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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Contracting, Contesting, And Co-Optation: Civil Society Organizations’ Strategies Under New Institutional Arrangements In Brazil, Brian Wampler, Michael Touchton Jul 2019

Contracting, Contesting, And Co-Optation: Civil Society Organizations’ Strategies Under New Institutional Arrangements In Brazil, Brian Wampler, Michael Touchton

Brian Wampler

Civil society has exploded in Latin America as democratization has continued over the last 30 years. Civil society organizations (CSOs) are thought to improve governance and oversight and to increase social capital. Nonetheless, we have limited knowledge about what motivates CSOs’ political strategies, which include participating in formal political institutions, attending demonstrations, and providing services. We build knowledge here by evaluating data from a unique survey of nine hundred CSOs across seven Brazilian cities. Our findings showcase several parallel processes: poorer CSOs continue to rely on the state and actively participate in political processes despite protesting at greater rates than ...


Truth Commission Impact: A Participation-Based Implementation Agenda, Tara J. Melish Nov 2017

Truth Commission Impact: A Participation-Based Implementation Agenda, Tara J. Melish

Tara Melish

With a focus on truth commissions, this Essay argues for a new approach to assessing the impact or effectiveness of transitional justice mechanisms. It recognizes at least four discernible approaches to impact assessment in the current literature. I term these “Quantifiable Truth,” “Victim Perception,” “Formal Political Rights,” and “Redistributive Development.” While each has added important and complementary insights to the field, each has also exhibited important weaknesses in its ability to speak persuasively to the question of meaningful long-term impact on the societal dynamics and institutions that lead to violence in the first place. To help fill this gap, I ...


Beyond Westphalia: Competitive Legalization In Emerging Transnational Regulatory Systems, Errol E. Meidinger Nov 2017

Beyond Westphalia: Competitive Legalization In Emerging Transnational Regulatory Systems, Errol E. Meidinger

Errol Meidinger

Published as Chapter 7 in Law and Legalization in Transnational Relations, Christian Brütsch & Dirk Lehmkuhl, eds.

This paper analyzes several emerging transnational regulatory systems that engage, but are not centered on state legal systems. Driven primarily by civil society organizations, the new regulatory systems use conventional technical standard setting and certification techniques to establish market-leveraged, social and environmental regulatory programs. These programs resemble state regulatory programs in many important respects, and are increasingly legalized. Individual sectors generally have multiple regulatory programs that compete with, but also mimic and reinforce each other. While forestry is the most developed example, similar patterns ...


The Impact Of State-Promoted Participation In Democracy And Development: A Comparison Of Venezuela And Mexico, Domenico Romero Sep 2017

The Impact Of State-Promoted Participation In Democracy And Development: A Comparison Of Venezuela And Mexico, Domenico Romero

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

During the past two decades participatory democracy policies came to be seen as a useful alternative to address high inequality and lack of meaningful political representation allowed by clientelist politics in various parts of the world. This project explores the question: what is the impact that state-promoted participation has on democracy and development, the two key areas that political reformers in Latin America attempted to improve at the turn of the millennium? The hypotheses that this project proposes in response to that question are that participatory policies do not underperform neoliberal policies on macroeconomic or human development; that state-promoted participation ...


Enhancing Civic Knowledge/Inspiring Political Engagement: The Role Of Public Libraries In Civic Participation, Donna Cohen Aug 2017

Enhancing Civic Knowledge/Inspiring Political Engagement: The Role Of Public Libraries In Civic Participation, Donna Cohen

OLA Quarterly

For the past several months I have been conducting “civic education” workshops under the umbrella title: Civics for Adults—To Enhance Civic Knowledge and Inspire Political Engagement. I doubt there is anyone in the library community who is not concerned about the public’s level of civic understanding, political discourse and civic engagement. As Robert Putnam pointed out in his book Bowling Alone, the cohesive function of social and civic groups—as with the simple bowling league—has withered, and along with the demise of those groups a correlative decline in political activities like voting. Public libraries should be primary ...


Ola Today: Oregon Librarians Respond To Changing Times Aug 2017

Ola Today: Oregon Librarians Respond To Changing Times

OLA Quarterly

This issue’s contributors and topics span academic and public institutions, rural and metropolitan libraries, political activism and personal narrative, and programming as well as abstraction. Considering instances of political action and librarianship, Oregon Library Association President Elsa Loftis begins this issue by profiling the organization. She cites its Legislative Agenda and its advocacy body, the Library Development and Legislation Committee, offering resources and steps toward political action that align with such guiding principles as Intellectual Freedom, Equitable Access, and Stewardship of Public Resources. Donna L. Cohen details a series of civic education workshops she has offered in recent months ...


Fake News And Information Literacy: Creating Resources To Develop Source Evaluation Skills At The University Of Oregon Libraries, Carolina Hernandez Aug 2017

Fake News And Information Literacy: Creating Resources To Develop Source Evaluation Skills At The University Of Oregon Libraries, Carolina Hernandez

OLA Quarterly

In the months following the 2016 presidential election, much discussion has occurred regarding the proliferation of “fake news” and what impact it may have had on the election results. Regardless of whether there was an actual increase in fake news in the last year, it is certainly true that interest in the topic has increased dramatically. Interest appeared to peak in January, according to Google Trends (Google Trends, n.d.). Widespread concern over how to prevent the spread of this problem has lead to possible solutions cropping up often.

Though often excluded from these recommendations, libraries have the opportunity to ...


Political Action And Your Library Association, Elsa Loftis Aug 2017

Political Action And Your Library Association, Elsa Loftis

OLA Quarterly

Political action. Libraries. The two seem to intersect more often than one might expect (unless one is a library worker, supporter, or patron; in which case it doesn’t seem terribly unusual). People in our line of work are often called upon to assume the mantle of library-worker-activists. These calls to action affect us in our various roles as professionals, as private citizens, and as members of the Oregon Library Association.

Our association supports Oregon libraries, the people who work in them, and the communities we serve. That commitment casts a wide net in a large state full of people ...


Guns And America And The Library And Us: What We Learned From The Worst Library Program … Ever!, Barratt Miller, Jane Scheppke Aug 2017

Guns And America And The Library And Us: What We Learned From The Worst Library Program … Ever!, Barratt Miller, Jane Scheppke

OLA Quarterly

On a dark and stormy night in Prineville, fifty members of the community gathered in Crook County Library’s meeting room. The program facilitator walked in the door five minutes before go-time. The Assistant Director introduced him to the room. And then all hell broke loose. The program topic? Guns and America.

Guns and America was offered as part of the Conversation Project series of community discussion programs given by Oregon Humanities. Conversation Project programs are intended to be open-ended discussions run by a trained facilitator who is an expert in the topic at hand. The facilitator creates a neutral ...


It’S A Long Drive And Learning Experience, Victoria Cross Aug 2017

It’S A Long Drive And Learning Experience, Victoria Cross

OLA Quarterly

Victoria Cross moved to Oregon in 1998 with her husband, Richard, and her daughter, Olga. She quickly realized that reading American literature and watching American movies and television shows can only educate immigrants so much about what is in store for them in the American workforce. Refugees and other displaced people often experience hardships adjusting to their new culture, particularly at work. They face language gaps, along with different rules and customs. In this article, Victoria remembers when she first arrived in the United States and joined a carpool to Portland from her home in Scappoose, Oregon. Through listening, observing ...


The Right Tool For The Job? Ignorance, Evolution, Reflection, And The #Resistance, Lynne Stahl Aug 2017

The Right Tool For The Job? Ignorance, Evolution, Reflection, And The #Resistance, Lynne Stahl

OLA Quarterly

“Librarians are Swiss Army knives for the #Resistance,” tweeted musician and activist Neko Case on January 27, 2017, a characterization both fortifying and thought provoking for library workers everywhere. Like any tool, a knife is useless without an agent to wield it—and destructive if applied incorrectly or to the wrong material. If library workers are instruments to be plied to all manner of social ills, what are the potentialities and limits of our agency, and how can we best equip those who would put us to use? This essay works to unpack Case’s metaphor within the context of ...


A Randomly Selected Chamber: Promises And Challenges, Pierre-Etienne Vandamme, Antoine Verret-Hamelin Apr 2017

A Randomly Selected Chamber: Promises And Challenges, Pierre-Etienne Vandamme, Antoine Verret-Hamelin

Journal of Public Deliberation

This paper explores the idea of a randomly selected chamber of representatives (RSC) through an appreciation of the promises it offers and the challenges it would face. We identify two main promises: a RSC could offset the aristocratic character of elections, thereby increasing the legitimacy of the political system; and it could increase democracy’s epistemic potential, thanks to gains in terms of diversity, deliberations, humility, and long-term perspective. We then discuss four key challenges. First, participation: how can the chamber have diversity without mandatory participation or heavy sanctions? Second, how can we conceive or build legitimacy for this non-elected ...


Reevaluating The Constitutionality Of Blanket Primaries, Soren J. Schmidt Apr 2017

Reevaluating The Constitutionality Of Blanket Primaries, Soren J. Schmidt

Brigham Young University Prelaw Review

I argue that the Supreme Court’s ruling in California Democratic Party v. Jones should be reconsidered and overturned, allowing states to adopt blanket-primary election systems. Given the crucial role that primaries play in the public process of elections, parties’ rights of association should not trump the right of the people to select their own representatives. In Jones, the Court applied a stricter constitutional test than necessary, leading to an erroneous conclusion. I demonstrate why a more flexible test would have been more appropriate for judging primary elections. Under this alternative test, public state interests are weighed against party rights ...


Does All The Excitement Really End At Marriage? An Assessment Of Same-Sex Marriage Legislation And Lgbt Activism, Kelsie Diaz Mar 2017

Does All The Excitement Really End At Marriage? An Assessment Of Same-Sex Marriage Legislation And Lgbt Activism, Kelsie Diaz

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the legalization of same-sex marriage, civil unions, and domestic partnerships with LGBT political participation and activism. There has long been a debate between several groups of LGBT activists on what the legalization of same-sex marriage will do to LGBT activism. Will achieving same-sex marriage ultimately hinder the movement or will it open new realms of possibility for change? This study aims to survey the arguments offered by a few prevalent sides of the same-sex marriage debate, then provide empirical information as support for one of those claims. This study ...


From Porto Alegre To New York City: Participatory Budgeting And Democracy, Celina Su Feb 2017

From Porto Alegre To New York City: Participatory Budgeting And Democracy, Celina Su

Publications and Research

Because of its popularity, there is now a large literature examining how participatory budgeting (PB) deepens participation by the poor and redistributes resources. Closer examinations of recent cases of PB can help us to better understand the political configurations in which these new participatory democratic spaces are embedded, and articulate the conditions that might lead to more meaningful outcomes. Who participates? For whose benefit? The articles in this symposium, on participatory budgeting in New York City (PBNYC), highlight both strengths and challenges of the largest American PB process. They focus less on redistribution, more on the dimensions of the process ...


Beyond Inclusion: Critical Race Theory And Participatory Budgeting, Celina Su Feb 2017

Beyond Inclusion: Critical Race Theory And Participatory Budgeting, Celina Su

Publications and Research

Critical Race Theory (CRT) researchers maintain that mainstream liberal discourses of neutrality and colorblindness inherently reify existing patterns of inequality, and that privileging the voices of people of color and the marginalized is essential to addressing issues of equity and equality. Participatory budgeting (PB) aims, too, to include the voices of the marginalized in substantive policy-making. Through a CRT lens, I examine the ways in which the New York City PB process has thus far worked to simultaneously disrupt and maintain racial hierarchies. I pay particular attention to how social constructions of the “good project” shape the discourses around community ...


Affinity Groups, Enclave Deliberation, And Equity, Carolyne Abdullah, Christopher F. Karpowitz, Chad Raphael Oct 2016

Affinity Groups, Enclave Deliberation, And Equity, Carolyne Abdullah, Christopher F. Karpowitz, Chad Raphael

Journal of Public Deliberation

There is growing appreciation for the value of holding enclave dialogue and deliberation among marginalized peoples in their own affinity groups, as one stage in a larger conversation with the broader public or with public officials. These enclaves may be disempowered by enduring political inequalities, or in relation to a particular issue under discussion, or by the act of deliberation itself. Recent research and practice has demonstrated that well-structured dialogue and deliberation in enclaves can increase the inclusion, participation, and influence of members of society who have been excluded from public discourse, while avoiding the dangers of coercion, sectarianism, conformism ...


A Targeted Approach? A Study Of Ngo Roles And Practices In Promoting Economic Development, Emma Shoaf Sep 2016

A Targeted Approach? A Study Of Ngo Roles And Practices In Promoting Economic Development, Emma Shoaf

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

In recent years, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) have become key actors promoting economic development. Despite their rapid rise, there are still significant gaps in the development sphere regarding what NGOs do in specific contexts. This research evaluates how NGOs promote economic development among Palestinian refugees in Lebanon to give context to general trends within development literature. Through an in-depth case study of the NGO Cives Mundi and their recent development project Tatreez–focused on promoting economic empowerment among Palestinian refugee women through the formation of a weaving co-op–this study seeks to evaluate key advantages and disadvantages to NGO work in ...


Why Does Voting Get So Complicated? : A Review Of Theories For Analyzing Democratic Participation., Jeff Gill, Jason Gainous Jul 2016

Why Does Voting Get So Complicated? : A Review Of Theories For Analyzing Democratic Participation., Jeff Gill, Jason Gainous

Jason Gainous

The purpose of this article is to present a sample from the panoply of formal theories on voting and elections to Statistical Science readers who have had limited exposure to such work. These abstract ideas provide a framework for understanding the context of the empirical articles that follow in this volume. The primary focus of this theoretical literature is on the use of mathematical formalism to describe electoral systems and outcomes by modeling both voting rules and human behavior. As with empirical models, these constructs are never perfect descriptors of reality, but instead form the basis for understanding fundamental characteristics ...


Who Cares What They're Saying: Participation In International Development Analysis, Sari N. Hoffman-Dachelet Jun 2016

Who Cares What They're Saying: Participation In International Development Analysis, Sari N. Hoffman-Dachelet

Lawrence University Honors Projects

Participatory methods are the established methodology in international aid and development. Within this paradigm things that are more participatory are thought of as being more impactful, however, the actual success or failure of any given international project is measured by its evaluation team. These evaluations are vitally important in regards to funding, both for future programs and continuing programs, and in shaping the methodology of future programs. These evaluations are also non-participatory. Do the evaluations impact the lives of participants and how do they reflect “good” development? The measures of impact differ from the measures of success, this project looks ...


Personalities & Traditional Political Participation In Young Adults, 18–24, Abigail Pratico May 2016

Personalities & Traditional Political Participation In Young Adults, 18–24, Abigail Pratico

Honors College

This thesis investigates the different political patterns that young adults have in comparison to older generations, and certain personality or attitudinal traits that may encourage traditional participation through voting or joining a political party. Previous research in this field suggests many different factors that encourage or inhibit participation. Parental influence and declining trust in government are considered to be two of the largest indicators of whether a young adult will decide to participate in politics in a traditional way. This thesis will provide an alternative explanation to why we see lower participation in politics for young adults, by exploring the ...


Participatory Budgeting: Core Principles And Key Impacts, Brian Wampler Jan 2016

Participatory Budgeting: Core Principles And Key Impacts, Brian Wampler

Brian Wampler

This essay is a reflection piece. I identify key principles at the core of how PB functions and to discuss the scope of change we might expect to see generated by these institutions. I move beyond the idea that there is a specific model or set of “best practices” that define PB. Rather, it is most fruitful to conceptualize PB as a set of principles that can generate social change. The weaker the adherence to these principles, the less social change generated. The second purpose of the essay is to reflect on the impacts generated by PB. How do these ...


Political Participation And Political Repression: Women In Saudi Arabia, Amalkhon Y. Azimova Jan 2016

Political Participation And Political Repression: Women In Saudi Arabia, Amalkhon Y. Azimova

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In 2015 Saudi Arabian women were for the first time in history granted political space through electoral suffrage. To evaluate whether the new political opening for Saudi Arabian women has improved women's rights and equality in the Kingdom, I sought to conduct interviews to acquire their views and attitudes. In the process my encounters with Saudi Arabian women revealed their fear, cautiousness, and unwillingness to participate politically, which impelled me to discover the relationship between women's political participation and political repression. In the course of this research I learned that political repression inhibits women's political participation, and ...


The Impact Of Governance In Sports Institutions On Olympic Achievements From Decision-Makers' Perspective In The United Arab Emirates, راشد إبراهيم المطوع النعيمي Oct 2015

The Impact Of Governance In Sports Institutions On Olympic Achievements From Decision-Makers' Perspective In The United Arab Emirates, راشد إبراهيم المطوع النعيمي

Theses

The success of sports institutions depends on the extent of achieving outstanding sports results not only at the local level but on all regional and international levels. Hence, efficiency of sports institutions is measured by the number of achievements, especially at the Olympics level as it is the highest rank in the hierarchy of sports achievements. The present study begins from a basic assumption that the weakness of the UAE’s Olympic achievements is due to the governance pattern and management and leadership styles in various sports institutions and especially in the sports federations and sports clubs. In this respect ...


Theorizing An Online Politics: How The Internet Is Reconfiguring Political Space, Subjectivity, Participation, And Conflict, Trevor G. Smith Jun 2015

Theorizing An Online Politics: How The Internet Is Reconfiguring Political Space, Subjectivity, Participation, And Conflict, Trevor G. Smith

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This work considers how politics can be reinvigorated through the use of the internet. The argument consists of two parts, the first of which develops a theoretical understanding of politics, meant to differentiate it from the anti-political status quo, which draws on the theories of participatory and agonistic democracy. It then precedes to develop and adapt this understanding of politics to the context of the internet. This is done by breaking politics up into four terrains of contestation which can be configured to be more or less political.

Politics requires, first of all, a common place to gather. Drawing on ...


A Digital Dud? New Media, Participation, And Voting In The 2004 And 2008 United States Presidential Elections, Jeremy D. Hickman Jan 2015

A Digital Dud? New Media, Participation, And Voting In The 2004 And 2008 United States Presidential Elections, Jeremy D. Hickman

Theses and Dissertations--Sociology

This dissertation analyzes the linkages between new media and the possible emergence of the youngest members of the voting population (the “digital native” generation, who have grown up concurrently with the rise of the internet as a means of communication). The main question is whether this digital native generation will have more civic and political participation due to their use of online news sources and social media communication on news media websites and elsewhere on the internet. Regression analyses are used to explain civic and political participation, using American National Election Studies (ANES) from the 2004 and 2008 presidential elections ...


Effective Number Of Parties And Mass Political Behavior In Europe, Jakub Pawel Zajakala Jan 2015

Effective Number Of Parties And Mass Political Behavior In Europe, Jakub Pawel Zajakala

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Participation is perhaps the most essential component of democracy, as its humane facet, people, is indispensable for it to occur. However, some aspects of this phenomenon have been disregarded in the existing literature. A discernible decrease in the quality and quantity of democratic participation is deemed to endanger the representative capacity of democracy, and consequently, stability of parliamentary and presidential regimes. Using Prais-Winsten regression, the condition of democratic institutions, with an emphasis on the number of parties, is examined by looking at all the European democracies between 1946 and 2014. This Thesis posits that the number of effective actors on ...


Contracting, Contesting, And Co-Optation: Civil Society Organizations’ Strategies Under New Institutional Arrangements In Brazil, Brian Wampler, Michael Touchton Jan 2015

Contracting, Contesting, And Co-Optation: Civil Society Organizations’ Strategies Under New Institutional Arrangements In Brazil, Brian Wampler, Michael Touchton

Political Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

Civil society has exploded in Latin America as democratization has continued over the last 30 years. Civil society organizations (CSOs) are thought to improve governance and oversight and to increase social capital. Nonetheless, we have limited knowledge about what motivates CSOs’ political strategies, which include participating in formal political institutions, attending demonstrations, and providing services. We build knowledge here by evaluating data from a unique survey of nine hundred CSOs across seven Brazilian cities. Our findings showcase several parallel processes: poorer CSOs continue to rely on the state and actively participate in political processes despite protesting at greater rates than ...


Political Content And Political Behavior: Using Functional Theory To Test The Ability Of Political Content To Stimulate Political Interest, Ryan Stouffer Jan 2015

Political Content And Political Behavior: Using Functional Theory To Test The Ability Of Political Content To Stimulate Political Interest, Ryan Stouffer

Wayne State University Dissertations

The health of the American democracy is up for debate. Digital natives will decide the future of this democracy. Fewer digital natives--those who have grown up with Internet access--are engaging in formal political participation, compared to their parents. Digital natives lack the information needed to participate. This study examined the effects of interactive political content on digital natives' political information efficacy (PIE) through an experiment. The results revealed a decrease in the participants' political confidence and a decrease in the likelihood they would vote. Exposure to political information harmed most digital natives' PIE and reinforced political attitudes in some. The ...


The Power Of Creativity: How Web-Based Parody Encourages Chinese Civil Participation, Amber Boczar Jan 2015

The Power Of Creativity: How Web-Based Parody Encourages Chinese Civil Participation, Amber Boczar

International ResearchScape Journal

This article investigates that relationship between e’gao (parody using web-based media) and Chinese civil participation. E’gao (恶搞 EUH-gow) uses videos, images, and text based campaigns that use humor to remove fear of political commentary and action. By detailing the development of China’s internet use, and the creation of the e’gao movement, I argue that e’gao removes the fear of participating in campaigns and movements, which criticize government policy and actions on both local and state levels, by using humor and anonymity of large online numbers. E’gao can provide a way for the common citizens ...