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Democracy

2013

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Articles 1 - 30 of 38

Full-Text Articles in Political Science

The Incompatible Treatment Of Majorities In Election Law And Deliberative Democracy, James A. Gardner Dec 2013

The Incompatible Treatment Of Majorities In Election Law And Deliberative Democracy, James A. Gardner

Journal Articles

Deliberative democracy offers a distinctive and appealing conception of political life, but is it one that might be called into service to guide actual reform of existing election law? This possibility seems remote because election law and deliberative democracy are built around different priorities and theoretical premises. A foundational area of disagreement lies in the treatment of majorities. Election law is structured, at both the legislative and constitutional levels, so as to privilege majorities and systematically to magnify their power, whereas deliberative democracy aims at privileging minorities (or at least de-privileging majorities). The main purpose of the election law now ...


Democracy In Postmodern America: Why The Postmodern Worldview Is Incompatible With America's System Of Society And Government, Peter A. Bigelow Dec 2013

Democracy In Postmodern America: Why The Postmodern Worldview Is Incompatible With America's System Of Society And Government, Peter A. Bigelow

Selected Honors Theses

No abstract provided.


Moocs And Modern Democracies, Richard L. Pate Nov 2013

Moocs And Modern Democracies, Richard L. Pate

WCBT Faculty Publications

A discussion of the imposition of the interests of the few on the collective through a subtle but effective manner: the eventual, complete development of Massive Open Online Courses. It is this article’s premise that this development together with current marketing efficacy and the present economic goals of modern democracies, is probable to result in a shrinkage of the market place of ideas and, paradoxically, likely to result in a diminution of democracy in the world.


Corruption, Democracy And Asia-Pacific Countries, Neil Campbell, Shrabani Saha Oct 2013

Corruption, Democracy And Asia-Pacific Countries, Neil Campbell, Shrabani Saha

Neil Campbell

This paper argues that the relationship between democracy and corruption is nonmonotonic. When a country shifts from autocratic rule to highly imperfect democracy (an ‘electoral democracy’) it is frequently perceived that the level of corruption increases. Conversely, when the democracy level is already relatively high (approaching ‘mature democracy’) an increase in the level of democracy is typically expected to decrease the level of corruption. To assist with our discussion of these issues, before going on to the empirical part of the paper, we look specifically at the case of South Korea to illustrate how corruption responded to an increasing level ...


Reconciling Positivism And Realism: Kelsen And Habermas On Democracy And Human Rights, David Ingram Oct 2013

Reconciling Positivism And Realism: Kelsen And Habermas On Democracy And Human Rights, David Ingram

David Ingram

It is well known that Hans Kelsen and Jürgen Habermas invoke realist arguments drawn from social science in defending an international, democratic human rights regime against Carl Schmitt’s attack on the rule of law. However, despite embracing the realist spirit of Kelsen’s legal positivism, Habermas criticizes Kelsen for neglecting to connect the rule of law with a concept of procedural justice (Part I). I argue, to the contrary (Part II), that Kelsen does connect these terms, albeit in a manner that may be best described as functional, rather than conceptual. Indeed, whereas Habermas tends to emphasize a conceptual ...


Does Political Islam Conflict With Secular Democracy? Philosophical Reflections On Religion And Politics, David Ingram Oct 2013

Does Political Islam Conflict With Secular Democracy? Philosophical Reflections On Religion And Politics, David Ingram

David Ingram

Abstract: This paper rebuts the thesis that political Islam conflicts with secular democracy. More precisely, it examines three sorts of claims that ostensibly support this thesis: (a) The Muslim religion is incompatible with secular democracy; (b) No Muslim country has instituted secular democracy; and (c) No movement seeking to advance its agenda as aggressively as political Islam does can do so with the degree of moderation required of a political party that is committed to secular democracy. Theologians, philosophers, and political scientists have debated (a) through (c) within the jurisdiction of their respective fields. I propose to combine these debates ...


Containment And The Shah: How Eisenhower And The Cia Brought Down Democracy And Encouraged Corrupt Leadership In Iran, Ellie Holliday Oct 2013

Containment And The Shah: How Eisenhower And The Cia Brought Down Democracy And Encouraged Corrupt Leadership In Iran, Ellie Holliday

Ex-Patt Magazine

U.S. relations with Iran are beginning to thaw. Why were they frozen to begin with?


The American Ideal Of Representative Democracy: The Roles Of National Identity And Perceived Consensus And Homogeneity Among The American People, Frank John Gonzalez Aug 2013

The American Ideal Of Representative Democracy: The Roles Of National Identity And Perceived Consensus And Homogeneity Among The American People, Frank John Gonzalez

Political Science Department -- Theses, Dissertations, and Student Scholarship

A “true” American takes pride in the democratic processes that grant power to the people, right? Some literature has shown that “power to the people” is actually quite far from being uniformly endorsed by the American people, largely because of the inherent conflict and disagreement that comes with it (e.g., Hibbing & Theiss-Morse, 2002). So are people more positive toward democratic processes when they perceive consensus among citizens? I utilize survey data from a representative sample of the United States in order to show that perceptions of consensus are positively related to support for the political power of the American ...


Rhode Island Helps To Weaken Iranian Regime, Donna M. Hughes Dr. Jul 2013

Rhode Island Helps To Weaken Iranian Regime, Donna M. Hughes Dr.

Donna M. Hughes

No abstract provided.


The Democracy Cluster Classification Index, Mihaiela R. Gugiu, Miguel Centellas May 2013

The Democracy Cluster Classification Index, Mihaiela R. Gugiu, Miguel Centellas

Miguel Centellas

Using hierarchical cluster analysis, a new measure of democracy, the DCC index, is proposed and constructed from five popular indices of democracy (Freedom House, Polity IV, Vanhanen's index of democratization, Cheibub et al.'s index of democracy and dictatorship, and the Cingranelli-Richards index of electoral self-determination). The DCC was used to classify the regime types for twenty-four countries in the Americas and thirty-nine countries in Europe over a thirty-year period. The results indicated that democracy is a latent class variable. Sensitivity and specificity analyses were conducted for the five existing democracy indices as well as the newly proposed Unified ...


The Democratic Landscape: Envisioning Democracy Through Aldo Leopold's Land Ethic, Stacey L. Matrazzo May 2013

The Democratic Landscape: Envisioning Democracy Through Aldo Leopold's Land Ethic, Stacey L. Matrazzo

Master of Liberal Studies Theses

Since its founding, nature and nature-ownership have been central to American democracy, with property ownership remaining a fundamental part of its citizens' idea of liberty and freedom. Although initially constrained by common law principles, private property rights have varied over the centuries and have largely ignored the land's natural features. Landownership today tends to equate more with individual power than public responsibility. As a result of individualistic actions that have degraded the landscape and neglected the interdependence of humans with the greater biotic community, the divide between humans and nature has grown. In his groundbreaking essay, "The Land Ethic ...


Consensus Democracy And State Performance: Evaluating The Impact Of Coalition Government On Indian States, Vandit D. Shah May 2013

Consensus Democracy And State Performance: Evaluating The Impact Of Coalition Government On Indian States, Vandit D. Shah

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

The question of whether a majoritarian setup is optimal in terms of broad representation takes up on paramount importance in the context of power-sharing in deeply divided places, whereby unqualified exclusion of segment(s) of the population from government can have potentially disastrous consequences. Governance in deeply-divided places presents a rather intriguing question --- who governs the people, how are they elected, what mandates do they have? What form of government works best - a single-party majoritarian system that by popular belief leads to more effective governance or a consensus-based government that allows for better protection of minority interests? More broadly then ...


Deepening Democracy At The Grassroots Level: Citizen Participation In State Devolved Funds (Cdf) In Kenya, Fredrick Omondi Otieno May 2013

Deepening Democracy At The Grassroots Level: Citizen Participation In State Devolved Funds (Cdf) In Kenya, Fredrick Omondi Otieno

Pan African Studies - Theses

That democracy is the most suitable form of government is no longer contested. However many questions shaking this global consensus continue to abound. Why is there a growing cynicism and apathy with the notion of democracy across the globe? Why has the concept of democracy had to attract adjectives that attempt to qualify or categorize it in different parts of the world? And perhaps most importantly, if in deed democracy is such a good "thing" how can it be made meaningful? This thesis looks at citizen participation in a state devolved fund (CDF) in Kenya as a space through which ...


Democracy Through Multi-Body Sortition: Athenian Lessons For The Modern Day, Terrill G. Bouricius Apr 2013

Democracy Through Multi-Body Sortition: Athenian Lessons For The Modern Day, Terrill G. Bouricius

Journal of Public Deliberation

Mature Classical Athenian democracy is presented as a representative system, rather than the commonly described form of “direct democracy.” When viewed in this way, the commonly assumed problem of scale in applying Athenian democracy to modern nation states is solved, and principles and practices of the Athenian model of democracy continue to have relevance today. The key role of sortition (selection by lot) to form multiple deliberative bodies is explained. Five dilemmas faced by modern proposals for the use of sortition are examined. Finally, a new model of lawmaking using multiple allotted bodies is presented, which resolves these dilemmas and ...


Regional Regimes For The Defense Of Democracy And Coups D'Etat, Jacob P. Wobig Apr 2013

Regional Regimes For The Defense Of Democracy And Coups D'Etat, Jacob P. Wobig

Political Science Department -- Theses, Dissertations, and Student Scholarship

Does international law work, and if so, how? In the last twenty years eight regional intergovernmental organizations have adopted treaties requiring all participants to be democracies and specifying sanctions to be leveled against members that cease to be democracies. In this work I examine to what extent these agreements are helping protect the governments of their members from coups. I find that, between 1991 and 2008, states subject to these treaties were less likely to experience attempted coups d’etat, and were less likely to be overthrown when coups were attempted, but that the evidence varies widely in particular cases ...


Center For Peace, Democracy, And Development, Center For Peace, Democracy, And Development, University Of Massachusetts Boston Apr 2013

Center For Peace, Democracy, And Development, Center For Peace, Democracy, And Development, University Of Massachusetts Boston

Office of Community Partnerships Posters

The Center for Peace, Democracy, and Development is dedicated to advancing peace, democracy, rule of law, and economic and social development in developing areas abroad.


Citizen Responsibility For War In Imperfect Democracies, Lisa Rivera Mar 2013

Citizen Responsibility For War In Imperfect Democracies, Lisa Rivera

Lisa Rivera

Are individual citizens of imperfect democracies morally responsible for unjust wars waged by their state? Moral responsibility for unjust wars involves both retrospective and social responsibility. Citizens of imperfect democracies are retrospectively responsible when they choose to vote for a leader they know will wage an unjust war. This situation may occur very rarely. For example, US citizens did not have this political option at the outset of the Vietnam and Iraq Wars. However, even when citizens are not retrospectively responsible they have the social responsibility to engage in collective action to address the harms unjust war causes.


Habermas, Same-Sex Marriage And The Problem Of Religion In Public Life, Darren R. Walhof Jan 2013

Habermas, Same-Sex Marriage And The Problem Of Religion In Public Life, Darren R. Walhof

Peer Reviewed Articles

This article addresses the debate over religion in the public sphere by analysing the conception of ‘religion’ in the recent work of Habermas, who claims to mediate the divide between those who defend public appeals to religion without restriction and those who place limits on such appeals. I argue that Habermas’ translation requirement and his restriction on religious reasons in the institutional public sphere rest on a conception of religion as essentially apolitical in its origin. This conception, I argue, remains embedded in a standard secularization framework, despite Habermas’ claim to offer a new account of secularization. This approach betrays ...


Neoliberalism And The Law Reassessing Historical Materialist Analysis Of The Law For The 21st Century, Justin Schwartz Jan 2013

Neoliberalism And The Law Reassessing Historical Materialist Analysis Of The Law For The 21st Century, Justin Schwartz

Justin Schwartz

Historical materialism has been called in question by the triumph of neoliberalism and the fall of Communism. I show, by consideration of two examples, the 2008 crisis and recent Supreme Court campaign spending First Amendment jurisprudence, that neoliberalism instead vindicates the explanatory power of (non-mechanical and non-deterministic) historical materialism in accounting for a wide range of recent legal developments in legislation, executive (in)action, and judicial decision-making.


Neoliberalism And The Law: How Historical Materialism Can Illuminate Recent Governmental And Judicial Decision Making, Justin Schwartz Jan 2013

Neoliberalism And The Law: How Historical Materialism Can Illuminate Recent Governmental And Judicial Decision Making, Justin Schwartz

Justin Schwartz

Neoliberalism can be understood as the deregulation of the economy from political control by deliberate action or inaction of the state. As such it is both constituted by the law and deeply affects it. I show how the methods of historical materialism can illuminate this phenomenon in all three branches of the the U.S. government. Considering the example the global financial crisis of 2007-08 that began with the housing bubble developing from trade in unregulated and overvalued mortgage backed securities, I show how the repeal of the Glass-Steagall Act, which established a firewall between commercial and investment banking, allowed ...


Documents Of Democracy, Minnesota State University - Mankato Jan 2013

Documents Of Democracy, Minnesota State University - Mankato

Democracy/Government

Bibliography and photograph of a display of government documents from Minnesota State University, Mankato.


Kantian Peace Extended: Liberal Influences And Military Spending, Isaac M. Castellano Jan 2013

Kantian Peace Extended: Liberal Influences And Military Spending, Isaac M. Castellano

Theses and Dissertations--Political Science

The Kantian Triangle of democratic institutions, IGOs, and economic interdependence has received a great deal of attention by international relations scholars. This project expands on liberal theory by arguing the pacific effects of the Kantian Triangle extend beyond dyadic context, and shapes state decision making on defense spending decisions. This project asserts that as states (1) build democratic institutions, (2) increase the number of memberships in international intergovernmental organizations (IGOs), and (3) exposes domestic markets to the global economy and subsequent interdependence on foreign markets for both imports and exports, they are less likely to allocate resources toward the military ...


Democratic Peace Theory As Applied To Europe And The Middle East, Patrick G. Rear Jan 2013

Democratic Peace Theory As Applied To Europe And The Middle East, Patrick G. Rear

Global Tides

Peace has been the goal of many leaders throughout history, and recent democratic movements in the Middle East have made the first steps toward a democratic peace in the region. This paper compares the European experience of Germany and France in the transition to democracy with the recent developments in the Middle East through November 2012. The impact of democratic revolution in Egypt is compared with the government established in Iraq following the U.S. invasion. Already, notable changes can be seen in the bilateral relations between Egypt and Israel, and between Iraq and Iran, which this paper attempts to ...


Citizenship Education In Egypt, Madeline Waddell Jan 2013

Citizenship Education In Egypt, Madeline Waddell

Summer Research

The Arab Spring brought hope of a democratic Middle East to many in the international community. While the literature on democratic transitions includes an array of components, scholars on the region have concentrated on institutional developments such as elections and constitutions. While these structural components are essential, this paper advocates for citizenship education as another crucial element in democratic transitions. Although not typically part of this literature, citizenship education entails building an informed and active populace able to contribute to a total culture of democracy. This paper analyzes these pedagogic efforts in transitional Egypt by contrasting the State’s role ...


Libraries And The Right To The City: Insights From Democratic Theory Prepared For The 2013 Lacuny Institute: Libraries, Information, And The Right To The City, John Buschman Jan 2013

Libraries And The Right To The City: Insights From Democratic Theory Prepared For The 2013 Lacuny Institute: Libraries, Information, And The Right To The City, John Buschman

John Buschman

No abstract provided.


Socrates In A Different Key: James Baldwin And Race In America, Joel Alden Schlosser Jan 2013

Socrates In A Different Key: James Baldwin And Race In America, Joel Alden Schlosser

Political Science Faculty Research and Scholarship

This essay interprets Baldwin as continuing the Socratic practice of self-examination and social criticism while also shifting his Socratic undertaking by charting the limits of examination created by the harsh effects of race and slavery in the United States. I argue that Baldwin's Socratic practice inflects not only his essays – the center of previous analyses – but also his fictions. By transposing Socrates to issues of race in twentieth-century America and confronting the incoherent effects of a racialized society, James Baldwin thus carries forward and transforms a pivotal figure in the history of political thought.


The Impact Of Codification On The Judicial Development Of Copyright, Christopher S. Yoo Jan 2013

The Impact Of Codification On The Judicial Development Of Copyright, Christopher S. Yoo

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Despite the Supreme Court’s rejection of common law copyright in Wheaton v. Peters and the more specific codification by the Copyright Act of 1976, courts have continued to play an active role in determining the scope of copyright. Four areas of continuing judicial innovation include fair use, misuse, third-party liability, and the first sale doctrine. Some commentators have advocated broad judicial power to revise and overturn statutes. Such sweeping judicial power is hard to reconcile with the democratic commitment to legislative supremacy. At the other extreme are those that view codification as completely displacing courts’ authority to develop legal ...


Democracy & Despair: Riots, Economic Development, And An Emergency Manager In Benton Harbor, Mi, Tyler C. Reedy Jan 2013

Democracy & Despair: Riots, Economic Development, And An Emergency Manager In Benton Harbor, Mi, Tyler C. Reedy

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Michigan's emergency manager law raises many questions about the nature of American democracy. The law specifically targets financially troubled municipal governments for state take over. The demographics of the cities where an emergency manager has been installed have been overwhelmingly poor and overwhelmingly African American. Using a qualitative approach to analyze scholarly books and articles, local media accounts, legal rulings, and personal interviews, this thesis seeks to contribute to a more nuanced understanding of what democracy looks like in the United States by focusing on one particular city that has been subjected to the emergency manager law. By analyzing ...


Maximizing Citizenship With Minimal Representation: An Analysis Of Afro-Argentine Civil Society Organizing Strategies, Prisca Suarez Jan 2013

Maximizing Citizenship With Minimal Representation: An Analysis Of Afro-Argentine Civil Society Organizing Strategies, Prisca Suarez

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis examines the organizing strategies and successes of Afro-Argentine civil society organizations (CSO) in Buenos Aires. I argue that despite low representation, Afro-Argentines have strategically designed their initiatives in ways that draw on national discourses of identity rights and nationalism; and, as well, have used cultural inclusion to influence state actors, creating agency and increasing visibility. Afro-Argentines are a highly understudied population due to the common belief that they do not exist in Argentina as a group. This thesis not only dispels that myth with a history of the long hidden importance of Afro-Argentines contributions to the formation of ...


African Regional Organizations And Democracy, Stephanie Schoppert Jan 2013

African Regional Organizations And Democracy, Stephanie Schoppert

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Instability and political repression are two reasons why many states in Africa are unable to develop. African regional organizations have the potential to encourage democracy, stability and development within their regions if they have the right tools. Using case studies of two major interventions by African regional organizations this thesis will determine what those tools may be. Both the intervention of ECOWAS into Liberia and the SADC into the DRC were rife with problems but they were able to bring some stability and even democracy to states in crisis. This thesis finds that African regional organizations can promote democracy and ...