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Articles 1 - 30 of 126

Full-Text Articles in Political Science

The Origins Of Saudi Arabia’S Nuclear Ambitions, Zachary Klein Jun 2019

The Origins Of Saudi Arabia’S Nuclear Ambitions, Zachary Klein

Inter-Text: An Undergraduate Journal for Social Sciences and Humanities

No abstract provided.


Syria As A Factor Of The Political Transformation Of The Middle East, Abdullayev Nodir May 2019

Syria As A Factor Of The Political Transformation Of The Middle East, Abdullayev Nodir

Oriental studies

At the moment, the Middle East remains one of the most explosive regions in the world. Today, Syria has become a kind of center for the global political crisis. This article explores the political prerequisites for the emergence and development of a regional problem, reveals its features, and analyzes the external factors that have had and are affecting the evolution of the Middle East problem. The preconditions for the growth of conflict potential and the intensification of the struggle for influence in the Middle East are studied. The role of Syria in the framework of the rivalry of leading Arab ...


Cooperation Or Conflict: Using Alliance Theory To Explain The Current Gulf Cooperation Council Crisis, Pierre Aguirre May 2019

Cooperation Or Conflict: Using Alliance Theory To Explain The Current Gulf Cooperation Council Crisis, Pierre Aguirre

Honors Scholar Theses

What caused the current diplomatic crisis between countries in the Gulf Cooperation Council? I analyze this question through the lens of alliance politics. In the past, scholars have used these different theories to explain the formation and sustainability of certain alliances, including the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the Gulf Cooperation Council. Specifically, I test Walt's theory of the Balance of Threat against others to see which can best explain the Council's downfall. Using a case study research design, I disaggregate the alliance into three notable periods: formation, sustained cooperation, and discord. My findings reveal that Walt’s ...


Seeds Of Suspicion: The Perpetual Cycle Of Anti-Muslim Stereotypes, Middle East Intervention, And Terrorism, Christopher Ledford Jan 2019

Seeds Of Suspicion: The Perpetual Cycle Of Anti-Muslim Stereotypes, Middle East Intervention, And Terrorism, Christopher Ledford

Theses and Dissertations--Political Science

The central theory guiding my research is that interstate conflict, at least as covered in mass media, leaves residual cultural attitudes that can shape the political context in which elites formulate policy. Specifically, U.S. interventionism in the Middle East has given rise to fundamental hostilities, founded on misguided biases, that shape involvement in the region today. I focus on one step within that broader theory, to test it empirically: the hypothesis that anti-Muslim stereotypes, when activated, will shape an individual’s foreign-policy preferences. I begin by considering competing accounts that link 1) ethnocentrism or 2) targeted stereotypes with support ...


The Muslim Brotherhood: Exploring Divergent Views In Saudi Arabia And Qatar, Andrew Lipp Jan 2019

The Muslim Brotherhood: Exploring Divergent Views In Saudi Arabia And Qatar, Andrew Lipp

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The 2017 Qatar diplomatic crisis upset the traditional alliances of the Middle East. Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, and Egypt severed ties with Qatar, accusing Qatar of sponsoring terrorist organizations and compromising the Gulf Cooperation Council by strengthening relations with Iran. This article highlights the role of the Muslim Brotherhood within both Saudi Arabia and Qatar to demonstrate why the Islamist organization was an important piece in the initiation of the ongoing diplomatic crisis. Using two historical case studies, this paper reveals two divergent views of the MB in Saudi Arabia and Qatar. The Saudi royal family views ...


The Role Of Institutions, Islamism, And Militaries In The Outcomes Of The Arab Spring: The Cases Of Tunisia, Egypt, And Syria, Olivia Delmonico Oct 2018

The Role Of Institutions, Islamism, And Militaries In The Outcomes Of The Arab Spring: The Cases Of Tunisia, Egypt, And Syria, Olivia Delmonico

Sacred Heart University Scholar

During the Arab Spring in 2011, much of the Middle Eastern world faced a series of uprisings demanding democracy and equality. Most of these attempts at revolution desperately failed, with some nations faring far worse than before. Some, however, remain more stable than others, with Tunisia being the sole full success. This article delves into the varying causes of the uprisings in Tunisia, Egypt, and Syria. These countries respectively represent the good, the bad, and the ugly outcomes of the Arab Spring.

Through a thorough analysis of other literature on the subject, I conclude that the success of modern Arab ...


Beyond Carrots And Sticks: An Analysis Of U.S. Approaches To Counterterrorism From 2000-2016, Margaret M. Seymour Jul 2018

Beyond Carrots And Sticks: An Analysis Of U.S. Approaches To Counterterrorism From 2000-2016, Margaret M. Seymour

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

Soft power, a concept developed and presented by Joseph Nye in 1990, has quickly become a critical concept in U.S. foreign policy. Scholars and practitioners discuss the utility or futility of soft power. Theorists rank countries by their use of effective soft power against one another. Critically lacking in the discussion, however, is an analysis of how one country’s use of soft power changes, or remains the same, over time.

Counterterrorism policy has been a focus of U.S. foreign policy since 9/11, and while there is a robust discussion on effectiveness of various policies and strategies ...


America's 'Just Wars' In The 21st Century: Implications Of Just War Theory On The Middle East, Sara Bakhtiar May 2018

America's 'Just Wars' In The 21st Century: Implications Of Just War Theory On The Middle East, Sara Bakhtiar

Senior Theses

This paper will examine the presence of just war theory in the rhetoric and actions of U.S. leaders and policymakers. I look at Afghanistan to highlight the United States' misuse of just war doctrine, which led to highly destructive consequences. I then look at Syria and how just war language is already being used to justify a potential intervention in the state. Last, I assess the United States' intervention in Yemen to argue that the U.S. does not intervene in the Middle East for strictly humanitarian purposes, but rather to pursue and advance its own interests like policies ...


Iran’S New Interventionism: Reconceptualizing Proxy Warfare In The Post-Arab Spring Middle East, Emmet Hollingshead Apr 2018

Iran’S New Interventionism: Reconceptualizing Proxy Warfare In The Post-Arab Spring Middle East, Emmet Hollingshead

Political Science Honors Projects

Iranian proxy groups in the Middle East pose a continuing challenge to stability, American interests, and peaceful self-governance in the region. From a strategic standpoint, Iran’s innovative use of proxy groups to pursue their political and military interests has proven difficult to understand and respond to within a comprehensive framework. This paper will argue in favor of reviving and modifying the ‘new wars’ literature as a theoretical framework for understanding Iranian proxy groups and regional interests. It analyses Iranian actions in fostering relationships with non-state actors in the region as an extension of the state into ‘new wars’ dynamics ...


Monarchical Stability In The Gulf Coast States, Sean Miner Dec 2017

Monarchical Stability In The Gulf Coast States, Sean Miner

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

The monarchies of the Gulf Cooperation Council are thriving today, despite the decline of monarchies everywhere else in the world. I explore the significant factors that allow these countries to maintain monarchy as a viable governing system. I find that Gulf Cooperation Council states employ a diverse set of tools to control the populace and provide stability. These tools include generous social welfare programs, a repressive state security apparatus, a large guest worker population, and strong ties and cooperation with other gulf monarchies. Using these tools allows these states to overcome the political challenges that threaten monarchical stability in our ...


Perspective: Arabia Infelix: The War Devouring Yemen, Sheila Carapico Dec 2017

Perspective: Arabia Infelix: The War Devouring Yemen, Sheila Carapico

Political Science Faculty Publications

For many centuries, European cartographers labeled the southwest corner of the otherwise mostly desert Arabian Peninsula as Arabia Felix, or “Happy Arabia.” It was a place where towering mountains trapped clouds blown in from the Indian Ocean so that twice-annual monsoon rains blessed terraced slopes and lowland wadis with plentiful crops. Sadly, since fighting engulfed the country in late March 2015, Yemen has never been less felix.


Aspects Of Islamic Revival And Radicalization In The Region Of Middle East, Redi Papa Oct 2017

Aspects Of Islamic Revival And Radicalization In The Region Of Middle East, Redi Papa

UBT International Conference

The main objective of this topic is to provide a detailed panorama of the causes of Islamic Revival and radicalization of Islam, particularly in the region of Middle East. In this perspective, it’s somehow puzzling to at the first sight that Arab World used to be a leader in the science, military and science, is now paradoxically a region characterized by unrest and turmoil. Contrary to the past decades where peace was a distinctive peculiarity of the region and economy flourished, now is overwhelmed by the phenomena of the Radicalization of Islam for political purposes and to come to ...


Too Much Democracy?: Trends In American Public Opinion Of Israel, Alexander Thomas May 2017

Too Much Democracy?: Trends In American Public Opinion Of Israel, Alexander Thomas

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

This paper analyzes the factors that influence the American electorate’s support of Israel using data gleaned from the 2016 American National Election Study. Americans have formally recognized the state of Israel since 1948, starting 11 minutes after it declared its independence. Since then, American foreign policy has consistently endeavored to create and maintain a strong Israeli state in the Middle East. However, there is general agreement among foreign policy experts that such one-sided support for Israel has been both economically as well as strategically costly. According to experts, such support has at times contradicted the broader foreign policy goals ...


An Analysis Of The Sociopolitical Factors Contributing To The Politicization Of Sunni Islam In The Middle East, Ginger Wenzel Kieffer May 2017

An Analysis Of The Sociopolitical Factors Contributing To The Politicization Of Sunni Islam In The Middle East, Ginger Wenzel Kieffer

Honors College

This research analyzes the sociopolitical trends of the 20th century that have contributed to the susceptibility of the Middle East to extremist organizations, with a particular focus on Sunni Islamic groups such as the Islamic State. The goal of this analysis is to show how the failure of states to provide sociopolitical and economic stability has led to the politicization of religiosity as an alternative to secular authority.

The major aspects analyzed will be the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, imperialism, nationalism, and the eventual turn towards fundamentalist, extremist organizations within the Middle East. The failure of governmental systems to ...


In Pawn: Kurdish Economic Development In The Context Of Conflict, Stephen E. Mcavene Iii May 2017

In Pawn: Kurdish Economic Development In The Context Of Conflict, Stephen E. Mcavene Iii

International Development, Community and Environment (IDCE)

In this paper the author examines the struggle of the Kurdish people for self-determined social, political, and economic development in the whirlwind of conflict in the Middle East. It uses a case study of how a Kurdish minority in Iraq interact with multiple stakeholders in their struggle for nationhood, and implications of these interactions for overall Kurdish social and economic development. Studies on economic development while interested in social, economic and political aspect of development, are less concerned with the implications of right to self-determination on development; the unique case of the Kurdish struggle provides an opportunity to expand the ...


Us Aid In The Arab World Fact Checking Us Democratization Rhetoric Against Reality, Nicholas Canfield Apr 2017

Us Aid In The Arab World Fact Checking Us Democratization Rhetoric Against Reality, Nicholas Canfield

Stevenson Center for Community and Economic Development to Stevenson Center for Community and Economic Development—Student Research

Many factors have been used to explain durable authoritarianism in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), and one of the most important external influences of MENA governments’ structure is support from the United States. The US balances security concerns and democratization rhetoric in the region, but much literature promotes that security concerns are the most important factor for US support in MENA. Using US aid as a proxy for US support, this study finds that US aid actually increases democratization in MENA, and counterintuitively, aid to MENA military and police forces seems to have a stronger democratization effect than ...


U.S. Democracy Promotion In The Middle East: More And Less Than Meets The Eye, Julia Lang Gordon Jan 2017

U.S. Democracy Promotion In The Middle East: More And Less Than Meets The Eye, Julia Lang Gordon

Senior Projects Spring 2017

Senior Project submitted to The Division of Social Studies of Bard College.


The Wwi Middle East: Western Intervention And Modern-Day Political Conflict, Pauline Park Jan 2017

The Wwi Middle East: Western Intervention And Modern-Day Political Conflict, Pauline Park

Global Tides

This paper analyzes three conflicting agreements made by the Allied powers between 1915 and 1917: the Husayn-McMahon correspondence, the Sykes-Picot arrangements, and the Balfour Declaration. It reveals the agreements as demonstrative of deeper patterns of political power and strategy in the Middle East that persist today. This paper moreover compares the Middle East with the European colonization of Rwanda in the 1880s, and how the nation's internal division was caused by external global powers seeking political and economic gain. This analysis seeks to connect global events as part of a wider political agenda propagated by Western powers.


Political Islam And Democracy, Mikellon S. Browne-Michael Jan 2017

Political Islam And Democracy, Mikellon S. Browne-Michael

Honors Undergraduate Theses

The Middle East is a predominately Islamic region. Islam is not only a religion, it is the Muslim way of life and law. The western world follows a more modern system of government, in the form of democracy. Democracy is not modern, as in new, since it was started by the ancient Greeks, but it is modern, because it is the main system being adopted in contemporary times.

Muslims follow the ideals found in the Holy Quran, the book dictated by the prophet Muhammad. The Middle East has had a strong Islamic influence since the mid-seventh century. Islam originated in ...


Measuring Vulnerability: Addressing The Prevention Of Trafficking And Forced Labor Of Refugees In Jordan, Allison K. Dudley Jan 2017

Measuring Vulnerability: Addressing The Prevention Of Trafficking And Forced Labor Of Refugees In Jordan, Allison K. Dudley

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The intersection of trafficking, forced labor, and refugees is well-cited in the international human rights community yet is rarely studied academically, especially in the Middle East. Given the massive Syrian refugee crisis that began in 2011, which increased the total global population of refugees to the largest total in history, it is more important than ever to study and better understand how refugees are vulnerable to trafficking and forced labor, particularly in impacted countries. The purpose of this research is to answer the question why refugees are vulnerable and how anti-trafficking and anti-forced labor initiatives can use vulnerability indicators as ...


"Who Am I?": The Development Of A Male Palestinian Political Identity, Tala J. Dayyat Dec 2016

"Who Am I?": The Development Of A Male Palestinian Political Identity, Tala J. Dayyat

Master's Theses

The Palestinian people have lived under numerous imperial rulers; first, the Ottoman Empire, then later the British. Today they live under the military occupation of the state of Israel as second class citizen millions more living abroad as refugees. Young Palestinian men have become the leaders and the physical manifestation of the struggle against Israel, a political Goliath that has used tactics to repress the Palestinians such as, detentions, beatings, and land confiscation, which many outside of the Israeli state deem as illegal. Scholar Rashid Khalidi states that “the quintessential Palestinian experience, which illustrates some of the most basic issues ...


Jimmy Carter And Anwar El-Sadat: Relationships And Motivations Behind The 1978 Camp David Accords, Treston Paul Chandler Dec 2016

Jimmy Carter And Anwar El-Sadat: Relationships And Motivations Behind The 1978 Camp David Accords, Treston Paul Chandler

Senior Theses

This thesis addresses the American and Egyptian motivations behind the conclusion of the 1978 Camp David Accords between the United States, Egypt, and Israel. In addition, it considers the role the personal relationships developed between the principal leaders played in reaching an ultimate agreement. The thesis primarily relies on recently declassified Department of State and Central Intelligence Agency documents to reconstruct the American and Egyptian impetuses for peace, as seen from the outset of Jimmy Carter’s presidency. It also draws on the memoirs and writings of those directly involved in the peace process. Then, the thesis reviews how these ...


“Frames” And Bias: How A Lack Of Context In Middle East News Coverage Can Impact U.S. Foreign Policy, Jennifer Lois Moore Dec 2016

“Frames” And Bias: How A Lack Of Context In Middle East News Coverage Can Impact U.S. Foreign Policy, Jennifer Lois Moore

MSU Graduate Theses

This thesis is a critical examination into how American mainstream news media outlets often neglect to incorporate religious, cultural and historical context into their coverage of the Middle East. I show through my research and analysis that the news coverage of the Middle East, even at the highest echelons of American journalism, is often lacking in sophistication in terms of cultural and religious context, sometimes to the point of affecting its fairness and accuracy. The danger of this is that it has the power to grossly simplify and reduce to an “us versus them” frame an entire contingent of the ...


The Failure Of Westphalia: A Constructivist Examination Of Western And Middle Eastern Relations, Jayson Warren Dec 2016

The Failure Of Westphalia: A Constructivist Examination Of Western And Middle Eastern Relations, Jayson Warren

Masters Theses

This thesis is not intended to be a dogmatic or pedantic endorsement of any one religion, ethic, or culture. To the contrary, it is the intent of the author to examine a number of competing ideas, philosophies, and belief systems in order to extrapolate their geopolitical implications and to pursue them to their logical (albeit sometimes inevitable) conclusions. Too often, any number of presuppositions at work within a given situation go overlooked and subsequently skew geopolitical analysis and resulting policy decisions. This thesis seeks to transcend mere opinion or speculation and achieve instead a framework of Constructivism for pragmatic comprehension ...


Cultural Awareness In Nuclear Security Programs: A Critical Link, Al-Sharif Nasser Bin Nasser, Jasmine Auda, Katherine Bachner Nov 2016

Cultural Awareness In Nuclear Security Programs: A Critical Link, Al-Sharif Nasser Bin Nasser, Jasmine Auda, Katherine Bachner

International Journal of Nuclear Security

Nuclear security programs that offer training and capacity building opportunities to practitioners working in nuclear facilities play a central role in strengthening the global nuclear security architecture. There is often a significant divide, however, between both the development of these programs and their implementation, and between the programs’ intended and actual outcomes. As this article will argue, this disconnect can often be attributed to an absence of cultural awareness and an inability for internationally-designed programs to effectively resonate with local audiences. Accordingly, the importance of the role of cultural awareness in implementing nuclear security programs will be assessed, and its ...


Veto Syria: Explaining The Power Of The United Nations Security Council And The Syrian Refugee Crisis, Hanouf Khallaf May 2016

Veto Syria: Explaining The Power Of The United Nations Security Council And The Syrian Refugee Crisis, Hanouf Khallaf

Master's Projects and Capstones

The purpose of this research is to provide an analysis of the United Nations Security Council compliance with the Charter of the United Nations and the effectiveness of its Responsibility to Protect innocent civilians from crimes committed against them, particularly within the Syrian region in the Middle East. In addition, this research suggests that the Security Council needs reform in order to meet its obligations and function effectively in world crises. In order to achieve this, the research proposes multiple reform recommendations that could be implemented immediately within the system.


Transnational Capitalism And The Middle East: Understanding The Transnational Elites Of The Gulf Cooperation Council, Seyed Ahmad Mirtaheri May 2016

Transnational Capitalism And The Middle East: Understanding The Transnational Elites Of The Gulf Cooperation Council, Seyed Ahmad Mirtaheri

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation, I argue that transnational elites within the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) have been integrated within a Transnational Capitalist Class (TCC) economically, militarily and politically through relationships that transcend the boundaries of the nation-state. These relationships exist within the context of a global capitalist structure of accumulation that is dependent on the maintenance of a repressive state apparatus in the GCC. There have been few attempts to analyze the relationships that Middle Eastern political and economic elites have developed with global elite networks. This work fills an important gap in the scholarly literature by linking the political and ...


Containment: A Failed American Foreign Policy And How The Truman Doctrine Led To The Rise In Islamic Extremism In The Muslim World, Christopher Jonathan Gerber Mar 2016

Containment: A Failed American Foreign Policy And How The Truman Doctrine Led To The Rise In Islamic Extremism In The Muslim World, Christopher Jonathan Gerber

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

After World War II the United States, faced with the new Soviet threat of Communism, instituted the foreign policy known as “containment” in order to mitigate the threat to Western European states of Soviet expansionism. After the fall of Communism in the USSR in 1991 that policy was deemed, at once, a success and an anachronism. The power vacuum that the subsequent abandonment of that policy created was most notable in the Islamic states that had served as proxies in the Cold War against Communism. Both the backdrop of containment as well as the withdrawal of that policy served to ...


Woodrow Wilson: A Failure Of Leadership - A Broken Middle East, Timothy P. O'Brien Jan 2016

Woodrow Wilson: A Failure Of Leadership - A Broken Middle East, Timothy P. O'Brien

Faculty Publications and Presentations

President Woodrow Wilson failed to engage and lead the Great Powers at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, thereby missing the opportunity to influence and shape the eventual outcomes of their far-reaching policy decisions. Had he been more effective there, many of the dysfunctions in the Middle East may well not exist today.


International Creations: The Case Of Iraq, Syria, And Jordan, Brittany Hale Jan 2016

International Creations: The Case Of Iraq, Syria, And Jordan, Brittany Hale

PPPA Paper Prize

This paper compares and contrasts Syria, Jordan, and Iraq, in terms of history and international policy.