Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Political Science Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Latin America

Discipline
Institution
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 31 - 60 of 126

Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Judicial Reform Amid Violence In Latin America, Erin Terese Huebert Jan 2017

Judicial Reform Amid Violence In Latin America, Erin Terese Huebert

Political Science Graduate Theses & Dissertations

My dissertation investigates the puzzle of rising crime across Latin America amidst improvements in human development and democratic governance. While efforts have been made to reform the criminal justice system, we do not know the conditions under which judicial reform effectively deters homicide. Drawing on four months of fieldwork in Mexico as well as a novel cross-national dataset and a sub-national design in Mexico, I find that criminal procedure reforms aimed at improving due process are not sufficient for deterring homicide in places where non-state actors (i.e. drug cartels) effectively challenge the state’s monopoly of violence. In these ...


Cicig In Guatemala: The Institutionalization Of An Anti-Corruption Body, Greg M. Morano Jan 2017

Cicig In Guatemala: The Institutionalization Of An Anti-Corruption Body, Greg M. Morano

Honors Theses

When is the institutionalization of anti-corruption bodies possible in Latin America? Central America’s Cold War era internal conflicts destabilized the Northern Triangle’s governments and greatly weakened judicial institutions. The legacy of these conflicts led to the creation of parallel corrupt networks that infiltrated state institutions and perpetuated impunity and violence. However, in Guatemala, the institutionalization of the International Commission Against Impunity in Guatemala (Comisión Internacional Contra la Impunidad en Guatemala, CICIG) has improved the country’s ability to prosecute high-level corruption against the threat of powerful and corrupt state actors. A comparative analysis of the tenures of CICIG ...


Social Policies And Center-Right Governments In Argentina And Chile, Sara Niedzwiecki, Jennifer Pribble Jan 2017

Social Policies And Center-Right Governments In Argentina And Chile, Sara Niedzwiecki, Jennifer Pribble

Political Science Faculty Publications

Latin America’s “left turn” expanded cash transfers and public services, contributing to lower poverty and inequality. Recently, right-leaning candidates and parties have begun to win back seats in the legislature, and in some cases have captured the executive branch. This shift has sparked debate about the future of Latin America’s welfare states. In this paper we analyze social policy reforms enacted by two recent right-leaning governments: Sebastián Piñera in Chile (2010-2014) and Mauricio Macri in Argentina (2015—). Contrary to neoliberal adjustment policies of the past, we find that neither Macri nor Piñera engaged in privatization or deep spending ...


Institutions Of Environmental Democracy And Environmental Justice: The Case Of Chile, Sherrie Baver Ph.D. Jan 2017

Institutions Of Environmental Democracy And Environmental Justice: The Case Of Chile, Sherrie Baver Ph.D.

Publications and Research

As a comparativist, searching for a framework for “comparative environmental politics” (as opposed to policy), I began studying the three “Principle 10 (P10)” environmental access rights (also known as the pillars of environmental democracy)i, first promulgated in the 1992 Rio Declaration. Since the late 1990s, these P10 rights, “access to environmental information,” “access to participation,” and, “access to justice in environmental matters,” are globally seen as promoting transparent, inclusive, and accountable governance. Their greatest adoption success to date is the European Union’s (EU) 1998 Aarhus Convention, which the EU saw as a way to deepen democracy and sustainability ...


Linguistic Imperialism And Volunteer English Teaching: A Neo-Colonial Practice?, Sarah K. Hamburg Jan 2017

Linguistic Imperialism And Volunteer English Teaching: A Neo-Colonial Practice?, Sarah K. Hamburg

Undergraduate Theses and Professional Papers

Colonial era tactics of oppression may seem obsolete; however, the United States continues to exploit the same peripheral nations that it, and other world superpowers, have dominated for centuries. In Latin America, the influence of the American hegemony penetrates every aspect of life. Unable to escape the grip of the capitalist system, Latin America has become culturally subservient to the United States, whose supremacy has, over time, led to the extinction and endangerment of hundreds of indigenous languages and cultures. Through years of exposure to American mass culture (i.e. television, music, media, and consumer products), and an unyielding economically ...


Citizen Security And Democratization In Latin America: Implications Of Law Enforcement Reforms And Demilitarization, Fernanda Andrea Gutierrez Merino Jan 2017

Citizen Security And Democratization In Latin America: Implications Of Law Enforcement Reforms And Demilitarization, Fernanda Andrea Gutierrez Merino

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Latin American region has transitioned to democracy in the last forty-thirty years and along with many policy reforms, citizen security has not been left behind. As these changes evolve, the relationship between internal security and the development of a stable democracy has acquired a great importance in terms of the factors that contribute to a free world. The purpose of this research is to look at how security policy and policing in Argentina, Chile, el Salvador, and Mexico have contributed to the democratization process in regards to how the recent reforms in law enforcement in the region have created favorable ...


Cross-Cultural Comparison Of Servant Leadership In The United States And Latin America, Ismael Merino Dec 2016

Cross-Cultural Comparison Of Servant Leadership In The United States And Latin America, Ismael Merino

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In this study, the subject matter evaluated is the difference between the United States and Latin America concerning the practice and acceptance of servant leadership. This research compares the practice and the acceptance of servant leadership between the United States of America and Latin America. In order to do this, a cross-cultural comparison was conducted between these two groups. The objective was to find the differences in the leadership styles of these two groups and subsequently analyze the results. The Hofstede’s cultural dimensions were used to be able to compare cultural differences, and understand why these differences appear in ...


The Politics Of Democratization: Jean-Bertrand Aristide And The Lavalas Movement In Haiti, Dimmy Herard Nov 2016

The Politics Of Democratization: Jean-Bertrand Aristide And The Lavalas Movement In Haiti, Dimmy Herard

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

As the 29-year Duvalier dictatorship ended in 1986, the emergence of Mouvement Lavalas out of the grassroots organizations of Haiti's poor majority, and election of charismatic priest Jean-Bertrand Aristide in 1990, challenged efforts by Haitian political parties and the U.S. foreign policy establishment to contain the parameters of Haiti's democratic transition. This dissertation examines the politics of Lavalas to determine whether it held a particular conception of democracy that explains the movement's antagonistic relationship with the political parties and U.S. democracy promoters.

Using the qualitative methodology of process-tracing outlined in the works of Paul F ...


Transnational Indigenous Migration: Racialized Geographies And Power In Southern Highland Ecuador, Victoria Stone-Cadena Sep 2016

Transnational Indigenous Migration: Racialized Geographies And Power In Southern Highland Ecuador, Victoria Stone-Cadena

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This study examines the shifting landscape of social and economic inequalities in the remittance-dominated region of southern highland Ecuador, focusing on the transformations brought about by increased international migration since the early 2000s. The broader question is whether or not transnational migration has facilitated political and social upward mobility among indigenous communities. More specifically I ask: in what ways does indigenous identity figure in contemporary international migration practices, how does transnational indigenous migration complicate bounded notions of rural indigenous life, and how might the strategies employed by indigenous migrants transform social and economic inequalities in two small towns in the ...


Международные Отношения: Россия, Латинская Америка И Конфликт В Украине = [International Relations: Russia, Latin America, And The Conflict In Ukraine], Simon Gaetano Ciccarillo May 2016

Международные Отношения: Россия, Латинская Америка И Конфликт В Украине = [International Relations: Russia, Latin America, And The Conflict In Ukraine], Simon Gaetano Ciccarillo

Student Honors Theses By Year

This purpose of this thesis paper, which had originally been written for the Russian Department at Dickinson College, was meant to be both an analytical and informational approach to current developing international relations trends between Russia – a reemerging regional power, and Latin America, a vigorously developing area of the world where more influence is growing. While critical and skeptical of the American foreign policy decisions made since the Monroe Doctrine of 1823, the most significant aspect about it is how the March 2014 UN vote on the Crimea Referendum on whether to condone or reject Russia’s annexation of the ...


The Rising Tide Of Indigenous Mobilization: Identity And The Politics Of Refusal In Mexico And Ecuador, Kelsey J. Freeman May 2016

The Rising Tide Of Indigenous Mobilization: Identity And The Politics Of Refusal In Mexico And Ecuador, Kelsey J. Freeman

Honors Projects

No abstract provided.


Mapuche Resilience: Environmental Justice In Chile, Hannah N. Lussier Jan 2016

Mapuche Resilience: Environmental Justice In Chile, Hannah N. Lussier

ENV 434 Environmental Justice

This paper presents a close analysis of the Mapuche Conflict and its implications from an Environmental Justice perspective. It serves to outline the plight of the Mapuche, a South American indigenous group, in their continued struggle to gain the rights to autonomic control over their ancestral territory from the Chilean government. By utilizing a holistic approach to research, this paper serves to provide a background on the conflict as well as to incorporate claims to justice. It chronicles the depth and breadth of media attention on the issue by incorporating perspectives from scholarly articles, news sources and social media platforms ...


U.S. Intervention In Latin America: An Evolving Policy, Or A Quest For Supremacy?, John G. Marshall Jan 2016

U.S. Intervention In Latin America: An Evolving Policy, Or A Quest For Supremacy?, John G. Marshall

CMC Senior Theses

All nation's foreign policy attempts to create social, economic, and political conditions in the world that most favor that nations interests. This thesis outlines the major decision points in U.S. foreign policy in Latin America, analyzing the reasoning behind the decisions and their impact. Recent U.S. counter-insurgency efforts have offered a different justification for intervention, and this thesis explores the authenticity of these new justifications in light of recent terrorist events.


Interest Groups And Exchange Rate Policy Choice In Brazil And Venezuela: Incorporating The Workers, James Suggett Jan 2016

Interest Groups And Exchange Rate Policy Choice In Brazil And Venezuela: Incorporating The Workers, James Suggett

Dissertations and Theses

Why did Brazil and Venezuela choose different exchange rate policies in 2003? Brazilian President Luiz Inácio “Lula” da Silva chose to maintain the managed float established by his predecessor; Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez chose to switch to a fixed exchange rate. Economic explanations typically consider structural factors drawn from Optimum Currency Area (OCA) theory as well as macroeconomic indicators such as level of reserves and inflation. Political explanations examine regime type, parliamentary structure, and interest groups. This study further explores the role of interest groups in determining exchange rate policy choice. Existing research on interest groups focuses primarily on major ...


What Accounts For The Success Of New Ethnically Based Parties In Latin America And The Rise Of Ethnopopulism: – A Comparative Study Between Ecuador, Bolivia And Peru, Monica M. Orellana Jan 2016

What Accounts For The Success Of New Ethnically Based Parties In Latin America And The Rise Of Ethnopopulism: – A Comparative Study Between Ecuador, Bolivia And Peru, Monica M. Orellana

Dissertations and Theses

No abstract provided.


¿Dónde Están Todas Las Mujeres?: The Impact Of Female Labor Force Participation On Female Political Representation In Latin America, Murakami A. Carpenter Dec 2015

¿Dónde Están Todas Las Mujeres?: The Impact Of Female Labor Force Participation On Female Political Representation In Latin America, Murakami A. Carpenter

Honors Theses

Do higher levels of female labor force participation increase female political representation? Over the past 40 years, the involvement of Latina women in the labor force and the number of female legislators in Latin America has been steadily increasing. To determine if there is a correlation between these two variables, this research builds on the socio-economic status model created by Brady, Verba and Schlozman (1995). Using both a bivariate and a multivariate model, I test for a correlation between the number of women working and the number of elected female legislators in 24 Latin American countries. Contrary to expectations, I ...


Reproductive Rights In Latin America: A Case Study Of Guatemala And Nicaragua, Katherine W. Bogen Oct 2015

Reproductive Rights In Latin America: A Case Study Of Guatemala And Nicaragua, Katherine W. Bogen

Scholarly Undergraduate Research Journal at Clark

A lack of access to contraceptives and legal abortion for women throughout the nations of Nicaragua and Guatemala creates critical health care problems. Moreover, rural and underprivileged women in Guatemala and Nicaragua are facing greater limitations to birth control access, demonstrating a classist aspect in the global struggle for female reproductive rights. Although some efforts have been made over the past half-century to initiate a dialogue on the failure of medical care in these nations to adequately address issues of maternal mortality and reproductive rights, the women's reproductive health movements of Nicaragua and Guatemala have struggled to reach an ...


Explaining The Rise Of The Left In Latin America, Luisa Blanco, Robin Grier Sep 2015

Explaining The Rise Of The Left In Latin America, Luisa Blanco, Robin Grier

Luisa Blanco

Latin American politics has taken a left-hand turn in the last decade, with an increasing number of chief executives hailing from left-of-center parties. We investigate the political and socio-economic factors explaining political ideology of the chief executive in a sample of 100 elections taking place between 1975 and 2007 in eighteen Latin American countries. We find that the commodity booms in agricultural, mining and oil are positively and significantly related to the probability that a country will have a chief executive from a left-of-center political party. However, for oil exports, we observe that this effect only holds for Venezuela. We ...


Imagined Communities, Tangible Limits: Sendero Luminoso And The Incongruity Of Marxism And Nationalism, Dylan Maynard Sep 2015

Imagined Communities, Tangible Limits: Sendero Luminoso And The Incongruity Of Marxism And Nationalism, Dylan Maynard

International Social Science Review

Sendero Luminoso, or Shining Path, is considered to be one of the most violent insurgencies to originate in the Western Hemisphere. They caused destruction throughout Peru in order to incite a peasant uprising that would eventually engulf Lima, the capital, and introduce a “New Democracy.” Although the movement claimed to be based on an indigenous Peruvian identity, the presence of a Marxist framework creates a conflict with the nationalist sentiment. This paper examines the conflict between nationalist and Marxist ideologies in the context of the Shining Path insurgency in Peru. By examining the seminal work of Marx and Engels, along ...


Fidel Castro's Grand Strategy In The Cuban Revolution: 1959-1968, Nicholas V. Boline Jul 2015

Fidel Castro's Grand Strategy In The Cuban Revolution: 1959-1968, Nicholas V. Boline

Papers & Publications: Interdisciplinary Journal of Undergraduate Research

Grand strategy is the purposeful and coherent set of ideas about what a nation seeks to accomplish in both war and peacetime, and how it should go about doing so. In this paper, I analyze the grand strategy of Fidel Castro during the formative years of the Cuban Revolution (1959-1968), as he sought to carve out a place for Cuba at the vanguard of the International Communist Movement (ICM). Castro had four grand strategic aims: breaking Cuba’s historical ties with the United States, ensuring the stability of the Cuban Revolution domestically, maintaining Cuba’s ability to act independently of ...


Cuba: Behind The Embargo (2nd Edition), Jason R. Old Jun 2015

Cuba: Behind The Embargo (2nd Edition), Jason R. Old

Jason R. Old

Most people who live in the United States have heard the media and the U.S. Government demonize Cuba, its leaders, and its system. However, have you ever wanted to know what Cuba is really like? If the U.S. media and government have been guilty of fabricating other misconceptions and covering up covert operations in order to deceive the American public, could it be possible that Cuba is another such case? Why would the U.S. continue disseminating Cold War rhetoric about a tiny island nation like Cuba? Who is benefiting from perpetuating a decades-old economic embargo against a ...


Analyzing Reproductive Policy: Patriarchal Legitimization And Women In Latin America, Shannon C. Magni May 2015

Analyzing Reproductive Policy: Patriarchal Legitimization And Women In Latin America, Shannon C. Magni

Honors Scholar Theses

This paper examines the way in which gendered violence is carried out as a way for the formal state and the Catholic Church to negotiate power. While examples of a much larger trend, three Latin American countries are discussed in detail. The first case occurred in Nicaragua, where a 9-year-old victim of rape was denied an abortion by both the state and the Church. The second case examined is the use of rape as a torture tactic by the military junta in Argentina during the Dirty War from 1976 to 1983. The final case examined is that of the forced ...


“There Is No Difference:” Neoliberalism And Latin American (Police) State Legitimacy, Max Estevao Mar 2015

“There Is No Difference:” Neoliberalism And Latin American (Police) State Legitimacy, Max Estevao

International Political Economy Theses

This paper examines the relationship between neoliberalism and patterns of violence in Latin American cities. I argue that those neoliberal policies which have so impacted key agricultural and manufacturing sectors in Latin America also disrupt economically-driven social relations, making that the region’s transition to democracy a violent one. Although transitions from authoritarianism to democracy as a whole remove old relations between the government and the public, the criminalization of poverty as created and perpetuated by neoliberal ideology leads to higher rates of incarceration while colluding with criminal organizations in order to avoid lengthy and expensive urban renewal programs. When ...


Stable Money: An Evaluation Of Political Stability And U.S. Bilateral Aid In Latin America, Aaron Nicole Nelson Jan 2015

Stable Money: An Evaluation Of Political Stability And U.S. Bilateral Aid In Latin America, Aaron Nicole Nelson

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

This study examined the potential relationship between U. S. bilateral aid and political stability for the Latin American world region. Two objectives were addressed by the analysis, first, what is the statistical relationship between U.S. bilateral aid and political stability and second, how does the spatial pattern of political stability equate to the spatial distribution of foreign bilateral aid in Latin America. Highly significant statistical relationships were discovered between bilateral aid and political stability. Distinct patterns in both political stability and bilateral aid indicated that politically fragile nations consistently received larger amounts of bilateral aid.


Truth Commissions And Collective Memory In Latin America, Mona Schwartz Jan 2015

Truth Commissions And Collective Memory In Latin America, Mona Schwartz

Undergraduate Theses and Professional Papers

Human rights violations have an enormous effect on future generations and have the potential to divide or unite society in their wake. My research examines how a national, collective memory is formed after human rights abuse occurs, and how the work of a truth commission contributes to this process. My hypothesis is that when a truth commission is instated after an experience of human rights abuse, a nation will be better able to reconcile conflicted memories and experiences and to create a unified, collective memory of that human rights experience. More specifically, my hypothesis is that, in order to be ...


The Domestic Adoption Of International Human Rights Law: The Roles Of Regional And National High Courts In Latin America, Rebecca Ann Reid Jan 2015

The Domestic Adoption Of International Human Rights Law: The Roles Of Regional And National High Courts In Latin America, Rebecca Ann Reid

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation addresses the question: under what conditions do regional and national high courts matter in the promotion and domestic incorporation of international human rights law? In order to address this question, I argue that domestic high courts can proactively adopt international human rights laws through their interpretation of the law and resulting case decisions. Regional courts promote international law, particularly through their requirement of domestic legal reforms in their judgments. I examine the extent of state compliance with these requirements, where compliance consists of these changes in the domestic legal system thereby institutionalizing international laws and transforming them into ...


Liberal Discourse And The Hegemons Dilemma: A Realist-Constructivist Approach To The Study Of U.S.-Latin American Relations, Justin Delacour Sep 2014

Liberal Discourse And The Hegemons Dilemma: A Realist-Constructivist Approach To The Study Of U.S.-Latin American Relations, Justin Delacour

Political Science ETDs

This dissertations approach starts from four basic premises. The first is that a Western power's interests in a liberal foreign policy course will exist alongside other interests of the state that casually conflict with its professed liberalism. The second premise is that, in order for the Western state to periodically pursue objectives that partially conflict with its professed principles, the state will present such objectives as liberal by understating the illiberal characteristics of foreign allies and overstating the undemocratic characteristics of rivals. The third premise is that, given the cultural authority of the state, its positions and narratives will ...


The Standard Of Civilization In Regional Perspective: A South-South Comparison, Lukas Danner, Nicolás Terradas Aug 2014

The Standard Of Civilization In Regional Perspective: A South-South Comparison, Lukas Danner, Nicolás Terradas

Lukas K. Danner

No abstract provided.


Adoption Of External Voting In Latin America And The Caribbean, Hafthor Brynjar Erlingsson Aug 2014

Adoption Of External Voting In Latin America And The Caribbean, Hafthor Brynjar Erlingsson

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The number of countries worldwide that have allowed citizens abroad the opportunity to vote in elections taking place in their country-of-origin has risen sharply in the last thirty years. Many countries in Latin America and the Caribbean have followed this global trend of granting voting rights to their migrant communities. However, the source of this trend in Latin America and the Caribbean has not been well addressed in the political science literature. This study seeks to minimize that gap by analyzing the determinants of external voting rights for 27 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, using data from 1980-2012 ...


The Security Dilemma In South Asia, East Asia, And Latin America's Southern Cone: A Cross-Regional Comparison, Bibek Chand, Lukas Danner, Nicolas Terradas Mar 2014

The Security Dilemma In South Asia, East Asia, And Latin America's Southern Cone: A Cross-Regional Comparison, Bibek Chand, Lukas Danner, Nicolas Terradas

Lukas K. Danner

No abstract provided.