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Mediation

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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Translating Scholarship Into Policy, Scott Sigmund Gartner, Amy C. Gaudion Jan 2019

Translating Scholarship Into Policy, Scott Sigmund Gartner, Amy C. Gaudion

Amy C. Gaudion

There is an ever widening gap between conflict resolution policy makers and scholars—a tragedy given practitioners’ dire need for new ideas to help resolve deadly conflicts and the growing knowledge researchers have to share. Research tends to swing like a pendulum between analytic and rigorous methods and accessible and relevant approaches. We reject this tradeoff. We believe that research can be simultaneously rigorous and relevant, and analytic and accessible. Given the devastating loss of life associated with armed conflict, the need for translating research results into policy prescriptions is especially strong in peacemaking. The goal of this issue of ...


A Call To Peace: How Third-Party Actors And Frameworks Impacted The Peace Processes Of Northern Ireland And Colombia, Esther K. Holm Dec 2018

A Call To Peace: How Third-Party Actors And Frameworks Impacted The Peace Processes Of Northern Ireland And Colombia, Esther K. Holm

Channels: Where Disciplines Meet

Northern Ireland and Colombia both serve as excellent case studies on how the end of the Cold War impacted peace processes. Both countries experienced conflicts that begun in the Cold War era and underwent peace processes in the post-Cold War era. As such, studying them reveals characteristics of post-Cold War peace processes. For example, both Northern Ireland and Colombia showcase the important role that third-party actors play in modern conflict mediation. Both countries benefited greatly from mediation conducted by international organization, other countries, and individuals. Furthermore, both countries demonstrate the importance of frameworks in any successful peace negotiation. This paper ...


Escalation In International Conflict Management: A Foreign Policy Perspective, Molly M. Melin Sep 2015

Escalation In International Conflict Management: A Foreign Policy Perspective, Molly M. Melin

Political Science: Faculty Publications and Other Works

Efforts to resolve interstate disputes are often characterized by repeated engagement and evolving strategies. What explains a state’s decision to continue conflict resolution efforts but escalate their management strategy? Drawing from foreign policy literature, I argue third parties escalate policies both in response to past failures, shifting conflict dynamics, and their relationship with the disputants. Analysis of management efforts from 1946 to 2001 reveals that the changing nature of the conflict, policy failures and relationships between the third party and disputants are integral to understanding the management decision process, but the effects of these factors depend on the management ...


Reconciling Ex Ante Expectations With The Ex Post Reality: A Look At The Effectiveness Of Third-Party Diplomatic Interventions In Civil Wars, Matthew Benchimol Jan 2015

Reconciling Ex Ante Expectations With The Ex Post Reality: A Look At The Effectiveness Of Third-Party Diplomatic Interventions In Civil Wars, Matthew Benchimol

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Research has begun to focus on the role third-party diplomatic intervention plays in the length of civil conflicts. Diplomatic interventions by a third-party actor are assumed to help resolve or alleviate violence over time. Is this really the case? Hypotheses relating to these aspects of civil wars are proposed to test this long-standing assumption. This thesis uses statistical analysis to observe the relationship between diplomatic interventions and civil war duration and then observe the relationship between duration and civil war violence. The data incorporates approximately 150 civil wars from 1945 to 1999, 101 of which had outside interventions. This thesis ...


Interpreting, Stephanie Jo Kent Aug 2014

Interpreting, Stephanie Jo Kent

Doctoral Dissertations

What do community interpreting for the Deaf in western societies, conference interpreting for the European Parliament, and language brokering in international management have in common? Academic research and professional training have historically emphasized the linguistic and cognitive challenges of interpreting, neglecting or ignoring the social aspects that structure communication. All forms of interpreting are inherently social; they involve relationships among at least three people and two languages. The contexts explored here, American Sign Language/English interpreting and spoken language interpreting within the European Parliament, show that simultaneous interpreting involves attitudes, norms and values about intercultural communication that overemphasize information and ...


Mediation – Its Potential And Its Limits: Developing An Effective Discourse On The Research And Practice Of Peacemaking, Dennis C. Jett Apr 2013

Mediation – Its Potential And Its Limits: Developing An Effective Discourse On The Research And Practice Of Peacemaking, Dennis C. Jett

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

This article looks at the various contributions to this issue of the Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs. The contributors have analyzed the potential and limits of mediation, but have focused on a number of different aspects of that process. The analytic research relevant to conflict situations will be most useful, however, if the recommendations offered for how to bring conflicts to an end can actually be of use to practitioners in the field. The approach of this article is therefore to consider how policymakers might employ these recommendations as they pursue the goal of peace. It also discusses ...


Ethnic Conflict: An Organizational Perspective, Victor Asal, Jonathan Wilkenfeld Apr 2013

Ethnic Conflict: An Organizational Perspective, Victor Asal, Jonathan Wilkenfeld

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

To talk about the behavior of others is to generalize especially if that behavior is perceived to be negative. As researchers who have studied ethnic discrimination and ethnic conflict for close to two decades, we have noticed, anecdotally at least, that this penchant for generalization is rampant in discussions of ethnic politics. Journalists and academics tend to talk about one or another ethnic group’s involvement in violence without specifying a political organizational agent. This kind of generalization is a serious obstacle to understanding conflicts and identifying solutions because it prevents policymakers and academics from getting at the messy reality ...


When States Mediate, Molly M. Melin Apr 2013

When States Mediate, Molly M. Melin

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

Militarized conflict is one of the most devastating of all human activities. The international community’s response to conflict occurrence can significantly affect the number of casualties, the extent of resulting devastation and even the outcome of the conflict. State responses range from conflict management, whereby third parties actively engage in resolving the conflict; joining, whereby states become an additional disputant; or remaining uninvolved. One of the most common active third-party responses is to act as a mediator, a role using consensual, nonbinding and nonviolent means of conflict management and resolution. This paper explores the policy of state-led mediation, its ...


The Politics Of International Arbitration And Adjudication, Stephen E. Gent Apr 2013

The Politics Of International Arbitration And Adjudication, Stephen E. Gent

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

Arbitration and adjudication have proven to be effective means of producing long-lasting settlements on contentious issues, but states are generally reluctant to use such legal forms of dispute resolution, especially in resolving issues of national security. To understand when policymakers can and should promote the use of legal mechanisms, they need to understand the political reasons behind the reluctance of states to use these forums. This essay identifies five factors that significantly influence the willingness of states to relinquish decision control and pursue arbitration or adjudication: third-party bias, salience, uncertainty, bargaining power, and armed conflict. To promote the use of ...


Using The Right Tool For The Job: Mediator Leverage And Conflict Resolution, Kyle Beardsley Apr 2013

Using The Right Tool For The Job: Mediator Leverage And Conflict Resolution, Kyle Beardsley

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

In international dispute mediation, a one-size-fits-all view of mediation may actually inhibit effective conflict resolution. Mediators must especially tailor the level of leverage to the needs of the situation. This essay first considers existing studies that have found both potential benefits and risks of heavy-handed third-party involvement as a conflict-management strategy. It then considers a few illustrative cases to demonstrate the importance of making sure that the tools of mediation fit the context. Finally, it concludes with a discussion of how sustained post-conflict peacekeeping and peacebuilding can reduce the risks of leverage in mediation.


Who Should Be At The Table?: Veto Players And Peace Processes In Civil War, David E. Cunningham Apr 2013

Who Should Be At The Table?: Veto Players And Peace Processes In Civil War, David E. Cunningham

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

Civil wars contain a set of actors that have the ability to block settlement and continue the war on their own. When they contain more “veto players,” conflicts are much longer and negotiations are more likely to break down. The rate of success of international efforts to resolve multi-party civil wars is much lower than when there is only one rebel group fighting the government. This article discusses implications for peacemakers designing responses to conflicts with multiple veto players. Negotiations in these conflicts are most likely to lead to a peace agreement that successfully ends the war if they include ...


Deceptive Results: Why Mediation Appears To Fail But Actually Succeeds, Scott Sigmund Gartner Apr 2013

Deceptive Results: Why Mediation Appears To Fail But Actually Succeeds, Scott Sigmund Gartner

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

International disputes receiving third-party mediation are less likely to result in peace treaties than those negotiated bilaterally between the disputants. When belligerents do settle, mediated agreements are more likely to fail. Is mediation detrimental to conflict resolution? No. Third-party mediation represents a highly effective, but costly, means of peacemaking. Disputants recognize its costs and only employ mediation when they are unable to resolve a conflict between themselves, creating a “selection effect.” As a result, mediators are selected for the toughest cases – those least likely to end peacefully and mostly likely to result in fragile agreements. When the difficulty of resolving ...


Research On Bias In Mediation: Policy Implications, Isak Svensson Apr 2013

Research On Bias In Mediation: Policy Implications, Isak Svensson

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

One of the most important and disputed questions within the field of international mediation concerns the issue of bias. The question of bias cuts to the core of what mediation is and the ways in which mediators can help the parties reach peace. Focusing on research on the role of neutrality and bias in international peace diplomacy in civil wars, this article draws out the policy implications of my own empirically-based work on the role of bias in the mediation of internal armed conflicts. This article suggests that neutrality should not be part of the definition of mediators, and that ...


The Lack Of Coordination In Diplomatic Peacemaking, Birger Heldt Apr 2013

The Lack Of Coordination In Diplomatic Peacemaking, Birger Heldt

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

The increased number of peacemaking actors during the past twenty years is accompanied by an increased amount of peacemaking, but also a low success rate. This article focuses on recent emerging conflicts. It finds that peacemaking is prevalent, but is often not coordinated with regard to choice of tools (mediation, arbitration, etc.), or the agenda or the issues of the talks. This lack of coordination has for many years been recognized as detrimental and may partly explain the low success rate. The article suggests that policymakers need to have a long-term strategy to address the coordination problem, part of which ...


Translating Scholarship Into Policy, Scott Sigmund Gartner, Amy C. Gaudion Apr 2013

Translating Scholarship Into Policy, Scott Sigmund Gartner, Amy C. Gaudion

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

There is an ever widening gap between conflict resolution policy makers and scholars—a tragedy given practitioners’ dire need for new ideas to help resolve deadly conflicts and the growing knowledge researchers have to share. Research tends to swing like a pendulum between analytic and rigorous methods and accessible and relevant approaches. We reject this tradeoff. We believe that research can be simultaneously rigorous and relevant, and analytic and accessible. Given the devastating loss of life associated with armed conflict, the need for translating research results into policy prescriptions is especially strong in peacemaking. The goal of this issue of ...


Strategic Mediation: The Domestic Influences And Constraints On Diplomacy, James Preston Todhunter Aug 2012

Strategic Mediation: The Domestic Influences And Constraints On Diplomacy, James Preston Todhunter

Doctoral Dissertations

Mediation theory has developed separately from mainstream theories explaining foreign policy. Specifically, mediator motivations and constraints have often been overlooked. I extend an argument explaining mediator motivations, and thus mediation occurrence and strategy, in terms of domestic political institutions and leader performance. The notion that leaders use foreign policy in order to help further their domestic fortunes and those of their party is widely accepted in the international relations literature, as is the notion that political survival is pre-eminent in any leader’s decision-making calculus. Scholars have also shown that leaders shift their focus to foreign policy when institutional factors ...


The Alternative Forms Of Dispute Settlement And The Essential Difference Between These And Arbitration, Michael Diathesopoulos Mar 2012

The Alternative Forms Of Dispute Settlement And The Essential Difference Between These And Arbitration, Michael Diathesopoulos

Michael Diathesopoulos

The paper examines the characteristics of some common alternative forms of dispute settlement and their key differences from arbitration regarding their nature and scope. Its purpose is to explore each mechanism's suitability for specific types of disputes.


Bidding (Fair)Well To Due Process: The Need For A Fairer Final Stage In Special Education Dispute Resolution, Calanthe Cope-Kasten Apr 2011

Bidding (Fair)Well To Due Process: The Need For A Fairer Final Stage In Special Education Dispute Resolution, Calanthe Cope-Kasten

Political Science Honors Projects

In the United States, 6.8 million children receive special education services, and disputes over their education can become highly adversarial. This thesis examines due process hearings, which are the last resort for parents in special education conflicts, and evaluates the fairness of those hearings. Using interviews with judges and data from hearings between 2000-2009 in Wisconsin and Minnesota, I find that special education due process hearings are unfair because they inconsistently provide procedural protections, damage parent-school relationships, and provide insufficient outcomes for students. I conclude that a new system should replace special education due process hearings in the future.


Does Deliberation Make Better Citizens? Examining The Case Of Community Conflict Mediation, Heather Pincock Jan 2011

Does Deliberation Make Better Citizens? Examining The Case Of Community Conflict Mediation, Heather Pincock

Political Science - Dissertations

In this dissertation, I explore the educative effects of deliberation through interviews and observation at two community mediation organizations in Toronto. Theorists have long claimed that participation in deliberation can change the skills and dispositions of participants in ways that make them better citizens. Despite the normative work such claims perform in justifications for participatory and deliberative democracy, they remain theoretically and empirically underscrutinized. I seek to address this by developing empirically grounded insights about the educative potential that can realistically be attributed to deliberative processes. I argue that educative claims can best be examined when parsed into three categories ...


The Role Of Personal Characteristics In International Mediations, Joshua Paul Galliano Jan 2002

The Role Of Personal Characteristics In International Mediations, Joshua Paul Galliano

LSU Master's Theses

This paper presents research on the influence of psychological factors on the outcome of mediation attempts. The research utilizes a base-line model as proposed by Bercovitch, where mediator strategy and mediation outcome result from antecedent contextual inputs and the current mediation process. In addition to these established factors, relevant psychological variables are tested through the Med97 dataset. The case list consists of mediation attempts determined by the involvement of a single mediator and a single negotiator for each side, which allows for the investigation of the effects of the mediator’s and the negotiator’s psychological characteristics. The psychological characteristics ...


Summer Welles' Mediation In Cuba, 1933, Margaret Naegle Feb 1964

Summer Welles' Mediation In Cuba, 1933, Margaret Naegle

Latin American Studies ETDs

This writer first became interested in the 1933 revolution in Cuba during lectures given in May, 1963 at the University of New Mexico. As part of these lectures an interesting theory was presented regarding the Communist "takeover" of Cuba. Briefly, this theory holds that behind every successful Communist revolution (Russia, China, Cuba, for examples) there has been an earlier attempt at social revolution which failed. In the case of Cuba, this would be the revolution of 1933, and especially the reformist provisional government of Dr. Ramón Grau San Martín.

The entire process of the 1933 Cuban revolution calls for an ...