decentralized Space Traffic Management, Ruth Stilwell

Space Traffic Management Conference

This paper will examine the political, policy, and regulatory barriers to the provision of STM as a global safety service. It will examine the concepts under development for airspace from 20km to 100km to accommodate new entrants in aviation and space and discuss how those concepts may provide a path forward for decentralized space traffic management.


Evaluating Disparities In The U.S. Technology Transfer Ecosystem To Improve Bench To Business Translation, James Weis, Ashvin Bashyam, Gregory J. Ekchian, Kathryn Paisner, Nathan L. Vanderford Mar 2018

Evaluating Disparities In The U.S. Technology Transfer Ecosystem To Improve Bench To Business Translation, James Weis, Ashvin Bashyam, Gregory J. Ekchian, Kathryn Paisner, Nathan L. Vanderford

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

Background: A large number of highly impactful technologies originated from academic research, and the transfer of inventions from academic institutions to private industry is a major driver of economic growth, and a catalyst for further discovery. However, there are significant inefficiencies in academic technology transfer. In this work, we conducted a data-driven assessment of translational activity across United States (U.S.) institutions to better understand how effective universities are in facilitating the transfer of new technologies into the marketplace. From this analysis, we provide recommendations to guide technology transfer policy making at both the university and national level.

Methods: Using ...


Access To Technology And Student Academic Achievement: Empirical Evidence From Nepal, Palista Kharel Jan 2018

Access To Technology And Student Academic Achievement: Empirical Evidence From Nepal, Palista Kharel

School of Public Policy Capstones

My research explores the linkage between access to technology and student academic achievement in Nepal. I measure access to technology using four proxies: availability of electricity, radio, TV and computer at home. I measure academic achievement using student test scores in the Grade 10 national level examinations.

My results indicate that students with access to electricity, radio, TV and computer at home, have higher average test scores overall. Particularly, access to a computer has the largest positive effect on a student’s academic achievement. Simple OLS regression results suggest that those with access to a computer score 64 points higher ...


Yale’S Environmental Performance Index: The Construction And Use Of A Composite Index For Global Sustainability, Zach Wendling Jan 2017

Yale’S Environmental Performance Index: The Construction And Use Of A Composite Index For Global Sustainability, Zach Wendling

Yale Day of Data

No abstract provided.


Tightening The Ooda Loop: Police Militarization, Race, And Algorithmic Surveillance, Jeffrey L. Vagle Feb 2016

Tightening The Ooda Loop: Police Militarization, Race, And Algorithmic Surveillance, Jeffrey L. Vagle

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This Article examines the role military automated surveillance and intelligence systems and techniques have supported a self-reinforcing racial bias when used by civilian police departments to enhance predictive policing programs. I will focus on two facets of this problem. First, my research will take an inside-out perspective, studying the role played by advanced military technologies and methods within civilian police departments, and how they have enabled a new focus on deterrence and crime prevention by creating a system of structural surveillance where decision support relies increasingly upon algorithms and automated data analysis tools, and which automates de facto penalization and ...


The Minefield: Designing And Implementing Human Resource Policies In The Age Of Social Media, Christopher R. Mcmillan Jan 2016

The Minefield: Designing And Implementing Human Resource Policies In The Age Of Social Media, Christopher R. Mcmillan

The Graduate Review

Human resource managers have had to navigate a minefield of laws and regulations while continuing to manage the traditional business functions of the employer. Now, human resource departments across the nation are tasked with managing the traditional employee-employer relationship in light of an ever-changing technological and legal landscape. Businesses across the nation have had to adjust to a rise in the use of social-media and have suffered the consequences of instantaneous communication between employees and the media. These same businesses must reconcile the need to protect its goodwill and livelihood, while incorporating the safeguards provided by legislation and regulations in ...


Cyber Espionage Or Cyberwar?: International Law, Domestic Law, And Self-Protective Measures, Christopher S. Yoo Jan 2015

Cyber Espionage Or Cyberwar?: International Law, Domestic Law, And Self-Protective Measures, Christopher S. Yoo

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Scholars have spent considerable effort determining how the law of war (particularly jus ad bellum and jus in bello) applies to cyber conflicts, epitomized by the Tallinn Manual on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare. Many prominent cyber operations fall outside the law of war, including the surveillance programs that Edward Snowden has alleged were conducted by the National Security Agency, the distributed denial of service attacks launched against Estonia and Georgia in 2007 and 2008, the 2008 Stuxnet virus designed to hinder the Iranian nuclear program, and the unrestricted cyber warfare described in the 1999 book by two ...


Interpreting, Stephanie Jo Kent May 2014

Interpreting, Stephanie Jo Kent

Doctoral Dissertations

What do community interpreting for the Deaf in western societies, conference interpreting for the European Parliament, and language brokering in international management have in common? Academic research and professional training have historically emphasized the linguistic and cognitive challenges of interpreting, neglecting or ignoring the social aspects that structure communication. All forms of interpreting are inherently social; they involve relationships among at least three people and two languages. The contexts explored here, American Sign Language/English interpreting and spoken language interpreting within the European Parliament, show that simultaneous interpreting involves attitudes, norms and values about intercultural communication that overemphasize information and ...


Collaboration: The Effects Of Joint Agency Training For Both National Guard And Department Of Homeland Security, Benjamin J. Rogers Apr 2013

Collaboration: The Effects Of Joint Agency Training For Both National Guard And Department Of Homeland Security, Benjamin J. Rogers

Purdue Polytechnic Directed Projects

Rogers, Benjamin J. M.S., Purdue University, May 2013. Collaboration: The Effects of

Joint Agency Training for Both National Guard and Department of Homeland Security.

Major Professor: Daniel Lybrook.

Using subject matter experts and responders in the field of incident response, this study

was designed to ascertain whether there is a need for more collaborative training among

both National Guard responders and Department of Homeland Security responders. It

did this by answering the key questions of:

1. What areas within training can be collaborative?

2. What are the effects of joint training on first responders?

3. What training processes can ...


Technology And Privacy (Editorial), Michael Friedewald, Ronald J. Pohoryles Apr 2013

Technology And Privacy (Editorial), Michael Friedewald, Ronald J. Pohoryles

Michael Friedewald

No abstract provided.


Reconciling Privacy And Security, Marc Van Lieshout, Michael Friedewald, David Wright, Serge Gutwirth Apr 2013

Reconciling Privacy And Security, Marc Van Lieshout, Michael Friedewald, David Wright, Serge Gutwirth

Michael Friedewald

This paper considers the relationship between privacy and security and, in particular, the traditional ‘‘trade-off’’ paradigm. The issue is this: how, in a democracy, can one reconcile the trend towards increasing security (for example, as manifested by increasing surveillance) with the fundamental right of privacy? Our political masters justify their intrusions upon our privacy with proclamations of the need to protect the citizenry against further terrorist attacks like those that have already marred the early twenty-first century. The surveillance industry has been quick to exploit this new market opportunity, supported as it is by inexorable technological ‘‘progress’’ in devising new ...


Forecasting Innovation Pathways For New And Emerging Science & Technologies, Douglas Kr Robinson, Lu Huang, Ying Guo, Alan L. Porter Jan 2013

Forecasting Innovation Pathways For New And Emerging Science & Technologies, Douglas Kr Robinson, Lu Huang, Ying Guo, Alan L. Porter

alan l porter

New & Emerging Science & Technologies (“NESTs”) promise tremendous innovation potential, but this is coupled with enormous uncertainties and often many unknowns. This paper offers a framework to analyze NESTs to help ascertain likely innovation pathways. We have devised a 10-step framework based on extensive Future-oriented Technology Analyses (“FTA”) experience, enriched by in-depth case analyses. In the paper, we describe our analytical activities in two case studies. The nanobiosensors experience is contrasted with that of deep brain stimulation in relative quantitative and qualitative emphases. We close the paper by reflecting on this systematic FTA framework for emerging science and technologies, for its ...


Validating Indicators Of Interdisciplinarity: Linking Bibliometric Measures To Studies Of Engineering Research Labs, David Roessner, Alan L. Porter, Nancy J. Nersessian, Stephen J. Carley Jan 2013

Validating Indicators Of Interdisciplinarity: Linking Bibliometric Measures To Studies Of Engineering Research Labs, David Roessner, Alan L. Porter, Nancy J. Nersessian, Stephen J. Carley

alan l porter

This article examines the extent to which specific features of interdisciplinary research are accurately reflected in selected bibliometric measures of scholarly publications over time. To test the validity of these measures, we compare knowledge of research processes and impact based on ethnographic studies of a well-established researcher’s laboratory, together with personal interview data, against bibliometric indicators of cognitive integration, diffusion, and impact represented in the entire portfolio of papers produced by this researcher over time.


Critical Thinking About Political Problems, Robert Hoppe, Margarita Jeliazkova Jan 2013

Critical Thinking About Political Problems, Robert Hoppe, Margarita Jeliazkova

Robert Hoppe

No abstract provided.


Seven Types Of Privacy, Rachel L. Finn, David Wright, Michael Friedewald Jan 2013

Seven Types Of Privacy, Rachel L. Finn, David Wright, Michael Friedewald

Michael Friedewald

No abstract provided.


Tracing The Footprint Of Knowledge Spillover: Evidence From U.S.-China Collaboration In Nanotechnology, Li Tang, Guangyuan Hu Dec 2012

Tracing The Footprint Of Knowledge Spillover: Evidence From U.S.-China Collaboration In Nanotechnology, Li Tang, Guangyuan Hu

Li Tang

No abstract provided.


Wie Verändert Das Internet Die Demokratie?, Ralf Lindner Dec 2012

Wie Verändert Das Internet Die Demokratie?, Ralf Lindner

Ralf Lindner

Obwohl seit dem Aufstieg des Internets zum Massenmedium in den 1990er Jahren Ernüchterung über die Demokratisierungswirkung der neuen Medien eingetreten ist, werden regelmäßig weitreichende Erwartungen über der politische Transformationspotenzial des Internets formuliert. So wird häufig postuliert, dass das Internet demokratische Politik über kurz oder lang fundamental verändern werde, indem universeller Informationszugang ermöglicht, etablierte Machtstrukturen unterminiert und politische Partizipation gesteigert werde. Der Beitrag erörtert zunächst die Hintergründe für populäre Fehlschlüsse, die die Debatte um elektronische Demokratie begleiten. Auf der Grundlage einer kritischen Reflexion mit den ideologisch-normativ imprägnierten Erwartungen an das Internet werden theoretisch wie empirisch robustere Überlegungen zum Beitrag der neuen ...


Career-Based Influences On Scientific Recognition In The United States And Europe: Longitudinal Evidence From Curriculum Vitae Data, Jan Youtie, Juan Rogers, Thomas Heinze, Philip Shapira, Li Tang Jun 2012

Career-Based Influences On Scientific Recognition In The United States And Europe: Longitudinal Evidence From Curriculum Vitae Data, Jan Youtie, Juan Rogers, Thomas Heinze, Philip Shapira, Li Tang

Philip Shapira

This paper examines how funding patterns, career pathways and collaboration networks influence scientific recognition. We analyze these institutional factors in the early and middle phases of academic careers through comparison of a group of researchers recognized as creative by their peers with a matched group of researchers. Measurement of scientific recognition is based on survey nominations and research prizes in two growing, laboratory-intensive research domains: nanotechnology and human genetics. Curriculum vitae data is used to compare researchers based in the United States and Europe. In the early career model for the United States, we find that scientific recognition is associated ...


Citizens’ Perceptions Of Data Protection And Privacy In Europe, Dara Hallinan, Michael Friedewald, Paul Mccarthy Jun 2012

Citizens’ Perceptions Of Data Protection And Privacy In Europe, Dara Hallinan, Michael Friedewald, Paul Mccarthy

Michael Friedewald

Data protection and privacy gain social importance as technology and data flows play an ever greater role in shaping social structure. Despite this, understanding of public opinion on these issues is conspicuously lacking. This article is a meta-analysis of public opinion surveys on data protection and privacy focussed on EU citizens. The article firstly considers the understanding and awareness of the legal framework for protection as a solid manifestation of the complex concepts of data protection and privacy. This is followed by a consideration of perceptions of privacy and data protection in relation to other social goals, focussing on the ...


The Rcn (Research Coordination Network) Experiment: Can We Build New Research Networks?, Alan L. Porter, Todd A. Crowl, Jon Garner Jan 2012

The Rcn (Research Coordination Network) Experiment: Can We Build New Research Networks?, Alan L. Porter, Todd A. Crowl, Jon Garner

alan l porter

The U.S. National Science Foundation Research Coordination Network (RCN) program broke new ground in funding the development of new research communities of practice. This assessment of RCN supports the conclusion that networking activity was increased for a sample set of projects compared to a control group. Journal articles resulting from RCN support score as highly interdisciplinary. Moreover, those articles appear as notably influential, being published in high impact journals and being highly cited. The RCN program does indeed seem to be fostering new biological science research networks.


Innovation Risk Path Assessing For A Newly Emerging Science & Technology: Illustrated For Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells, Tingting Ma, Ying Guo, Alan L. Porter Jan 2012

Innovation Risk Path Assessing For A Newly Emerging Science & Technology: Illustrated For Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells, Tingting Ma, Ying Guo, Alan L. Porter

alan l porter

For “Newly Emerging Science & Technologies” (“NESTs”), uncertainty is the major challenge. Technological innovation for NESTs faces many kinds of risks that dramatically affect their development paths. This paper combines methods of risk utility theory and technology path research and explores a new innovation risk path modeling method for NEST development. Here we apply selected tools from risk utility theory and technology path research to the NEST of special concern—Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs). The case for DSSC commercialization is promising, but challengeable. The prospects for future development of DSSCs are good, with identifiable markets. Multi-party collaboration appears necessary in order ...


Empirically Informing A Technology Delivery System Model For An Emerging Technology: Illustrated For Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells, Ying Guo, Chen Xu, Lu Huang, Alan L. Porter Jan 2012

Empirically Informing A Technology Delivery System Model For An Emerging Technology: Illustrated For Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells, Ying Guo, Chen Xu, Lu Huang, Alan L. Porter

alan l porter

This paper explores how to extract empirical knowledge from R&D, patent, and business literature compilations to help compose an innovation system model. It adapts the key elements and dynamics of “technology delivery system” modeling to a given Newly Emerging Science & Technology. We present a 10-step analytical approach to help characterize the technology, gauge its state of development, and depict the socio-technical system institutions and actors. We apply this to the case of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (“DSSCs”). A new “cross-charting” method appears effective at associating novel technology-enabled capabilities to gain functional advantages, and to link those functions to potential applications ...


The Role Of Boundary Organisations In The Social Status Of Climate Change Knowledge, Robert Hoppe, Anne Wesselink, Rose Cairns Jan 2012

The Role Of Boundary Organisations In The Social Status Of Climate Change Knowledge, Robert Hoppe, Anne Wesselink, Rose Cairns

Robert Hoppe

A plethora of institutional forms has emerged whose remit is to link climate change science to policy-making. These can be understood as boundary organisations where science and politics meet and intertwine. This article examines the role of boundary organisations in the production and social status of climate change knowledge. A multi-level conceptual model is outlined which demonstrates how context is crucial to understanding the operation and impact of boundary organisations. The framework is applied to analyse climate governance boundary arrangements at the international level and a number of national contexts. In the framing years of the global climate change issue ...


A Trans-Atlantic Conversation On Responsible Innovation And Responsible Governance, Sally Randles, Jan Youtie, David Guston, Barbara Harthorn, Chris Newfield, Philip Shapira, Fern Wickson, Arie Rip, René Von Schomberg, Nick Pidgeon Jan 2012

A Trans-Atlantic Conversation On Responsible Innovation And Responsible Governance, Sally Randles, Jan Youtie, David Guston, Barbara Harthorn, Chris Newfield, Philip Shapira, Fern Wickson, Arie Rip, René Von Schomberg, Nick Pidgeon

Philip Shapira

How can innovation be balanced with responsible governance? Responsible innovation and responsible governance are broad concepts which mean different things to different groups. This paper presents the results of a roundtable held at the Society for Nanotechnology and Emerging Technologies (S.NET) 2011 conference with academics and policymakers from Europe and the US. The results of this roundtable discussion raise issues of definition, lack of consensus, and the role of philosophy versus practical intervention.


BüRgersicht Auf Sicherheit Und Privatheit, Michael Friedewald, Johann Cas Jan 2012

BüRgersicht Auf Sicherheit Und Privatheit, Michael Friedewald, Johann Cas

Michael Friedewald

Moderne Sicherheitstechniken sollen die Bürger besser vor Terrorismus und organisierter Kriminali- tät schützen. Mittlerweile wird aber angezweifelt, ob ein realer oder gefühlter Sicherheitsgewinn nur durch Einschnitte in die Privatsphäre des Einzelnen zu erreichen ist. Die EU-Forschungsprojekte PRISMS und SurPRISE untersuchen, wie die Ein- stellung europäischer Bürger zu Sicherheit und Privatheit zusammenhängt und wie sich dies für die Gestaltung von akzeptabler grundrechtskonformer Sicherheitstechnik nutzen lässt.


Linking Development And Innovation: What Does Technological Change Bring To The Society?, Evgeny A. Klochikhin Jan 2012

Linking Development And Innovation: What Does Technological Change Bring To The Society?, Evgeny A. Klochikhin

Evgeny A. Klochikhin

Recently, there has been a popular trend in academic research for paying more attention to ‘pro-poor’ policies and theoretical studies. This tradition has emerged from a broader understanding of development that includes not only economic but also social and political dimensions. Meanwhile, innovation researchers are still considering development as mere economic growth without much focus on the social impacts of technological change. This article recognizes that, despite these fundamental differences, the concepts of innovation and development have much in common and are, in fact, positively connected and mutually beneficial. This assumption has some important implications for the innovation and development ...


2011 Global Go To Think Tanks Index Report, James G. Mcgann Dec 2011

2011 Global Go To Think Tanks Index Report, James G. Mcgann

TTCSP Global Go To Think Tank Index Reports

The 2011 Global Go To Think Tank Rankings marks the fifth edition of the annual report. As in previous years, the Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program (TTCSP) at the University of Pennsylvania’s International Relations Program has relied on the indexing criteria and process developed by James G. McGann for ranking think tanks around the world. The Program’s Rankings remain the first and most comprehensive ranking of the world’s top think tanks, and are based on an annual global peer and expert survey of close to 1500 scholars, policymakers, journalists, and regional and subject area experts. Given ...


Extrapolating Strategies For The Scientific And Technological Development Of Underdeveloped Societies From The Examples Of South Korea, Slovenia And Serbia, Vuk Uskoković, Dragan Uskoković Dec 2011

Extrapolating Strategies For The Scientific And Technological Development Of Underdeveloped Societies From The Examples Of South Korea, Slovenia And Serbia, Vuk Uskoković, Dragan Uskoković

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The recent history of scientific excellence of a society could be used as an indicator of its economic, cultural and communal prosperity. In this work, two examples of countries that successfully arose from the remnants of comparative poverty and established themselves as scientifically thriving societies, South Korea and Slovenia, are compared with the case of Serbia, a country that is presumably on the doorsteps of a similarly explosive developmental path. Guidelines for social progress in the direction of greater scientific and social prominence are outlined in the course of the discourse. It is concluded that the ideal model of growth ...


Public Policy Instruments In (Re)Building National Innovation Capabilities: Cases Of Nanotechnology Development In China, Russia And Brazil, Evgeny A. Klochikhin Sep 2011

Public Policy Instruments In (Re)Building National Innovation Capabilities: Cases Of Nanotechnology Development In China, Russia And Brazil, Evgeny A. Klochikhin

Evgeny A. Klochikhin

In 2001 Goldman Sachs named Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRICs) the most rapidly-growing countries in the world capable of surpassing the United States, Japan and Europe as leading economies by 2050.

Nevertheless, for the last decade we have learned relatively little about the mechanisms of success and failure in these countries. All of them have huge territory and population as well as fast-growing economies that sometimes show two-digit rates of GDP growth per year and surprise the world by their increasing budgets and public spending. In the meantime, most of these countries are believed to be desperately struggling against ...