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Articles 1 - 30 of 228

Full-Text Articles in Policy Design, Analysis, and Evaluation

On Environmental, Climate Change & National Security Law, Mark P. Nevitt Sep 2019

On Environmental, Climate Change & National Security Law, Mark P. Nevitt

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This Article offers a new way to think about climate change. Two new climate change assessments — the 2018 Fourth National Climate Assessment (NCA) and the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel’s Special Report on Climate Change — prominently highlight climate change’s multifaceted national security risks. Indeed, not only is climate change a “super wicked” environmental problem, it also accelerates existing national security threats, acting as both a “threat accelerant” and “catalyst for conflict.” Further, climate change increases the intensity and frequency of extreme weather events while threatening nations’ territorial integrity and sovereignty through rising sea levels. It causes both internal displacement ...


An Integrated Climate Science-Economic Model For Evaluating Adaptations To Sea Level Rise: A Prototype Model For Monterey, California, Charles S. Colgan, Fernando Depaolis, Philip King Aug 2019

An Integrated Climate Science-Economic Model For Evaluating Adaptations To Sea Level Rise: A Prototype Model For Monterey, California, Charles S. Colgan, Fernando Depaolis, Philip King

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

Preparing for flooding that will be exacerbated by climate change and sea level rise must take place in the context of "deep uncertainty". One strategy for dealing with that uncertainty is to convert unknown probabilities into know probabilities using techniques such as Monte Carlo analysis. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of creating a cost-benefit model for sea level rise adaptation options using an integrated climate change/sea level rise-weather-economic model. The model tests the probability of benefits exceeding costs for shoreline protection such as beach nourishment and armoring under multiple iterations of possible climate futures. It uses shoreline segments in ...


Capturing Regulatory Agendas?: An Empirical Study Of Industry Use Of Rulemaking Petitions, Daniel E. Walters Aug 2019

Capturing Regulatory Agendas?: An Empirical Study Of Industry Use Of Rulemaking Petitions, Daniel E. Walters

Daniel Walters

A great deal of skepticism toward administrative agencies stems from the widespread perception that they excessively or even exclusively cater to business interests. From the political right comes the accusation that business interests use regulation to erect barriers to entry that protect profits and stifle competition. From the political left comes the claim that business interests use secretive interactions with agencies to erode and negate beneficial regulatory programs. Regulatory “capture” theory elevates many of these claims to the status of economic law. Despite growing skepticism about capture theory in academic circles, empirical studies of business influence and capture return ambiguous ...


Local Food Policy & Consumer Food Cooperatives: Evolutionary Case Studies, Afton Hupper May 2019

Local Food Policy & Consumer Food Cooperatives: Evolutionary Case Studies, Afton Hupper

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Darwin’s theory of natural selection has played a central role in the development of the biological sciences, but evolution can also explain change in human culture. Institutions, mechanisms that govern behavior and social order, are important subjects of cultural evolution. Institutions can help stabilize cooperation, defined as behavior that benefits others, often at a personal cost. Cooperation is important for solving social dilemmas, scenarios in which the interests of the individual conflict with those of the group. A number of mechanisms by which institutions evolve to support cooperation have been identified, yet theoretical models of institutional change have rarely ...


San Jose’S Removing And Preventing Illegal Dumping Program (Rapid): An Evaluation Of Illegal Dumping In San Jose, Rina Laxamana May 2019

San Jose’S Removing And Preventing Illegal Dumping Program (Rapid): An Evaluation Of Illegal Dumping In San Jose, Rina Laxamana

Master's Projects

Illegal dumping is a major environmental concern throughout the United States and most countries (Ichinose & Yamamoto, 2011). Abandoned items such as household material, dumped garbage or construction debris leave odors and contaminants that can threaten community health, impact the environment, and degrade the city's visual appearance (Dabholkar, Muthiyan, Srinivasan, Ravi, Jeon, & Gao, 2017). To reduce illegal dumping, many cities establish education programs, social-media-based community applications, surveillance camera monitoring, and execute policies with associated penalties and fines (Dabholkar et al., 2017). The City of San Jose is battling an illegal dumping problem and has created the Removing and Preventing Illegal ...


The South Bay Water Recycling Program: An Evaluation Of Water Recycling Outcomes In Comparison To Selected Cities And Countries, Shannon Nguyen May 2019

The South Bay Water Recycling Program: An Evaluation Of Water Recycling Outcomes In Comparison To Selected Cities And Countries, Shannon Nguyen

Master's Projects

Is the South Bay Water Recycling (SBWR) program achieving its planned recycled water outcomes? This research will compare the SBWR program's 2018 recycled water data with other water reuse programs in Las Vegas, Orange County, Singapore, and Australia. The purpose of the research is to determine whether the SBWR program is achieving its goals for conserving fresh water for beneficial reuse, and how the outcomes compare with selected cities and countries.


The Niobrara National Scenic River: Exploring Co-Management Through A Case Study Of The Niobrara Council, Melissa M. Mosier May 2019

The Niobrara National Scenic River: Exploring Co-Management Through A Case Study Of The Niobrara Council, Melissa M. Mosier

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

In recent decades, government staff and local citizens have increasingly employed cooperative schemes of natural resource management, in lieu of more conventional, top-down approaches of addressing user conflicts as they relate to water resources. The focus of this project was on the Niobrara Council, a partnership of local, state, and federal representatives charged with cooperatively managing the reach of the Niobrara River that was federally designated under the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act in 1991. The project's purpose was to explore the cooperative framework of the Council, using the methodology outlined by Carlsson and Berkes (2005). This methodology involved ...


Measuring Incremental Sb743 Progress: Accounting For Project Contributions Towards Reducing Vmt Under California's Senate Bill 743, Christopher E. Ferrell Jan 2019

Measuring Incremental Sb743 Progress: Accounting For Project Contributions Towards Reducing Vmt Under California's Senate Bill 743, Christopher E. Ferrell

Mineta Transportation Institute Publications

On September 27, 2013, California’s governor signed Senate Bill (SB) 743 into law, in part mandating the transition from a level-of-service-based (LOS) measure of transportation environmental impacts to a vehicle-miles-traveled-based (VMT) one in compliance with the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA). Several California jurisdictions, including San Jose, Pasadena, and San Francisco, have moved quickly to comply with SB 743, so it is no surprise that several of these early-adopter cities have been working hard to develop powerful VMT estimation methods and tools using the most recent research available.

This perspective uses the experiences of an early-adopter city, San Jose ...


Does The Emission Trading System Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions & Coal Consumption And Lead To An Increase In Renewable Energy? – Evidence From Oecd Member Countries, Pilmu Ryu Jan 2019

Does The Emission Trading System Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions & Coal Consumption And Lead To An Increase In Renewable Energy? – Evidence From Oecd Member Countries, Pilmu Ryu

MPA/MPP Capstone Projects

The Emission Trading System (ETS) on greenhouse gas (GHG) is a climate change policy well-known as a market-based mitigation mechanism. However, policymakers have faced strong opposition of many stakeholders and failed to persuade them in the process to introduce the ETS. Objective evidence on ETS impact not only provides information to policymakers but also may help alleviate controversy between stakeholders and policymakers. Also, empirical results on ETS will be able to contribute to the theoretical economic study of cap-and-trade. In this context, this research aims at empirical analyses of ETS impact with regard to GHG emissions, coal consumption, and renewable ...


La Seguridad Ambiental Y Su Incidencia En La Sostenibilidad Del Medio Ambiente. Caso: Minería Ilegal En La Región Del Chocó Biogeográfico, María Alejandra Colorado Patiño, William Sebastián Real Nuñez, Juan Sebastián Cañon Caro Jan 2019

La Seguridad Ambiental Y Su Incidencia En La Sostenibilidad Del Medio Ambiente. Caso: Minería Ilegal En La Región Del Chocó Biogeográfico, María Alejandra Colorado Patiño, William Sebastián Real Nuñez, Juan Sebastián Cañon Caro

Negocios y Relaciones Internacionales

Los cambios en la Sociedad Mundial han permitido ampliar la discusión en la comunidad académica respecto al alcance de la seguridad a nivel contemporáneo. La globalización planteará la emergencia de una mirada o dimensión humana u holística, en paralelo a aquella estatista que fortalece el papel del realismo político. Ambas alternativas pretenden responder a los retos del siglo XXI. La presente monografía de investigación examina tres aspectos principales: primero, el cambio en la construcción del concepto de Seguridad en términos teóricos. Segundo, una revisión de alcance normativo acerca de los ejes que constituyen la Seguridad Ambiental en la región; y ...


The Battle Over Fracking: The Mobilization Of Local Residents, Mehmet Soyer, Sebahattin Ziyanak Sep 2018

The Battle Over Fracking: The Mobilization Of Local Residents, Mehmet Soyer, Sebahattin Ziyanak

The Qualitative Report

In the last decade, the natural gas industry has grown rapidly, and North Texas has become a major shale gas-producing area. This paper studies the power struggle of two rival groups (Frack Free Denton and Denton Tax Payers for a Strong Economy) over fracking in Denton. How did each of these groups challenge the claims-making activities and goals of their adversaries?” We conducted data from ten in-depth interviews from each side to compare concerns about fracking. This study focuses on the campaign of the two groups on each side of the debate. We developed the model of merging the theoretical ...


Abelt_2018_Seattle's_Segregated_Soundscape_21jul.Pdf, Troy D. Abel Jul 2018

Abelt_2018_Seattle's_Segregated_Soundscape_21jul.Pdf, Troy D. Abel

Troy D. Abel

No abstract provided.


The Impacts Of Green Spaces On Crime In New York City, Matthew Edward Iannone Jr. May 2018

The Impacts Of Green Spaces On Crime In New York City, Matthew Edward Iannone Jr.

Student Theses 2015-Present

From the early 1960s through the mid-1990s, crime in New York City ran rampant. With a gradually dwindling police during this time, a high unemployment rate, and an rapidly increasing metropolitan population, crime peaked in the early 1990s, with the murder rate hitting a record-high of 2,245 in 1990. When Mayor Rudy Giuliani took office in 1994 and appoint Bill Bratton as the NYPD police commissioner, these rates immediately plunged. Numerous factors may have contributed to this sudden decline in crime: the police force grew significantly through the 1990s, more criminals were placed and held in prison, and the ...


Ecological Sustainability Within California's Improved Forest Management Carbon Offsets Program, Cory Hertog May 2018

Ecological Sustainability Within California's Improved Forest Management Carbon Offsets Program, Cory Hertog

International Development, Community and Environment (IDCE)

Forest Carbon offsets are being used as a climate change mitigation strategy in multiple programs around the world. But, are programs setup in a way that are ecologically sustainable? This paper reviews concepts pertinent to ecologically sustainable forest management and then examines if Improved Forest Management Carbon offset policies and projects within the California emissions trading scheme are setup in an ecologically sustainable manner. After a review of the Improved Forest Management Protocol and 31 project documents, it is apparent that policies and projects promote aspects of ecologically sustainable management. However, there is room for improvement when managing for natural ...


Comparing German And Us Energy Transitions: Centralized Vs. Decentralized Government Approaches, Sarah Greenway Apr 2018

Comparing German And Us Energy Transitions: Centralized Vs. Decentralized Government Approaches, Sarah Greenway

Honors Projects in Science and Technology

The German Energiewende (“energy transition”) is often credited with being the most ambitious renewable energy transition in the world. Germany’s rapid transition is mainly led by their Renewable Energy Act of 2000, which has been amended several times in order to remain relevant during changing conditions. In contrast, the United States’ energy transition seems stagnant and lacks an overall direction from the Federal Government. Despite this, the United States is making progress towards implementing renewable energy technologies due to the efforts of several states. Germany’s transition has experienced a number of challenges along the way, while the United ...


Capturing Regulatory Agendas?: An Empirical Study Of Industry Use Of Rulemaking Petitions, Daniel E. Walters Mar 2018

Capturing Regulatory Agendas?: An Empirical Study Of Industry Use Of Rulemaking Petitions, Daniel E. Walters

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

A great deal of skepticism toward administrative agencies stems from the widespread perception that they excessively or even exclusively cater to business interests. From the political right comes the accusation that business interests use regulation to erect barriers to entry that protect profits and stifle competition. From the political left comes the claim that business interests use secretive interactions with agencies to erode and negate beneficial regulatory programs. Regulatory “capture” theory elevates many of these claims to the status of economic law. Despite growing skepticism about capture theory in academic circles, empirical studies of business influence and capture return ambiguous ...


An Assessment Of The Sharing Economy And Its Policy Solutions Through The Lens Of Sustainability, Chloe An Jan 2018

An Assessment Of The Sharing Economy And Its Policy Solutions Through The Lens Of Sustainability, Chloe An

Pomona Senior Theses

This senior thesis in environmental analysis explores the promise of sustainability of the sharing economy, its shortcomings from this positive potential, and possible policy solutions to help it reach its fullest, positive potential. At its core, the sharing economy enables shared access to goods and services that would otherwise sit in idle or underutilized capacity – popular platforms such as Uber, Lyft, Airbnb, and craigslist all fall within the sharing economy. By enabling affordable and convenient access to goods that would otherwise sit idle, the sharing economy encourages maximal use of a good that already exists rather than seeking out the ...


The Gunnison Basin Sage-Grouse Strategic Committee: A Colorado County’S Fight For Conservation Self-Determination, James Cochran, Jonathan Houck, Greg Peterson Dec 2017

The Gunnison Basin Sage-Grouse Strategic Committee: A Colorado County’S Fight For Conservation Self-Determination, James Cochran, Jonathan Houck, Greg Peterson

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Since 1995, sage-grouse (Centrocercus spp.) conservation planning in the western United States has largely been based upon local working groups comprised of federal, state and local governments, environmental groups, landowners, interested citizens. In this article, we review the history and process of these local working groups in western Colorado. These groups are generally convened by one or more government agencies, operate on the general principle of consensus, and have little or no administrative or financial support. The local working groups were generally comprised of field biologist, rancher/landowners, members of local environmental groups and occasionally representatives from local governments. The ...


Wyoming Sage-Grouse Working Groups: Lessons Learned, Thomas J. Christiansen, Lorien R. Belton Dec 2017

Wyoming Sage-Grouse Working Groups: Lessons Learned, Thomas J. Christiansen, Lorien R. Belton

Human–Wildlife Interactions

The greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) has been the subject of multiple status reviews under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Wyoming accounts for approximately 38% of the range-wide population. Since 2000, 2 statewide and 8 local citizen working groups have been established in Wyoming to developed conservation plans and advise state policy. The first statewide plan for the conservation of sage-grouse was formally adopted in 2003. The statewide plan established local sage-grouse working groups charged with developing and facilitating implementation of local conservation plans. Those 8 plans were completed in 2007 and 2008, and updated in 2014. From 2005-2017, the local ...


Protecting And Maintaining Silicon Valley’S Liquid Gold, Paul Mark Fulcher Dec 2017

Protecting And Maintaining Silicon Valley’S Liquid Gold, Paul Mark Fulcher

Master's Projects

Public sector leaders and decision makers in the California water industry have learned from previous severe drought conditions that to sustain water supplies during extremely dry seasons, there is a substantial need for behavioral changes associated with water conservation efforts among the businesses and residents of the community to maintain an adequate water supply. The intent of this study is to compare four California water agencies that have been designated as sustainable groundwater agencies (GSA), and determine what current programs and/or practices those agencies are using to meet the mandated requirements of the Sustainable Groundwater Management Act of 2014 ...


Perceptions Of Fin-Fish Aquaculture: A Multi-Scalar Policy Perspective, Jordan Wrigley May 2017

Perceptions Of Fin-Fish Aquaculture: A Multi-Scalar Policy Perspective, Jordan Wrigley

Graduate Student Symposium

Fin-fish aquaculture presents a problem for planners and policy-makers. While there are negative environmental impacts and questions regarding aquaculture's sustainability, there are also benefits such as increased local food production. Solutions balancing these detriments and benefits are often obscured by ingrained perceptions of aquaculture leading to exclusionary or suppressive outcomes and a lack of exploration into aquaculture's value within various contexts. To examine these perceptions, I developed a multi-scalar series of studies at the national, regional, and individual levels.

The collected results of the three studies suggest aquaculture awareness and perceptions are context-dependant. Nuances in national data also ...


Where The Sidewalk Ends: Reimagining Urban Place And Governance In Semarang, Indonesia, Emmaleah K. Jones May 2017

Where The Sidewalk Ends: Reimagining Urban Place And Governance In Semarang, Indonesia, Emmaleah K. Jones

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Purpose: This project analyzes the uses of space and geography up the scales of political organization – from the village to the municipal – attempting to find the intersections where physical space meets governance using Semarang, Indonesia as my strategic case. This research employs a biocultural lens, addressing the existing gaps in literature by advancing a framework to function across disciplines and ultimately reconnecting to its practical application in urban planning and design. Such a framework is important in providing a blueprint for building a coherent and supportive structure on which to assess the human impact of design and contribute new “human-centered ...


A Comparative Study Of Local Municipalities’ Implementation And Compliance Of Construction Site Controls, As Required By The California Water Quality Control Board, San Francisco Bay Region, Municipal Regional Stormwater National Pollutant Discharge Elimination Systems (Npdes) Permit, Maria Begiebing May 2017

A Comparative Study Of Local Municipalities’ Implementation And Compliance Of Construction Site Controls, As Required By The California Water Quality Control Board, San Francisco Bay Region, Municipal Regional Stormwater National Pollutant Discharge Elimination Systems (Npdes) Permit, Maria Begiebing

Master's Projects

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has programs designed to protect the navigable waters of the United States from urban runoff pollution. One source of polluted runoff regulated by EPA is from construction sites. In support of this effort, the California Regional Water Quality Control Board issued a regional National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit called the Municipal Regional Permit (MRP). The goal of the MRP is to provide consistent regulation of stormwater contaminants across multiple jurisdictions (CRWQCB, 2015).

This research project evaluated the construction inspection programs of fourteen cities located in California’s San Francisco Bay Area to ...


Yale’S Environmental Performance Index: The Construction And Use Of A Composite Index For Global Sustainability, Zach Wendling Jan 2017

Yale’S Environmental Performance Index: The Construction And Use Of A Composite Index For Global Sustainability, Zach Wendling

Yale Day of Data

No abstract provided.


An Analysis Of China’S Regional Emissions Trading System: Challenges And Lessons, Ronghui (Kevin) Zhou Jan 2017

An Analysis Of China’S Regional Emissions Trading System: Challenges And Lessons, Ronghui (Kevin) Zhou

Bard Center for Environmental Policy

China, the largest carbon dioxide emitter in the world, has faced environmental pressures both internationally and domestically over the last ten years. In early 2011, the Chinese government approved a carbon emissions trading program in seven cities and provinces, and started planning a national emissions trading framework. This thesis reviews these pilot programs and examines the issues that underlie them. Drawing lessons from the U.S. Acid Rain Program, the European Union’s ETS, and California’s CAT, the three largest emissions trading frameworks in the world, I find that: (1) lack of trades in China’s pilot programs is ...


Climate Change In The Hudson River Estuary: Promoting Adaptation And Resilience Through Stakeholder Engagement In Design And Visualization, Gabrielle S.D. Weiss Jan 2017

Climate Change In The Hudson River Estuary: Promoting Adaptation And Resilience Through Stakeholder Engagement In Design And Visualization, Gabrielle S.D. Weiss

Bard Center for Environmental Policy

In response to the growing risk to communities from climate change impacts, Professor Cerra at the Cornell University School of Landscape Architecture developed the Climate Adaptive Design (CAD) program. CAD is being implemented as a partnership between the Hudson River Estuary Program (Estuary Program) and Cornell that utilizes participatory design and visualization to engage communities about planning for future climate impacts. The goal of CAD is to build climate resilience, galvanize community participation and education, and build links to external sources of support including local institutions of higher education. This thesis outlines background for the development of the program and ...


To Nudge Or Not To Nudge: Promoting Environmentally Beneficial Behaviors, Emma Jean Cooper Jan 2017

To Nudge Or Not To Nudge: Promoting Environmentally Beneficial Behaviors, Emma Jean Cooper

Bard Center for Environmental Policy

In order to mitigate the effects of climate change, humans need to change how they act toward the environment. Unfortunately, as much as we may want to act in ways that would be best for us and for the environment, we often struggle to do just that due to cognitive biases. Nudge theory attempts to remedy this problem by helping us make the decision that would be in our best interests. To explore this issue, I conduct an extended review of the literature to examine how well nudge theory can be applied to the realm of environmental policy. Specifically, I ...


Resilience Theory In Climate-Based Agriculture Development Projects: Useful Framework Or Popular Buzzword?, Rebecca Ann Chillrud Jan 2017

Resilience Theory In Climate-Based Agriculture Development Projects: Useful Framework Or Popular Buzzword?, Rebecca Ann Chillrud

Bard Center for Environmental Policy

International development organizations are increasingly attempting to improve the resilience of the communities they serve through their projects in these communities. However, these projects often fail to address key concepts from the resilience theory literature, calling into question their ability to effectively promote resilience. This thesis attempts to locate these gaps in understanding by analyzing proposal documents from projects intending to promote agricultural resilience to climate change. A content analysis approach was used to analyze 55 projects from three international development groups—the Global Environment Facility, the World Bank, and the United Nations Development Program—proposed or completed between 2006 ...


The Potential And Limits Of Extended Producer Responsibility: A Comparative Analysis Study, Jessica Bass Jan 2017

The Potential And Limits Of Extended Producer Responsibility: A Comparative Analysis Study, Jessica Bass

CMC Senior Theses

This thesis draws on the concept of product stewardship and its focus on incorporating all of the actors in a product’s lifecycle into steps to take responsibility for waste management. Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) recognizes the producer’s distinct potential to consider and drive change in waste management. Producers often serve like mediators between the design and use phases of a product’s lifecycle. Through EPR policies, the producer takes on the costs of ensuring safe end-of-life waste disposal. In this way, EPR can be expected to help relieve the public of some of the costs of waste disposal ...


The Socio-Political And Economic Causes Of Natural Disasters, Nicole Southard Jan 2017

The Socio-Political And Economic Causes Of Natural Disasters, Nicole Southard

CMC Senior Theses

To effectively prevent and mitigate the outbreak of natural disasters is a more pressing issue in the twenty-first century than ever before. The frequency and cost of natural disasters is rising globally, most especially in developing countries where the most severe effects of climate change are felt. However, while climate change is indeed a strong force impacting the severity of contemporary catastrophes, it is not directly responsible for the exorbitant cost of the damage and suffering incurred from natural disasters -- both financially and in terms of human life. Rather, the true root causes of natural disasters lie within the power ...