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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Becoming A Superpower: China’S Rise And The Belt And Road Initiative In Latin America, Garrett Bullock Jul 2019

Becoming A Superpower: China’S Rise And The Belt And Road Initiative In Latin America, Garrett Bullock

History Summer Fellows

Is China a Superpower? Will it become one? After half a century of establishing a strong international military presence, thriving economic growth, domestic/international political authority, and considerable cultural “soft power”, the PRC has emerged as a hegemon capable of competing in international geopolitics. Nevertheless, these questions remain unanswered. For this reason, this research explores what it means to be a superpower, whether China is or will be a superpower, and, importantly, what impact China’s rise has on the world. To do this, this research explores existing debates surrounding China’s current global status, the historical emergence of the ...


Seeking Asylum: Immigration Law In The Context Of Human Rights, Hannah Blank Apr 2019

Seeking Asylum: Immigration Law In The Context Of Human Rights, Hannah Blank

WWU Honors Program Senior Projects

The purpose of this paper is to understand the dynamic between Latin American countries and the United States in relation to asylum, mass migration and the process of legally entering the country. This explores the implications of the United States’ current legislature in place and how this caters to the U.S.’s interests. Furthermore, the theoretical implementation of asylum and its political origins are evaluated in the context of organized crime and social issues that impact migration trends. While the movement of goods is acceptable the movement of people is heavily scrutinized and politically charged. My proposed argument is ...


Small Scale Sport Events And Sustainability: A Case Study In Torres Del Paine National Park, Chile, Jennifer Valarde-Menary Jan 2019

Small Scale Sport Events And Sustainability: A Case Study In Torres Del Paine National Park, Chile, Jennifer Valarde-Menary

University of the Pacific Theses and Dissertations

Small-scale sport events have been argued to be sustainable form of tourism development for communities (Gibson, 1999). The purpose of this study was to analyze four small-scale sport events all operated by NIGSA (Nómadas International Group SA) in the Magallanes region of Chile. The four events at the core of this study were: Patagonian Expedition Race, Patagonian International Marathon, Ultra Trail Torres del Paine, and the Ultra Fiord which operate partially or completely inside the Torres del Paine National Park. As a biosphere reserve established by the United Nations, Torres del Paine National Park requires a sustainable perspective of event ...


Crashing Waves: Policies And Opportunities In The Venezuelan Migration Crisis, Hannah Daniel Jan 2019

Crashing Waves: Policies And Opportunities In The Venezuelan Migration Crisis, Hannah Daniel

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This research seeks to understand migration, by asking the question, what shapes migration patterns in a crisis? To answer this question, the Venezuelan Migration Crisis, a situation emerging in 2014 and continuing to cause large flows of migration throughout Latin America into 2018, is used as a case study. This research presents unique policies and opportunities in Peru and Colombia, showing that migrants and policymakers have a cyclical relationship, which dictates flows of migration. Finding that policy strongly influences the opportunities available in a country, migrants have preferences to move toward countries that have crafted emergency-specific responses. The level to ...


Explaining Attitudes Towards The U.S. In Latin America, Lilith Gamer Jan 2019

Explaining Attitudes Towards The U.S. In Latin America, Lilith Gamer

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Foreign policymakers have long since agonized over how citizens of foreign countries perceive the United States, and why. In the face of alleged American hegemonic decline, fears of so-called “anti-Americanism,” a term first popularized during the Cold War, have been rekindled by politicians, TV anchors, and students of international affairs alike. Does the world like Americans, how much or how little, and why? What determines mass attitudes towards the United States? While largely focused on Latin America in the ‘80s, research on the subject has since shifted to explaining hostility in the Middle East. This sea change has left contemporary ...


Welfare And Democratic Legitimacy: The Impact Of Need-Based Welfare On Women’S Political Engagement In Latin America And The United States, Suzannah Ranzo Jan 2019

Welfare And Democratic Legitimacy: The Impact Of Need-Based Welfare On Women’S Political Engagement In Latin America And The United States, Suzannah Ranzo

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Political engagement from a diverse populace is vital for the functioning of a legitimate democracy that proportionately represents the interests of the governed people. Impoverished women experience at least two forms of oppression due to their socioeconomic status and gender—and often other forms of oppression—which intersect to enhance their marginalization and exclusion from the political sphere. This research compares data from the United States and Latin America to discover if receiving welfare benefits from the government can mobilize or hinder low income women from engaging in politics. This research analyzes welfare’s impact on three forms of political ...


Pro-Government Militias And The Legacy Of Military Rule In Latin America, Alexander Mendelsohn Jan 2019

Pro-Government Militias And The Legacy Of Military Rule In Latin America, Alexander Mendelsohn

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Currently Latin America experiences a phenomenon of widely varying levels of violence across the region. Many countries, such as El Salvador and Honduras, have exceptionally high murder rates upwards of 40 homicides per 100,000 people (UNODC 2015). Other countries, such as Uruguay and Argentina, have relatively low rates, below 10 homicides per 100,000 people (UNODC 2015). I believe this variation stems from the use of pro-government militias specifically employed in the past by military governments as tools of suppression. Under the guise of combating subversive elements within their countries, these groups were used to silence and repress those ...


Soldiers, Activists, Legislators: Democratization And Women's Representation In Bolivia And Nicaragua, Margaret Mischka Jan 2019

Soldiers, Activists, Legislators: Democratization And Women's Representation In Bolivia And Nicaragua, Margaret Mischka

Political Science Honors Projects

In 2018, Bolivia and Nicaragua contain 53 and 46 percent women in their national legislatures respectively, while other countries, including the United States, lag behind with proportions around 20 percent. Why do some countries have higher levels of women in office? A preliminary answer points to gender quotas, which have increased numbers of women in legislature in numerous cases. Rather than beginning and ending the story of women’s representation with gender quotas, however, this project analyzes the processes that lead a country toward the adoption of such quotas. By tracing the political histories of Bolivia and Nicaragua through crises ...


Perceptions Of Fairness And Political Support In The Face Of Economic Inequality, Gregory W. Saxton Jan 2019

Perceptions Of Fairness And Political Support In The Face Of Economic Inequality, Gregory W. Saxton

Theses and Dissertations--Political Science

In this dissertation, I investigate two key questions: 1) What are the specific conditions under which economic inequality undermines democratic legitimacy; and 2) How does inequality map onto individuals’ perceptions of fairness and subsequently affect satisfaction with democracy and trust in political institutions? I first argue that individuals’ perceptions of distributive unfairness are key factors whereby economic inequality undermines democratic legitimacy. Inequality - and subsequent perceptions that the economic distribution is unfair - undermine political support by signaling that the democratic process is not functioning properly and by challenging people’s normative expectations about what democracy should do in practice.

I next ...


You're Out! Explaining Non-Criminal Diplomatic Expulsion, Anthony Jordan May 2018

You're Out! Explaining Non-Criminal Diplomatic Expulsion, Anthony Jordan

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The practice of diplomatic expulsion, as well as expulsion of other foreign personnel by an executive, has received little attention in the field of International Relations or in Political Science more broadly. If expulsion were analyzed under the broader category of diplomatic relations, then studying the variation in expulsions could improve our understanding of international relations. It would be understood as one of the many tools executives use in negotiation between states. Executives, however, appeared to treat expulsion specially. Although no international convention requires executives to notify the public of the expulsion of a diplomat, ambassador or other personnel, it ...


A Matter Of Experience And Perception: Examining Corruption In Latin America, Nicolás Adrián Diaz May 2018

A Matter Of Experience And Perception: Examining Corruption In Latin America, Nicolás Adrián Diaz

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

The pervasive nature of corruption poses many challenges to nations. In particular, it can hamper progress and threaten stability. However, a citizen’s awareness of corruption is not exclusively based on encountering it personally. I claim that experience and perception of corruption are two distinct features, influencing an individual’s satisfaction with democracy. This study utilizes a mediation analysis to determine the impact of corruption, both experienced and perceived, on an individual’s satisfaction with democracy in Latin America. The statistical technique distinguishes the influence of experiencing corruption first-hand and having a high perception of it when determining a citizen ...


Nunca Más: Rhetoric Of Human Rights And Democracy In Post-Authoritarian Argentina, Sarah R. Coleman Apr 2018

Nunca Más: Rhetoric Of Human Rights And Democracy In Post-Authoritarian Argentina, Sarah R. Coleman

Political Science Honors Projects

In 1983, Argentina began its process of transitioning to democracy and away from a repressive military dictatorship that had ruled the nation for the past 7 years. With this democratic transition came the process of transition justice aimed at confronting and rectifying the human rights violations committed under the authoritarian regime. Out of this transitional period arose many questions: How do principles of democracy and human rights overlap? How does one define concepts such as justice, truth, and rights? What responsibility does democracy have to upholding human rights? And most importantly, how does a transitional regime institute long-lasting norms regarding ...


Adaptation Of Customary Quechua Indigenous Political Organization In The Face Of Modern Resource Extraction: A Case Study In The Apurimac Region Of The Andes Of Peru, Yojana Miraya Oscco Jan 2018

Adaptation Of Customary Quechua Indigenous Political Organization In The Face Of Modern Resource Extraction: A Case Study In The Apurimac Region Of The Andes Of Peru, Yojana Miraya Oscco

Theses and projects

This research focused on the forms and structure of customary political organization in Quechua indigenous communities of the Peruvian Andes that extend from the villages to their associated migrant communities in the capital. As the mining industry has been expanding rapidly throughout the Andes in recent decades, describing the political organization of these remote communities is a key aspect of their negotiation practices with these external industries. This research was conducted utilizing grounded theory in a comparative case-study format by analyzing two villages and their associated migrant communities from the Andean District of Juan Espinoza Medrano. This research utilized a ...


Strategic Transparency: Declassification Politics In United States- Latin American Relations, Isabel Snodgrass Jan 2018

Strategic Transparency: Declassification Politics In United States- Latin American Relations, Isabel Snodgrass

Senior Projects Spring 2018

Domestic politics in Latin America since the end of the Cold War has been characterized by the complicated process of coming to terms with its violent past. For years, the United States has had the power to aid in investigations into crimes committed during the Latin American dictatorships of the 1970s and 1980s. The US was so deeply involved in the dictatorships that thousands of pages of evidence on the crimes committed are available in CIA, Military, and Presidential archives. Through making these classified documents available, the United States has a unique opportunity to make amends for its involvement in ...


Privatization Of Force: A Comparison Of Reagan’S Cold War Doctrine In Colombia And Nicaragua Related To The Shift Of Us Policy Towards The Outsourcing Of Military Services, Austin Ellis Clark Jan 2018

Privatization Of Force: A Comparison Of Reagan’S Cold War Doctrine In Colombia And Nicaragua Related To The Shift Of Us Policy Towards The Outsourcing Of Military Services, Austin Ellis Clark

Senior Projects Spring 2018

This research paper examines the use of Private Military Companies contracted by the US Military during the 1980’s. Two case studies are reviewed within this period, US involvement in Colombia particular the “War on Drugs” and US covert support of the Contra War in Nicaragua. The foreign policy of President Ronald Reagan will be put in contrast to his predecessor Jimmy Carter. The case studies introduced at the beginning of the project are used as determining factors in understanding how Reagan's foreign policy in Colombia and Nicaragua sparked the usage of PMC’s by the US military and ...


Climate Control: The Case Of Chilean Destabilization, Andrew Arlotto Jan 2018

Climate Control: The Case Of Chilean Destabilization, Andrew Arlotto

Senior Projects Spring 2018

Senior Project submitted to The Division of Social Studies of Bard College.


From The Table Of My Memory: Identity, Political Change, And Shakespeare In Mexico And Argentina, Helena Von Nagy Jan 2018

From The Table Of My Memory: Identity, Political Change, And Shakespeare In Mexico And Argentina, Helena Von Nagy

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

In Mexico and Argentina, the localization of Shakespeare marks the crystallization of a new nationalist, political identity rooted in a reshaped collective memory. The development of this identity and the role of memory form a new kind of national citizenship. This group citizenship gives an individual a connection to a nation established around the collective memory of events, or what I term the memory-nation. The localization of Shakespeare, then, marks the complete formation of a citizenship in a new memory-nation. In Mexico, the localization of Shakespeare and its use in cinema was part of a larger process of defining post-Revolutionary ...


Trust In The Police In Latin America: Understanding The Urban And Rural Divide, Abigail J. Sewall Jan 2018

Trust In The Police In Latin America: Understanding The Urban And Rural Divide, Abigail J. Sewall

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Trust in the police is low throughout Latin America, particularly among residents of urban areas. The principle aim of this investigation is to determine why people in rural areas exhibit higher levels of trust in the police than their urban counterparts. This study focuses on the instrumental perspective of explaining trust, which emphasizes the importance of the performance of the police. Measures of negative experiences with the performance of the police are used to explain the difference in trust between urban and rural areas. The analyses find that people in urban areas are more frequently victimized by crime and solicited ...


The Gendered Impact Of Neoliberalism: Violence And Exploitation Of Women Working In Maquiladoras, Alice Schyllander Jan 2018

The Gendered Impact Of Neoliberalism: Violence And Exploitation Of Women Working In Maquiladoras, Alice Schyllander

Senior Honors Theses & Projects

The global production process relies on classism, racism, and sexism to generate a reliable workforce in the global south to produce goods for the global north. Women who work in maquiladoras in Mexico disproportionately occupy low-wage, dangerous jobs that leave them more vulnerable to violence both in the workplace and in their communities. The human rights of women workers in maquiladoras will not be realized until the domestic and international mechanisms that are intended to provide labor protections are strengthened. Better working conditions have been achieved in maquiladoras through grassroots organizing efforts.


Unequal Influence: The Impact Of Inequality On Trade Policy, Brian William Fitzpatrick Jan 2018

Unequal Influence: The Impact Of Inequality On Trade Policy, Brian William Fitzpatrick

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Trade was a central issue in the 2016 US presidential election, with both major party candidates debating how trade impacts American workers. However, the current literature on trade policy outcomes and inequality has insufficient measures of public opinion on trade. I examine the varying roles the public and interest groups play in the trade policy formation process as inequality changes in democratic societies. I expect, as inequality increases, the public and mass based interest groups will have less resources to expend on influencing policymakers. Also, as inequality increases economic elites’ and business interest groups’ resources will increase, and they will ...


Tides Of Cooperation: The Ebb And Flow Of Regional Cooperation In Latin America, Amaleia E. Kolovos Jan 2018

Tides Of Cooperation: The Ebb And Flow Of Regional Cooperation In Latin America, Amaleia E. Kolovos

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Regional organizations have developed into important global actors as they negotiate inter-regional trade agreements, regulate economic policies, and develop international security communities. States have much to gain from such regional cooperation efforts particularly in emerging regions such as Latin America. Such gains can include increased trade and economic relations, enhanced security, attracting external investment, and increasing bargaining power at the international level. With such gains to be had, one might expect states in these regions to regularly cooperate in order to achieve their common interests. However, this is clearly not always the case. Latin America has struggled for decades with ...


You've Got A Friend In Me: The Effects Of Lgbtqia+ Legislators On Same-Sex Partnership Rights In Latin America, Danica Genners Jan 2018

You've Got A Friend In Me: The Effects Of Lgbtqia+ Legislators On Same-Sex Partnership Rights In Latin America, Danica Genners

Senior Independent Study Theses

Scholars have debated how descriptive representation might operate as a vehicle for furthering minority rights. Rarely discussed in this literature is the role that the election of LGBTQIA+ politicians can have on overall approval of LGBTQIA+ rights within a country. This study aims to identify the various effects that LGBTQIA+ sexual minority federal representatives in Latin America have on public opinion on pro-LGBTQIA+ policies. Using a multi-year, cross-national survey of eleven Latin American countries my study tests whether the election of a LGBTQIA+ representative is related to more progressive views on same-sex marriage. This study finds that the election of ...


Controlling Political Corruption In Latin America: Institutional Constraints On Executive Power, George G. Lluberes Dec 2017

Controlling Political Corruption In Latin America: Institutional Constraints On Executive Power, George G. Lluberes

Dissertations

Corruption has remained resilient in Latin America. In just two decades, six Latin American executives from five distinct countries have faced impeachment processes resulting in removals from office due to issues surrounding corruption. Certainly, corruption has been a longstanding challenge to Latin American democracy and good governance. This study analyzes this phenomenon while discerning between grand and petty corruption. By focusing on executive corruption specifically, this study creates a more nuanced understanding of what affects corruption at high-levels of government in Latin America.

Why have political corruption levels in Latin America remained stagnant in spite of significant gains in political ...


The Path To 'Never Again': Human Rights Protest In Latin America, James Franklin Nov 2017

The Path To 'Never Again': Human Rights Protest In Latin America, James Franklin

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

The systematic study of political repression and human rights violations has found a number of factors that consistently explain political repression. These especially include domestic structural and institutional factors, such as civil war, democracy, a youth population bulge, aspects of the legal and judicial system, and the role of oil in the economy.

These findings do not chart a clear path for human rights advocates, as it is difficult to change a country’s institutions or demographics or to end a civil war (Toft 2010). This growth of scholarly interest followed an expansion in international human rights advocacy, evidenced by ...


Gangs And The Culture Of Violence In El Salvador (What Role Did The Us Play?), Norma Roumie Oct 2017

Gangs And The Culture Of Violence In El Salvador (What Role Did The Us Play?), Norma Roumie

The Great Lakes Journal of Undergraduate History

Gang violence in El Salvador has resulted in conditions that have perpetuated an environment of terror and culture of violence. This paper aims to understand the emergence of transnational gangs in El Salvador and the US involvement in this process. The article is divided into the following subtitles; 1980s civil war and the repercussions of US involvement, Salvadorans migration to the US and reverse migration (with a focus on Los Angeles and San Salvador), and US exportation of heavy-handed policies to El Salvador’s institutionalized use of political violence. The paper concludes that US involvement in El Salvador created a ...


Latin American Gender Politics: Examining The Relationship Between Gender And Political Participation, Haley B. Lawrie May 2017

Latin American Gender Politics: Examining The Relationship Between Gender And Political Participation, Haley B. Lawrie

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

Political participation highlights a great deal about the political system in a given country and how the system responds in turn. Women have a distinct way of participating in politics, particularly in the culture of machismo in contemporary Latin America. In this thesis, I examine the relationship between gender and political participation within two Latin American countries, Peru and Argentina. Through an analysis of voter turnout, political interest, cabinet participation, and political movements, I examine how gender impacts the political sphere. I ultimately argue that gender by itself is not distinctly tied to levels of participatory action for the average ...


Examining The Link Between Press Freedom And Politics., Megan Wollerton May 2017

Examining The Link Between Press Freedom And Politics., Megan Wollerton

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Freedom of the press is a hallmark of liberal democracy. Denying this civil liberty emboldens a government to exert an undue degree of influence over its citizens. By comparing the media discourse in a democratic country to the media discourse in an authoritarian country, one could reasonably expect to identify unique language markers, which shed light on their divergent political climates. This study specifically sourced articles from the Venezuelan publication El Universal and the Costa Rican publication The Tico Times. The author then analyzed every article related to politics published by both newspapers in March 2014 and in March 2017 ...


Falta De Derechos Humanos Y Violencia: La Crisis Ambiental En América Latina, Vincent J. Gandolfo Iii Apr 2017

Falta De Derechos Humanos Y Violencia: La Crisis Ambiental En América Latina, Vincent J. Gandolfo Iii

Senior Theses and Projects

The purpose of this research is to identify the growing problems associated with environmental degradation in Latin America. For decades, a combination of corrupt governments and lack of environmental legislation has allowed large companies to exploit the environmental resources of many different Latin American countries. Latin America is an extremely biodiverse region of the world and environmental resources are valuable. Large companies have monopolized environmental resources for profit, which has caused protests and violence. Most these large international companies have been allowed to harvest valuable resources, pollute the environment, and leave without any consequences. Because many Latin American governments prioritize ...


Enlightenment, Latin America, Age Of Revolutions, Spanish America, Brazil, Katherine A. Lentz Apr 2017

Enlightenment, Latin America, Age Of Revolutions, Spanish America, Brazil, Katherine A. Lentz

Student Publications

An essay analyzing the effect of Enlightenment thinking on the political and societal elite of the colonial Spanish and Portuguese Americas, and the subsequent colonial revolutions.


Tainted Ideals: The Rise And Fall Of The Tupamaros, Jennifer Ann Dufau Jan 2017

Tainted Ideals: The Rise And Fall Of The Tupamaros, Jennifer Ann Dufau

Senior Projects Spring 2017

Senior Project submitted to The Division of Social Studies of Bard College.