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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Human Rights And The Smart City, Tina Reuter Oct 2019

Human Rights And The Smart City, Tina Reuter

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

This paper examines how technological solutions, information and communication technologies (ICTs), and smart city initiatives can become avenues to produce urban spaces that reflect fundamental human rights values such as non-discrimination, equality, and access for all.Cities today are drivers of human rights activity and serve as hubs for technological advances, political and economic innovation, and social justice. Nevertheless, the inclusion of marginalized communities continues to be a challenge. ICTs and smart city initiatives are often cited to foster urban integration, to improve citizen participation in decision-making processes, and to enhancecommunity resilience. At the same time, using technologies can amplify ...


Human Rights And Economic Democracy: Reinvigorating The Human Rights Movement, Curtis T. Kline Oct 2019

Human Rights And Economic Democracy: Reinvigorating The Human Rights Movement, Curtis T. Kline

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

A 2018 report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concluded that in order to avoid a seemingly inevitable ecological collapse that would bring intense suffering especially on the most marginalized and excluded sectors; the world needs to develop “rapid, far-reaching and unprecedented changes in all aspects of society”. There are many local experiences which demonstrate the possibilities of achieving these needed changes. There are a number of community organizations and associations, social movements, and municipal efforts, among others, with creative visions on this front. In Jackson, Mississippi, for example, Cooperation Jackson strives to be a means to help ...


Asean’S Human Rights Conundrum: An Analysis Of The Failures Of The Asean System For Promoting Human Rights, Dakota Jones May 2019

Asean’S Human Rights Conundrum: An Analysis Of The Failures Of The Asean System For Promoting Human Rights, Dakota Jones

Honors Theses (PPE)

The ASEAN human rights system consists of a network of formal institutions such as the ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission Human Rights, documents such as the ASEAN Human Rights Declaration, and efforts to interact with regional civil society organizations. This system, which emerged in 2009, has come under intense scrutiny because the region’s human rights record has worsened since its inception. This paper examines the complex network of institutions, documents, and interactions between ASEAN member states and civil society organizations to determine the overall effectiveness of the organization’s efforts to safeguard human rights throughout the region. The paper begins with ...


The Effect Of Foreign Aid On Political Violence: Learning From Case Studies Of Nigeria And Sierra Leone, Charlotte Rohrer Apr 2019

The Effect Of Foreign Aid On Political Violence: Learning From Case Studies Of Nigeria And Sierra Leone, Charlotte Rohrer

Politics Honors Papers

Policymakers in OECD countries regularly cite reducing political violence as a fundamental purpose of foreign aid. For example, countries such as Pakistan and Iraq have received considerable amounts of aid meant to address the root causes of political violence. This project analyzes quantitative and qualitative evidence to assess whether foreign aid can reduce political violence. The quantitative and qualitative analyses study Boko Haram in Nigeria and the Revolutionary United Front in Sierra Leone to focus on regional and country-wide political violence. The study further focuses on aid projects in Sierra Leone and Nigeria as a means to reduce or curb ...


Popular Versus Elite Democracies And Human Rights: Inclusion Makes A Difference, Devin K. Joshi, J. S. Maloy, Timothy M. Peterson Mar 2019

Popular Versus Elite Democracies And Human Rights: Inclusion Makes A Difference, Devin K. Joshi, J. S. Maloy, Timothy M. Peterson

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

Scholarly research generally finds that democratic governments are more likely to respect human rights than other types of regimes. Different human rights practices among long-standing and affluent democracies therefore present a puzzle. Drawing from democratic theory and comparative institutional studies, we argue more inclusive or "popular" democracies should enforce human rights better than more exclusive or "elite" democracies, even in the face of security threats from armed conflict. Instead of relying on the Freedom House or Polity indexes to distinguish levels of democracy, we adopt a more focused approach to measuring structures of inclusion, the Institutional Democracy Index (IDI), which ...


Syrian Refugee Crisis And European Migration Policies: Rise In Xenophobic Rhetoric In Europe, Meltem Çelik Dirsehan Feb 2019

Syrian Refugee Crisis And European Migration Policies: Rise In Xenophobic Rhetoric In Europe, Meltem Çelik Dirsehan

International Journal of Business and Technology

Syrian immigration crisis has been ignored by advanced European countries and the heaviest burden is left to developing border countries. However this ignorance has resulted in more mass influx of immigrants illegally to the borders of European Union with a target of advanced Northern countries. To evaluate the European ignorance to this humanitarian crisis, first Turkey is evaluated as a transition point for all Asian and Middle Eastern immigrants dreaming to live in Europe. By a shocking extend of sea arrivals, Europe have noticed the humanitarian crisis and made a deal with main transition point for immigrants, Turkey. However this ...


Borders Rules, Beth A. Simmons Jan 2019

Borders Rules, Beth A. Simmons

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

International political borders have historically performed one overriding function: the delimitation of a state’s territorial jurisdiction, but today they are sites of intense security scrutiny and law enforcement. Traditionally they were created to secure peace through territorial independence of political units. Today borders face new pressures from heightened human mobility, economic interdependence (legal and illicit), and perceived challenges from a host of nonstate threats. Research has only begun to reveal what some of these changes mean for the governance of interstate borders. The problems surrounding international borders today go well-beyond traditional delineation and delimitation. These problems call for active ...


Repression And Women’S Dissent: Gender And Protests, Dakota Thomas Jan 2019

Repression And Women’S Dissent: Gender And Protests, Dakota Thomas

Theses and Dissertations--Political Science

Why do women protest? Why do women protest “as women”? Why do some women participate in protests but not others? In the wake of the Women’s March of 2017, perhaps the largest single day protest event in history, these questions are particularly timely and deserve scholarly attention. One important but understudied and undertheorized motivation for women’s protests is state sanctioned violence, particularly repression. This dissertation explicitly theorizes about how state perpetration of violence, particularly state use of repression, both motivates and shapes women’s protests on a global scale.

In this dissertation, I argue that one key motivation ...


Giving To Get: A Neorealist Explanation Of Japan’S Foreign Aid Program, Tiana Steverson Pugh Jan 2019

Giving To Get: A Neorealist Explanation Of Japan’S Foreign Aid Program, Tiana Steverson Pugh

CMC Senior Theses

Many countries use aid as a political tool, but Japan is unique in that foreign aid is one of its most important foreign policy tools. Drawing from literature on donor motivations for aid-giving, this paper argues that the neo-realist view of aid-giving offers the best explanation for why Japan provides aid. More specifically, Japan’s aid-giving is motivated by its pursuit of economic and strategic goals. This underlying motive for aid-giving necessarily impacts how Japan provides aid and how it uses aid to respond to human rights violations in recipient countries.


Power, Punk, And Performance: A Critical Analysis Of Hooligan Laws In Russia, Noelle Wurst Jan 2019

Power, Punk, And Performance: A Critical Analysis Of Hooligan Laws In Russia, Noelle Wurst

Honors Program Theses

This paper presents the argument that the criminal charge of hooliganism in Russia is a political tool used to suppress dissent and uphold the authoritarian ideals of Putin’s regime. The background of this analysis includes a broad overview of the development of the hooligan laws over time and how they have been used to advance elite interests. In addition, the key policies, institutions, and rhetoric that surround hooliganism in present-day Russia are identified. The legitimacy of the hooligan laws is then tested against both domestic and international law, especially in regards to norms on freedoms of speech.


Treatment And Evolution Of Digital Rights: A Comparative Analysis Of China, Russia, The United States, And Germany, Karina Barbesino Jan 2019

Treatment And Evolution Of Digital Rights: A Comparative Analysis Of China, Russia, The United States, And Germany, Karina Barbesino

Honors Program Theses

The internet and digital technologies allow for the recognition, advocation, and protection of human rights. People around the world have access to faster and exponentially more information than ever before. The possibilities for education, politics, healthcare, work, and equality have greatly expanded. The internet provides new opportunities for the progression of humanity, but not without a cost. The transformative power of the internet to both empower and infringe on human rights has not been lost on states. As a relatively new domain, the policies in cyberspace remain in their trial periods. Each state is implementing, redacting, and implementing again policies ...


Trump, Saudi Arabia And The Khashoggi Case: What Would Obama Have Done?, Steven Feldstein Nov 2018

Trump, Saudi Arabia And The Khashoggi Case: What Would Obama Have Done?, Steven Feldstein

Public Policy and Administration Faculty Publications and Presentations

After weeks of ratcheting tension about who authorized the murder of Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi, President Donald Trump sought to put an end to the debate.


The Improbable Militarist: Jimmy Carter, The Revolution In Military Affairs And Limits Of The American Two-Party System, Jeremy Kuzmarov Nov 2018

The Improbable Militarist: Jimmy Carter, The Revolution In Military Affairs And Limits Of The American Two-Party System, Jeremy Kuzmarov

Class, Race and Corporate Power

Jimmy Carter is known for championing peace and pro-democracy causes in his post-presidency and is widely respected as a moral leader. Few Americans, however, are aware of the fact that in his last two years, Carter presided over a huge increase of the military budget that amounted to the largest in history to that point and promoted the adoption of fancy new military technologies which would be applied in wars waged by his successors. This paper examines Carter’s foreign policy and his embrace of the so-called Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA), which aimed to reinvigorate American military power after ...


Strategies For Stability And Sustainability In Euro-Mediterranean Migrations, Emanuela C. Del Re Sep 2018

Strategies For Stability And Sustainability In Euro-Mediterranean Migrations, Emanuela C. Del Re

New England Journal of Public Policy

In this article, the author provides a wide and vivid picture of the several dimensions of migration flows in the current global scenario and, in particular, in the Mediterranean. She proposes new interpretations of this complex phenomenon, analyzing its multiple aspects and characteristics and the push factors and policies and responses of the countries of origin, transit, and destination. She suggests new approaches and strategies to deal with the issue of migration, urging the EU member states and EU institutions to develop management policies for stability and sustainability that are welcoming and that respect human rights.


European Immigration Controls Conforming To Human Rights Standards, Yannis Ktistakis Sep 2018

European Immigration Controls Conforming To Human Rights Standards, Yannis Ktistakis

New England Journal of Public Policy

The European continent has for some years been facing increased pressure from migration. In 2010, Europe, in comparison with the other continents, was expected to host the largest number of migrants: 69.8 million migrants representing 32.6 percent of the total flow of migrants (213.9 million international migrants). This pressure has caused the two main European organizations, the Council of Europe and the European Union, to act decisively for the protection of migrants. Although the European legal order offers a high standard of human rights protection—having adopted, over the decades, the relevant instruments and developed effective mechanisms ...


Response And Responsibilities Of The Republic Of Macedonia In The Migrant And Refugees Crises, Toni Mileski Sep 2018

Response And Responsibilities Of The Republic Of Macedonia In The Migrant And Refugees Crises, Toni Mileski

New England Journal of Public Policy

The Republic of Macedonia has had a long history of dealing with migrants and refugees. Since the late nineteenth century, conflicts, including the Balkan Wars (1912–1913), the First and Second World Wars, the Greek civil war (1945–1949), the Kosovo conflict, and the 2001 internal security crisis, have caused successive waves of migration. More recently, armed conflict in the Middle East, especially in Syria, caused a migrant and refugee crisis that has deeply affected the country. This article analyses how the Republic of Macedonia has responded to this crisis. It examines the initial period of the crisis, the measures ...


Introduction: Developing Strategies For Stability And A Sustainable Shared Development In Euro-Mediterranean Migrations, Emanuela C. Del Re Sep 2018

Introduction: Developing Strategies For Stability And A Sustainable Shared Development In Euro-Mediterranean Migrations, Emanuela C. Del Re

New England Journal of Public Policy

This special issue on migration offers a collection of contributions from prominent scholars, academics, and researchers from Europe, Africa, and the United States who provide a unique multilevel and prismatic analysis of this fundamental social phenomenon.


Speech Excerpts: Democracy And Human Rights Apr 2018

Speech Excerpts: Democracy And Human Rights

Saffy Collection - All Textual Materials

Excerpt from speeches given by Bill Clinton on democracy and human rights worldwide. No date given.


Nunca Más: Rhetoric Of Human Rights And Democracy In Post-Authoritarian Argentina, Sarah R. Coleman Apr 2018

Nunca Más: Rhetoric Of Human Rights And Democracy In Post-Authoritarian Argentina, Sarah R. Coleman

Political Science Honors Projects

In 1983, Argentina began its process of transitioning to democracy and away from a repressive military dictatorship that had ruled the nation for the past 7 years. With this democratic transition came the process of transition justice aimed at confronting and rectifying the human rights violations committed under the authoritarian regime. Out of this transitional period arose many questions: How do principles of democracy and human rights overlap? How does one define concepts such as justice, truth, and rights? What responsibility does democracy have to upholding human rights? And most importantly, how does a transitional regime institute long-lasting norms regarding ...


Denying Refuge, Creating An Industry: Migrant Smuggling And The Human Cost Of The Turkey-European Union Asylum Framework, Olivia Campochiaro Mar 2018

Denying Refuge, Creating An Industry: Migrant Smuggling And The Human Cost Of The Turkey-European Union Asylum Framework, Olivia Campochiaro

Honors Theses

This thesis examines how state responses to irregular migration impact human smuggling activity and the experiences of asylum seekers in Turkey and the European Union within the context of the current refugee crisis. To do so, I first discuss relevant global and regional policy frameworks regarding border security, human smuggling, and the rights of displaced people. I then embark on a case study of the Eastern Mediterranean Migration Corridor from Middle Eastern and North African states through Turkey to the Schengen Zone, a primary irregular pathway for migrants seeking asylum in the EU. Turkey hosts more internationally displaced people than ...


Navigating The Double Bind: Exploring The Relationship Between Gender, Political Ideology, And Human Rights, Ashley Archer Jan 2018

Navigating The Double Bind: Exploring The Relationship Between Gender, Political Ideology, And Human Rights, Ashley Archer

University Honors Program Theses

Do female chief executives on the political left exhibit better respect towards human rights than their counterparts on the political right? This paper explores the relationship between a female political leader and her ideology and how this relationship may influence policy attitudes, specifically, human rights practices within a country. I argue that women leaders face a political double bind in their actions and that their ideologies affect how they navigate this bind. Past research has found that women leaders must fulfill two roles: their role as leader and their role as woman (Paxton and Hughes 2014). Women leaders must work ...


The Implications Of Domestic Party Ideologies On Refugee Policy: A Case Study Of Bangladesh And The Rohingya, Samuel S. Schiffer Jan 2018

The Implications Of Domestic Party Ideologies On Refugee Policy: A Case Study Of Bangladesh And The Rohingya, Samuel S. Schiffer

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Why do some political parties in Bangladesh discriminate against the Rohingya, while some do not? Much has been written about the conflict in Myanmar, but the plight of Rohingya in Bangladesh remains understudied. This lack of understanding is underscored by the five million Syrian refugees fleeing their own civil war that dominates the news and the attention of scholars. The Rohingya, however, are stateless: they are denied citizenship in their native Myanmar and are forced to find refuge in whichever country will take them.

Much has been published that links immigration policy to security considerations and the national identity and ...


Media Coverage Of Human Rights In The Us And Uk: The Violations Still Won’T Be Televised (Or Published), Shawna M. Brandle Jan 2018

Media Coverage Of Human Rights In The Us And Uk: The Violations Still Won’T Be Televised (Or Published), Shawna M. Brandle

Publications and Research

This article analyzes American television and American and British print news coverage of human rights using a combination of manual and machine coding. The data reveal that television and print news cover very few human rights stories, that these stories are mostly international and not domestic, that even when human rights are covered, they are not covered in detail, and that human rights issues are more likely to be covered when they are not framed as human rights. This suggests that human rights is simply not a frame that journalists employ, and provides support for government-leading-media theories of newsworthiness.


Navigating Risks Across Borders: The Lived Experiences Of Central American Women Migrants, Carla Angulo-Pasel Jan 2018

Navigating Risks Across Borders: The Lived Experiences Of Central American Women Migrants, Carla Angulo-Pasel

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

The journey for ‘unauthorized’ migrant women from the Northern Triangle of Central America (NTCA) through Mexico dangerous and violent. In hopes of achieving safe passage to the United States (U.S.), women migrants will have to navigate borders. In this dissertation, I use the concept of borders to reveal the gendered experiences of (im)mobility. I argue that navigating borders throughout the migratory journey is not simply about experiencing the risks and vulnerabilities associated with restrictive border enforcement policies and practices implemented by the nation-state. (Im)mobility for women migrants is equally about the boundaries and/or barriers that are ...


Sexual Violence In The Field Of Vision, Sharon Sliwinski Dec 2017

Sexual Violence In The Field Of Vision, Sharon Sliwinski

Sharon Sliwinski

Meditating on a single photograph from a recent Human Rights Watch report concerning police violence in Northern British Columbia, Canada, this paper pursues two lines of questions about the visual politics of human rights. One concerns how our ways of seeing—our modes of attending to the vulnerability and integrity of particular persons—can itself be understood as a form of human rights practice. The other aims to widen space in contemporary political theory for thinking about how sexual violence functions as a central technology of sovereignty and how we might make this phenomenon more perceptible. The paper explores the ...


Beyond Westphalia: Competitive Legalization In Emerging Transnational Regulatory Systems, Errol E. Meidinger Nov 2017

Beyond Westphalia: Competitive Legalization In Emerging Transnational Regulatory Systems, Errol E. Meidinger

Errol Meidinger

Published as Chapter 7 in Law and Legalization in Transnational Relations, Christian Brütsch & Dirk Lehmkuhl, eds.

This paper analyzes several emerging transnational regulatory systems that engage, but are not centered on state legal systems. Driven primarily by civil society organizations, the new regulatory systems use conventional technical standard setting and certification techniques to establish market-leveraged, social and environmental regulatory programs. These programs resemble state regulatory programs in many important respects, and are increasingly legalized. Individual sectors generally have multiple regulatory programs that compete with, but also mimic and reinforce each other. While forestry is the most developed example, similar patterns ...


The 'Nayirah' Effect: The Role Of Target States’ Human Rights Violations And Victims’ Emotive Images In War Support, Joseph Braun, Kiyoung Chang Nov 2017

The 'Nayirah' Effect: The Role Of Target States’ Human Rights Violations And Victims’ Emotive Images In War Support, Joseph Braun, Kiyoung Chang

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

When a target state violates human rights, how does the identity of the victims and the presence of emotive imagery affect the level of public support for interventionist war? How does the perceived race and gender of victims affect this relationship? We employ a survey experiment to study whether and when information about a target state’s human rights violations affects public attitudes toward the use of force. Specifically, we manipulate a fictional victim’s race (light-skinned vs. dark-skinned) and gender (male vs. female), and explore how these variations affect support for interventionist war. In our experiment, we find that ...


No Human Right To Sodomy: Christian Conservative Opposition To Sogi Human Rights, Cynthia Burack Nov 2017

No Human Right To Sodomy: Christian Conservative Opposition To Sogi Human Rights, Cynthia Burack

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

The American Christian conservative movement is the most consistent and persistent adversary of sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) civil rights in the US. In recent years, the Christian right has responded to changes in attitudes to same-sex sexuality in the US by relocating some of their attention and operations to issues and arenas of contest outside the US that hold more promise for implacable antagonism to rights and recognition for LGBTQ people. In some parts of the world, these US-based anti-LGBTQ actors have become recognized as “experts” on gender and sexual minorities and the dire consequences the existence of ...


Faith-Based Civil Society Organizations And The Protection Of Victims Of Human Rights Abuses In Nigeria, Nathaniel Umukoro Nov 2017

Faith-Based Civil Society Organizations And The Protection Of Victims Of Human Rights Abuses In Nigeria, Nathaniel Umukoro

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

Nigeria has witnessed various forms of human rights violations such as extrajudicial killings, rape, and torture during both military and civilian regimes. Amnesty International, the U.S. State Department, and the Political Terror Scale of the Centre for Systemic Peace indicate that Nigeria is a country characterized by generalized human rights violations.

Over the years, several scholars have examined the causes, nature, responses of the state, and reasons for the persistence of human rights violations in Nigeria. A careful consideration of these studies indicates that the role of faith-based civil society organizations in the protection of victims of human rights ...


Faith-Based Resistance, Human Rights, And Emancipatory Practices, Curtis Kline Nov 2017

Faith-Based Resistance, Human Rights, And Emancipatory Practices, Curtis Kline

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

Progressive political theologies can expand and deepen both the strength and the conceptualization of human rights advocacy. However, not all political theologies are an effort to defend human dignity; neither are all understandings and practices of human rights. The validation of progressive political theologies as well as the validation of human rights conceptualizations comes from their capacity to concretely change the lived reality of poor and oppressed peoples of the world.

As with political theologies, there is a constant struggle over the control of how to conceptualize what constitutes a human rights issue. While many communities of faith find liberating ...