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Full-Text Articles in Peace and Conflict Studies

Memory Of Human Rights Violations During The Nigeria-Biafra War And The Imperative For Transitional Justice In Nigeria, Nathaniel Umukoro Oct 2019

Memory Of Human Rights Violations During The Nigeria-Biafra War And The Imperative For Transitional Justice In Nigeria, Nathaniel Umukoro

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

Human rights violations during the Nigeria-Biafra War (1967-1970) have elicited interests from scholars and international agencies. Although these studies provide significant insights into the nature of human rights violations during this period, the issue of transitional justice has not been adequately considered. Consequently, this paper examines the memory of human rights violations during the war, attempts made in the area of transitional justice and the imperative for a holistic transitional justice system. The paper begins with the conceptualization of human rights violation and transitional justice. It then makes a historical contextualization of human rights violations during the war and the ...


Review Of Infected Kin: Orphan Care And Aids In Lesotho, Cassandra L. Workman Aug 2019

Review Of Infected Kin: Orphan Care And Aids In Lesotho, Cassandra L. Workman

The Journal of Social Encounters

In the opening vignette, “A Story about Joala,” we readers are brought to the highlands of Lesotho to share homebrewed beer with brewers, research participants, and the authors. This experience of sharing a drink asks us to consider what it means to share in Lesotho, what the ties are that hold people together. Like the communal sharing of food, sharing joala is a defining social activity and as we learn throughout the ethnography, one that is important in the creation of kin. Indeed, this book is presented though a kinship-first perspective.

Using this framework and ground-up analytical methodology, Block and ...


Review Of Cahuilla Nation Activism And The Tribal Casino Movement, Terri Castaneda Aug 2019

Review Of Cahuilla Nation Activism And The Tribal Casino Movement, Terri Castaneda

The Journal of Social Encounters

In this highly accessible book, anthropologist Theodor Gordon tackles settler society’s deep deficit of knowledge about the tribal casino industry’s legal and historical underpinnings. At the core of his analysis are the Cahuilla nations and homelands situated in present day Southern California, the “epicenter of the tribal gaming movement” (p. 19). The fourth title in University of Nevada’s “The Gambling Series,” this study contributes new texture to the embryonic field of tribal gaming studies and is an especially welcome addition to the meager corpus of California-based tribal gaming ethnographies. Yet this hardly describes the breadth of its ...


Review Of This Is An Uprising: How Nonviolent Revolt Is Shaping The Twenty-First Century, Patricia M. Mische Aug 2019

Review Of This Is An Uprising: How Nonviolent Revolt Is Shaping The Twenty-First Century, Patricia M. Mische

The Journal of Social Encounters

This book is must reading for peace educators, scholars, social activists and citizen groups. It belongs in public libraries and in nonviolent training programs. And it belongs in the hands of local, national and global policy makers. Normally, such a recommendation would be placed at the end of a review as part of a summation and conclusion. But for this book, this reviewer is placing the recommendation first for emphasis. Despite some questions about omissions, and suggestions for improvement, this work deserves much praise.


Review Of Essential Catholic Social Thought, William J. Collinge Aug 2019

Review Of Essential Catholic Social Thought, William J. Collinge

The Journal of Social Encounters

Bernard V. Brady titles his textbook Essential Catholic Social Thought to indicate that his focus extends beyond documents of the Church’s magisterium, usually designated “Catholic social teaching” (CST), but his emphasis is on those documents nonetheless. I will comment on this book from my perspective as a teacher for twenty years of a course called “Catholic Social Teaching.” My course is addressed to upper-level undergraduates in a Catholic university and specifically to those majoring in international studies (though it is open to others), but I hope these comments will be helpful to anyone who is considering Brady’s book ...


Review Of The Practice Of Islam In America: An Introduction, Aisha Ghani Aug 2019

Review Of The Practice Of Islam In America: An Introduction, Aisha Ghani

The Journal of Social Encounters

The demand, indeed urgency, within the American Academy for courses on Islam has perhaps never been greater than at current. Yet, the very conditions that create this urgency also produce anxieties for those fulfilling this pedagogical role. The challenge confronting many of us - knowing that our students will enter the classroom with ideas/questions about Islam stemming, in large part, from what they’ve encountered through popular media and the news – is how to carry out this work in a way that both acknowledges this abiding, even if delimiting, contemporary context without allowing our teaching to be subsumed by it ...


Martin Luther King, Jr., Civil Disobedience And The Duty To Obey The Law: Where Do We Go From Here?, Walter Kendall Aug 2019

Martin Luther King, Jr., Civil Disobedience And The Duty To Obey The Law: Where Do We Go From Here?, Walter Kendall

The Journal of Social Encounters

Not so long ago, several friends joined approximately 40,000 others in DC demanding action on climate change and opposing the Keystone pipeline. They left Illinois committed to breaking the law and getting arrested in front of the White House, as they put it, in the spirit of Dr. King. The law they broke when they got there was an anti-trespass type ordinance. They sat and waited to be ordered to move. They refused. They were arrested, fined and released the same day.

Being a lawyer, the son of a New York City police officer, and sometimes an activist I ...


Africa Faith And Justice Network And The Damages Of Land Grabbing: The Case Of The Brewaniase Community, Ghana, Sr. Eucharia Madueke Aug 2019

Africa Faith And Justice Network And The Damages Of Land Grabbing: The Case Of The Brewaniase Community, Ghana, Sr. Eucharia Madueke

The Journal of Social Encounters

This essay discusses the procurement of farmland around the town of Brewaniase in the Volta Region of Ghana by the New York based agribusiness Herakles Farm (HF). The essay highlights some of the repercussions of land grabbing by foreign corporations that seek only profit and do not fulfill promises made to locals who lease their land for a better life. It provides information on the efforts of Africa Faith & Justice Network (AFJN), a faith-based Washington DC non-governmental organization, to enable the local communities to avert land grabs and its damages. The essay aims to help African communities and individuals critically ...


Interfaith Dialogue And Comparative Theology: A Theoretical Approach To A Practical Dilemma, Michael Atkinson Aug 2019

Interfaith Dialogue And Comparative Theology: A Theoretical Approach To A Practical Dilemma, Michael Atkinson

The Journal of Social Encounters

Interfaith dialogue is based on the premise that there is more that unites than divides us. Epistemological humility, acceptance of religious plurality or the need for unity itself have all been presented as unifying pathways across disparate religious traditions. Despite such approaches, conceptual understandings of interfaith dialogue have not kept pace with practice. This theoretical paper argues that interfaith dialogical theory profits from a deep understanding of moral psychology and social learning theory. The former posits that a sense of ‘fairness’ and ‘universal care’ are aligned with religious acceptance. On the other hand, values of sanctity, loyalty and authority promote ...


Cultivating Inclusive And Peaceful Communities: Multi-Faith Sources Of Inspiration, Mary Dana Hinton Aug 2019

Cultivating Inclusive And Peaceful Communities: Multi-Faith Sources Of Inspiration, Mary Dana Hinton

The Journal of Social Encounters

Leaders, educators, clergy and laypeople engaged in the work of peacemaking must acknowledge the powerful role religion can play in the peacebuilding effort. However, we cannot limit our peacebuilding conversation to religious communities. Educational institutions also have a uniquely compelling role to play in the work of peacebuilding. This essay reviews why and how educational institutions must engage in this work; explores emerging best practices in this area; and concludes with a call to action.

Importantly, the essay highlights the importance, power and capacity of interfaith dialogue and education to support peacebuilding. Interfaith education and dialogue is not a call ...


Education For Peace-Building And Preventing Extremism, Paul Haidostian Aug 2019

Education For Peace-Building And Preventing Extremism, Paul Haidostian

The Journal of Social Encounters

In this essay, I reflect on my life story as an Armenian-Lebanese, and analyze my experiences with war and peace in terms of the Armenian Genocide, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, and Lebanon’s civil war. In light of these experiences, I concluded that the message and example of peace, which I had learned at home, church, and school, were in severe contrast with each other, and difficult to reconcile. During the earlier periods in my life, I knew that providentially my disappointment was with human nature, and that the frame of peace had to be larger, and its reach had to ...


“The People Of Aram Shall Go Into Exile”: Practical And Theological Dilemmas Of Middle Eastern Churches Since The Beginning Of The Syrian War, Wilbert Van Saane Aug 2019

“The People Of Aram Shall Go Into Exile”: Practical And Theological Dilemmas Of Middle Eastern Churches Since The Beginning Of The Syrian War, Wilbert Van Saane

The Journal of Social Encounters

This paper discusses the way in which Christian churches in the Middle East have responded to the Syrian War. It signals some practical and theological dilemmas that these churches have faced since the conflict in Syria broke out. The description of these dilemmas is primarily based on interviews with a representative sample of church leaders. Analysis of these dilemmas sheds light on the way the churches of the Middle East have contributed to peaceful resolutions of the Syrian conflict, or failed to do so. Before going into the practical and theological dilemmas of the churches, the article provides a short ...


The Conflicts That Pave The Way For Peace: Lebanese Poet And Philosopher Mikhail Naimy, Suha Naimy Aug 2019

The Conflicts That Pave The Way For Peace: Lebanese Poet And Philosopher Mikhail Naimy, Suha Naimy

The Journal of Social Encounters

Mikhail Naimy is a twentieth century Lebanese author and philosopher whose writings verge towards the mystical and the metaphysical. Naimy’s philosophy is a synthesis of his own life conflicts and his built premises and drawn conclusions that trivialize materialism, following the steps of Christ. Among Naimy’s first conflicts was leaving of his hometown Baskinta and its highland Shakhroub for Nazareth to continue his education, and the estrangement he felt that was alleviated by a touch of God. Some of the other conflicts in Naimy’s life were the love affairs that yielded to the understanding that true love ...


Foundations For Muslim-Christian Dialogue And Peacemaking: Ideas About God, Faith, And Prayer, Jon Armajani Aug 2019

Foundations For Muslim-Christian Dialogue And Peacemaking: Ideas About God, Faith, And Prayer, Jon Armajani

The Journal of Social Encounters

In this essay, I discuss God, faith, and sacred texts (including the Bible, Quran, and Hadith), and some ways that they constitute foundations for peacemaking between Christians and Muslims. The essay presents my personal, ethnic, and religious background in order to contextualize the ideas which the essay analyzes, and then describes three Christian theological approaches to non-Christian religions. Those approaches are particularist (or exclusivist), inclusivist, and pluralist. The essay discusses the historical background and significance of Vatican II, which took place between 1962 and 1965, and Nostra Aetate, published in 1965. The essay then analyzes three theological principles which undergird ...


Introduction To Essays From The Conference On Religion, Politics, And Peacemaking, Jon Armajani, Ron Pagnucco Aug 2019

Introduction To Essays From The Conference On Religion, Politics, And Peacemaking, Jon Armajani, Ron Pagnucco

The Journal of Social Encounters

The following essays by Jon Armajani, Suha Naimy, Wilbert van Saane, Paul Haidostian, and Mary Dana Hinton were presented at the conference “Religion, Politics, and Peacemaking” that took place on the campus of Saint John’s University in Collegeville, Minnesota in October 2018. The conference’s co-sponsors were the Jay Phillips Center for Interfaith Learning at Saint John’s University, the Department of Peace Studies of the College of Saint Benedict / Saint John’s University, and Haigazian University, with funding provided by the Jay and Rose Phillips Family Foundation of Minnesota.

The essays approach religion, politics, and peacemaking from several ...


Foreword, John Merkle Aug 2019

Foreword, John Merkle

The Journal of Social Encounters

No abstract provided.


The Baltics And Ukraine: Geopolitical Hotspots, Bert Chapman Aug 2019

The Baltics And Ukraine: Geopolitical Hotspots, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Scholarship and Research

Provides detailed historical overview and contemporary analysis on why the Baltics and Ukraine are historical and remain contemporary geopolitical hotspots. Provides analysis of cultural economic, environmental, and security factors influencing long-standing contentiousness over these regions. Places emphasis on how Russian behavior and policies influence this contentiousness. Concludes by noting that differences between the U.S. and its allies and conflicts within the U.S. Government may limit the ability of the U.S. to effectively respond to events in these disputed regions.


Multi-Domain Operations, Bad For Civil-Military Relations?, George Fust Aug 2019

Multi-Domain Operations, Bad For Civil-Military Relations?, George Fust

West Point Research Papers

Is it possible that the U.S. military’s newest warfighting concept is bad for civil-military relations? The current lexicon for this new concept is multi-domain operations, or simply MDO.


Unraveling The Ethnoterritorial Fix In The Peruvian Amazon: Indigenous Livelihoods And Resource Management After Communal Land Titling (1980s-2016), Ramzi M. Tubbeh, Karl S. Zimmerer Aug 2019

Unraveling The Ethnoterritorial Fix In The Peruvian Amazon: Indigenous Livelihoods And Resource Management After Communal Land Titling (1980s-2016), Ramzi M. Tubbeh, Karl S. Zimmerer

Journal of Latin American Geography

Indigenous rights organizations in Latin America consider territorial control the paramount condition for the reproduction of indigenous peoples’ cultures, the security of their livelihoods, and the pursuit of autonomy. In the past several decades Latin American governments have increasingly recognized indigenous peoples’ rights to cultural difference and channeled their territorial claims by titling their lands as common property. This “territorial turn” is supported by narratives about indigenous peoples as stewards of the environment. The geographic areas associated with indigenous land titling have increased since the late 1980s. This article presents research based on a case study of present-day livelihoods and ...


National Capacities And Residual Contamination (Croatia), Geneva International Center For Humanitarian Demining, Croatian Mine Action Centre Aug 2019

National Capacities And Residual Contamination (Croatia), Geneva International Center For Humanitarian Demining, Croatian Mine Action Centre

Global CWD Repository

Croatia is affected by explosive ordnance (EO) contamination that consists of mines and, to a lesser extent, explosive remnants of war (ERW), including cluster munition remnants, caused by the legacy of four years of armed conflict associated with the break-up of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s.

This case study documents Croatia’s experience of developing national systems and capacities to address residual contamination and to identify and present good practices and lessons learnt. In addition, this case study highlights the importance of a participatory and transparent long-term strategic planning process, including a comprehensive and ...


Endnotes Jul 2019

Endnotes

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

No abstract provided.


Practical Notes On The Application Of Thermite Systems In Mine Action, Robert Syfret, Chris Cooper Jul 2019

Practical Notes On The Application Of Thermite Systems In Mine Action, Robert Syfret, Chris Cooper

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

There are numerous documents available online relating to the use of thermite systems for explosive ordnance disposal (EOD). However, most of the documents are either scientifically focused or address specific technical questions. This article provides broader practical information for mine action operators at the field and program levels. Although previously employed on a relatively small scale over the last five years, use of thermite as opposed to explosives for the destruction of landmines and explosive remnants of war (ERW) has increased. This has been driven by greater engagement across the sector in countries with unstable security situations, and places with ...


Key Performance Indicators And Hma: Time To Standardize?, Roly Evans, David Hewitson Jul 2019

Key Performance Indicators And Hma: Time To Standardize?, Roly Evans, David Hewitson

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Measuring performance is the norm across a range of human activities. But is it a norm in humanitarian mine action (HMA)? Some might suggest that it is. However, if we measure our performance, it is unclear whether we do so in a standardized way so that meaningful comparisons can be made. HMA lacks standardized indicators, whether it is for items of explosive ordnance (EO) found and destroyed, m2 of land released, or more general outcomes such as internally displaced persons returning to an area once cleared. Indicators can of course be ignored, misused, misreported, or misunderstood and some fear ...


More Bang For Their Buck: Enhancing The Sustainability Of Surplus Ammunition Destruction Programs, Joe Farha, Matthias Krotz, Einas Osman Abdalla Mohammed Jul 2019

More Bang For Their Buck: Enhancing The Sustainability Of Surplus Ammunition Destruction Programs, Joe Farha, Matthias Krotz, Einas Osman Abdalla Mohammed

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Dealing with stockpiles of surplus ammunition remains a key challenge for many African countries. In the last 10 years, at least 38 ammunition sites across Africa reportedly experienced unplanned explosions, causing injury and loss of life as well as significant damage to infrastructure and the environment. Numerous reasons such as overstocking, inadequate storage facilities due to insufficient resources, inadequate capabilities of storage sites, or simply unstable ammunition may be the cause of these unplanned detonations. These factors are often exacerbated by personnel having a limited knowledge and awareness, or insufficient training on relevant subjects such as explosive compatibility groups or ...


Ammunition Stockpile Management: A Global Challenge Requiring Global Responses, Nora Allgaier, Samuel Paunila Jul 2019

Ammunition Stockpile Management: A Global Challenge Requiring Global Responses, Nora Allgaier, Samuel Paunila

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Ageing, unstable, and excess conventional ammunition stockpiles pose the dual risk of accidental explosion at munition sites and diversion to illicit markets, thereby constituting a significant danger to public safety and security. More than half of the world’s countries have experienced an ammunition storage area explosion over the past decades, resulting in severe humanitarian and socioeconomic consequences.1 Thousands of people have been killed, injured, and displaced, and the livelihoods of entire communities have been disrupted. The humanitarian impact of unintended explosions is amplified when they occur in urban areas, as illustrated by ammunition depot explosions in a crowded ...


Iraq: A Photo Essay, Sean Sutton Jul 2019

Iraq: A Photo Essay, Sean Sutton

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

MAG, Mines Advisory Group, has worked in Iraq since 1992 to make land safe for populations affected by decades of conflict. Landmines, cluster munitions, other unexploded bombs, as well as new contamination from the recent conflict with ISIS, have left a deadly legacy that prevents communities from using their land, and displaced populations from returning home safely.


The Impact Of Landmines And Explosive Remnants Of War On Food Security: The Lebanese Case, Henrique Garbino Jul 2019

The Impact Of Landmines And Explosive Remnants Of War On Food Security: The Lebanese Case, Henrique Garbino

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

The year 2017 was the third in a row of an exceptionally high number of mine victims. According to the Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor, in 2017 alone, 7,239 people became casualties of landmines or explosive remnants of war (ERW), of which at least 2,793 were killed.1,2 Apart from their direct physical effects, landmines and ERW also restrict access to basic resources such as food and water, limit the use of key infrastructure, and both force and restrict migration.2 This article focuses on the impact of landmines and ERW on food security, with an emphasis ...


Ieds And Urban Clearance Variables In Mosul: Defining Complex Environments, Mark Wilkinson Ph.D. Jul 2019

Ieds And Urban Clearance Variables In Mosul: Defining Complex Environments, Mark Wilkinson Ph.D.

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

More than any other post-conflict environment in Iraq, the complexity of west Mosul and its improvised explosive device (IED) threat challenges our fundamental perceptions and definitions of mine action. From here, 400 km (248.5 mi) north of Baghdad in the al-Maedan District on the west side of the Tigris River, ISIS ran its caliphate and made its ill-fated last stand against attacking Iraqi Security Forces (ISF).


Ied Threat Consistency And Predictability In Fallujah: A 'Simple' Model For Clearance, Mark Wilkinson Ph.D. Jul 2019

Ied Threat Consistency And Predictability In Fallujah: A 'Simple' Model For Clearance, Mark Wilkinson Ph.D.

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

When in control of the area of Iraq north of Baghdad, including the city of Fallujah, ISIS prepared to defend its position from inevitable government counterattack through the widespread use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) laid as defensive obstacles in patterns similar to conventional minefields.1 The subsequent destruction of bridges over the Tigris River further strengthened the ability of ISIS to defend the city and prevent the civilians trapped within from escaping.


The Challenge Of Managing Mine Action In Jordan, Hrh Prince Mired R.Z. Al-Hussein Jul 2019

The Challenge Of Managing Mine Action In Jordan, Hrh Prince Mired R.Z. Al-Hussein

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Over the course of two decades, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan worked diligently to rid itself of landmines despite monumental challenges. In comparison to other mine-affected countries, the difficulties that Jordan faced may have been miniscule, but for a developing country with minimal natural resources in a very volatile region of the world, the task was enormous. The initial estimate of landmines buried in Jordanian territory was over 300,000, the vast majority of which were laid by the Jordanian military along the kingdom’s western border after the 1967 Arab– Israeli War and along its northern border after the ...