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Human rights

2015

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Institution
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Articles 1 - 16 of 16

Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Incentives To Incarcerate: Corporation Involvement In Prison Labor And The Privatization Of The Prison System, Alythea S. Morrell Dec 2015

Incentives To Incarcerate: Corporation Involvement In Prison Labor And The Privatization Of The Prison System, Alythea S. Morrell

Master's Projects and Capstones

The United States has the highest incarceration rate in the entire world. The United States accounts for approximately 5% of the world’s population, yet it accounts for 25% of the world’s prisoners. Not only does the United States mercilessly incarcerate its own citizens, it disproportionately incarcerates African American and Latino men. This fact on its own is disturbing; however, when it is coupled with the fact that corporations profit from and lobby for an overly aggressive and ineffective criminal justice system, makes these statistics even more horrendous. Private prison companies such as Corrections Corporation of America and GEO ...


The Right To Food Under Hugo Chávez, Rhoda E. Howard-Hassmann Nov 2015

The Right To Food Under Hugo Chávez, Rhoda E. Howard-Hassmann

Political Science Faculty Publications

This article investigates the right to food in Venezuela under President Hugo Chávez (1999–2013). Although Chávez respected Venezuelans’ right to food, he failed to protect it. In the short term, he fulfilled the right to food by establishing state-run stores where food was sold cheaply, and by imposing price controls. At the same time, he reduced the food supply by undermining property rights, expropriating large-scale ranches as well as wholesale and retail distributors. Violations of civil and political rights made it difficult for Chávez’s critics to oppose his food policies. By the time Chávez died food shortages were ...


Reproductive Rights In Latin America: A Case Study Of Guatemala And Nicaragua, Katherine W. Bogen Oct 2015

Reproductive Rights In Latin America: A Case Study Of Guatemala And Nicaragua, Katherine W. Bogen

Scholarly Undergraduate Research Journal at Clark

A lack of access to contraceptives and legal abortion for women throughout the nations of Nicaragua and Guatemala creates critical health care problems. Moreover, rural and underprivileged women in Guatemala and Nicaragua are facing greater limitations to birth control access, demonstrating a classist aspect in the global struggle for female reproductive rights. Although some efforts have been made over the past half-century to initiate a dialogue on the failure of medical care in these nations to adequately address issues of maternal mortality and reproductive rights, the women's reproductive health movements of Nicaragua and Guatemala have struggled to reach an ...


Does The Dao Support Individual Autonomy And Human Rights?, Caroline M. Carr Aug 2015

Does The Dao Support Individual Autonomy And Human Rights?, Caroline M. Carr

Summer Research Program

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) lists what have come to be called “first” and “second” generation rights. First generation rights are civil and political (for instance, the right to vote, freedom of speech, freedom to assemble); second generation are social, economic, and cultural (protection against unemployment, universal healthcare, equal pay). However, Western and Asian nations are in disagreement about whether or not all of these generations of rights should be universal. While Western nations strongly believe that first generation rights should be universal, Asian nations insist that their unique “Asian values” require second generation rights to precede first ...


Ratification, Reporting, And Rights: Quality Of Participation In The Convention Against Torture, Cossette D. Creamer, Beth A. Simmons Aug 2015

Ratification, Reporting, And Rights: Quality Of Participation In The Convention Against Torture, Cossette D. Creamer, Beth A. Simmons

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The core international human rights treaty bodies play an important role in monitoring implementation of human rights standards through consideration of states parties’ reports. Yet very little research explores how seriously governments take their reporting obligations. This article examines the reporting record of parties to the Convention against Torture, finding that report submission is heavily conditioned by the practices of neighboring countries and by a government’s human rights commitment and institutional capacity. This article also introduces original data on the quality and responsiveness of reports, finding that more democratic—and particularly newly democratic—governments tend to render higher quality ...


Human Rights Treaties In And Beyond The Senate: The Spirit Of Senator Proxmire, Jean Galbraith Jun 2015

Human Rights Treaties In And Beyond The Senate: The Spirit Of Senator Proxmire, Jean Galbraith

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In 1995, Louis Henkin wrote a famous piece in which he suggested that the process of human rights treaty ratification was haunted by “the ghost of Senator Bricker” – the isolationist Senator who in the 1950s had waged a fierce assault on the treaty power, especially with regard to human rights treaties. Since that time, Senator Bricker’s ghost has proved even more real. Professor Henkin’s concern was with how the United States ratified human rights treaties, and specifically with the packet of reservations, declarations, and understandings (RUDs) attached by the Senate in giving its advice and consent. Today, the ...


Drug Violence And Public (In)Security: Mexico's Federal Police And Human Rights Abuse, Dominic Pera May 2015

Drug Violence And Public (In)Security: Mexico's Federal Police And Human Rights Abuse, Dominic Pera

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Violence in Mexico, with dramatic political, social, and economic consequences on both Mexican and US populations, has risen dramatically in the past decade. Research has shown that the Mexican military is largely responsible for human rights abuses in Mexico. This paper will seek to answer why there are so many human rights abuses committed by the Federal Police, as public security is a police role and its deterioration threatens lives, security, and the rule of law. This paper will look at what scholars have said about the causes of police violence and public insecurity. Some say that history is responsible ...


Impact Of The “Nirbhaya” Rape Case: Isolated Phenomenon Or Social Change?, Tina P. Lapsia May 2015

Impact Of The “Nirbhaya” Rape Case: Isolated Phenomenon Or Social Change?, Tina P. Lapsia

Honors Scholar Theses

In December 2012, a twenty-three year old college student, who was given the pseudonym “Nirbhaya” (“fearless”), was fatally gang-raped on a private bus in Delhi, India, galvanizing the country to swiftly adopt new legislative measures and catapulting the issue of violence against women in India into the international spotlight. Although assault and rape cases have made India infamous for its high volume of crimes against women, the reaction to this particular incident was much different from before. This paper investigates whether the governmental and societal responses represent social change, as indicated by changing attitudes towards violence against women in India ...


Climate Change, Disasters & Displacement, Elizabeth Ferris Feb 2015

Climate Change, Disasters & Displacement, Elizabeth Ferris

Lectures/Events (BMW)

This lecture examines trends in natural disasters, the effects of climate change, and their impact on human rights, including economic costs, the displacement/migration of people, and the likelihood that the poor and marginalized are most likely to be affected by natural disasters and climate change.


Framing For A New Transnational Legal Order: The Case Of Human Trafficking, Paulette Lloyd, Beth A. Simmons Jan 2015

Framing For A New Transnational Legal Order: The Case Of Human Trafficking, Paulette Lloyd, Beth A. Simmons

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

How does transnational legal order emerge, develop and solidify? This chapter focuses on how and why actors come to define an issue as one requiring transnational legal intervention of a specific kind. Specifically, we focus on how and why states have increasingly constructed and acceded to international legal norms relating to human trafficking. Empirically, human trafficking has been on the international and transnational agenda for nearly a century. However, relatively recently – and fairly swiftly in the 2000s – governments have committed themselves to criminalize human trafficking in international as well as regional and domestic law. Our paper tries to explain this ...


Living Without Recognition : A Case Study Of Burmese Refugees In Malaysia., Meagan Floyd, Michael Zeller, Jason P. Abbott Jan 2015

Living Without Recognition : A Case Study Of Burmese Refugees In Malaysia., Meagan Floyd, Michael Zeller, Jason P. Abbott

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Truth Commissions And Collective Memory In Latin America, Mona Schwartz Jan 2015

Truth Commissions And Collective Memory In Latin America, Mona Schwartz

Undergraduate Theses and Professional Papers

Human rights violations have an enormous effect on future generations and have the potential to divide or unite society in their wake. My research examines how a national, collective memory is formed after human rights abuse occurs, and how the work of a truth commission contributes to this process. My hypothesis is that when a truth commission is instated after an experience of human rights abuse, a nation will be better able to reconcile conflicted memories and experiences and to create a unified, collective memory of that human rights experience. More specifically, my hypothesis is that, in order to be ...


Frames And Consensus Formation In International Relations: The Case Of Trafficking In Persons, Volha Charnysh, Paulette Lloyd, Beth A. Simmons Jan 2015

Frames And Consensus Formation In International Relations: The Case Of Trafficking In Persons, Volha Charnysh, Paulette Lloyd, Beth A. Simmons

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This article examines the process of consensus formation by the international community regarding how to confront the problem of trafficking in persons. We analyze the corpus of United Nations General Assembly Third Committee resolutions to show that: (1) consensus around the issue of how to confront trafficking in persons has increased over time; and (2) the formation of this consensus depends upon how the issue is framed. We test our argument by examining the characteristics of resolutions’ sponsors and discursive framing concepts such as crime, human rights, and the strength of enforcement language. We conclude that the consensus-formation process in ...


Outcomes Of The Convention On The Elimination Of All Forms Of Discrimination Against Women (Cedaw) In The Arab World, Rosann Mariappuram Jan 2015

Outcomes Of The Convention On The Elimination Of All Forms Of Discrimination Against Women (Cedaw) In The Arab World, Rosann Mariappuram

Dissertations and Theses

The UN General Assembly adopted the Convention to End All Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) in 1979 and it is currently the 2nd most ratified human rights convention after the Convention on the Rights of the Child. However critics argue that many of the states that ratified CEDAW continue to discriminate against women and girls. The region of the world where critics seem to focus much of their attention on is the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Islam and the implementation of sharia law are often cited as the sources of discrimination against Arab women. However is this a fair ...


Framing The Issues In Moral Terms Iii: Rights And Right Conduct, Robert Williams Dec 2014

Framing The Issues In Moral Terms Iii: Rights And Right Conduct, Robert Williams

Robert E. Williams Jr.

The development of a global human rights culture has had a profound effect on the way discussions of military ethics are framed. This is most apparent in the development of the “responsibility to protect” norm amid a broader debate concerning military intervention to stop serious human rights abuses. With policymakers and international lawyers, many just war theorists have adopted an understanding of military ethics centered on human rights. This essay describes the development of the rights-based perspective on the use of force and its impact on key questions regarding the resort to war and just conduct in war.


Inventing Human Dignity, Sharon Sliwinski Dec 2014

Inventing Human Dignity, Sharon Sliwinski

Sharon Sliwinski

Are human beings endowed with an inviolable dignity? Or is dignity something that is lost and won? One of the most significant assertions made in the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is the statement that every individual possesses an inalienable dignity simply by virtue of belonging to the human family.” This chapter aims to make a modest contribution to the emerging scholarship on the history and meaning of dignity as it pertains to universal human rights. My goal is to trace how this particular quality came to be affixed to the human person. The ...