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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Planning For Protest: The Spatial Dimensions Of Civil Resistance Movements In Rio De Janeiro, Brazil, Nora Lamm Mar 2019

Planning For Protest: The Spatial Dimensions Of Civil Resistance Movements In Rio De Janeiro, Brazil, Nora Lamm

Architecture and Planning ETDs

This research project seeks to better understand how protests of varying sizes take place in public spaces, focusing on the city of Rio de Janeiro. The relationship between cities and protests has increasingly gained importance as urban areas throughout the world become epicenters for demanding greater political rights and expanded notions of citizenship (Harvey, 2003) (Vicino, 2017). Understanding the dynamics of protest in Rio de Janeiro is particularly important as the city struggles to overcome a financial crisis following nearly a decade of hosting international mega-events including the 2016 Olympics. Unstable funding has led to a public security crisis as ...


Explaining Nuclear Rollback: Examining The Cessation Of Nuclear Weaponization In Argentina And Brazil From 1964 - 1994, Billy Michael Douglas Jan 2018

Explaining Nuclear Rollback: Examining The Cessation Of Nuclear Weaponization In Argentina And Brazil From 1964 - 1994, Billy Michael Douglas

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

Seventy years after the first use of nuclear weapons in World War II, the proliferation of these apocalyptic munitions remains a key policy issue on the international stage. The available literature on nuclear proliferation suggests a strong correlation between the threat of rival a state seeking nuclear weapons and a state's own decision to pursue its own nuclear weapons. Regional rivals Argentina and Brazil both initiated nuclear weapons programs and were also developing nuclear delivery systems; however, these countries were able to step out of this dyadic proliferation spiral and renounced their nuclear weapons programs. Often assumed a success ...


Corruption: Brazil's Everlasting Parasite, Patricia Vilhena Jan 2018

Corruption: Brazil's Everlasting Parasite, Patricia Vilhena

Honors Undergraduate Theses

The purpose of this thesis is to explore corruption in Brazil, how it has endured for so such a long period, and the effects it has in the country. Understanding the history of Brazil, how the government was established, and how the branches operate is crucial to comprehend the rooting causes of the Brazilian corruption. The focus is not just about what corruption is and the effects it has on education, economy, and infrastructure, but also on the factors that contributed to its expansion and the circumstances that allowed it to sustain until today. Brazil is a country known for ...


Structural Racism: Racists Without Racism In Liberal Institutions Within Colorblind States, Alexis Nicole Mootoo Jun 2017

Structural Racism: Racists Without Racism In Liberal Institutions Within Colorblind States, Alexis Nicole Mootoo

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Afro-Descendants suffer sustained discrimination and invisibility that is proliferated with policies that were once blatantly racist, but are now furtive. This study argues that structural racism is alive and well in liberal institutions such as publicly funded colleges and universities. Thus, structural racism is subtly replicated and reproduced within these institutions and by institutional agents who are Racist without Racism. This study builds on theories from Pierre Bourdieu, Frantz Fanon, Glen Loury and Eduardo Bonilla-Silva. The juxtaposition of their theoretical arguments provides a deeper insight into how structural racism becomes a de facto reflexive phenomenon in liberal and progressive institutions ...


The Brazilian Paradox: Lgbt Legislation Improvements Versus High Violence Rates Against Lgbt People, Julia Melasipo Jan 2017

The Brazilian Paradox: Lgbt Legislation Improvements Versus High Violence Rates Against Lgbt People, Julia Melasipo

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In the past couple of decades, much of the world shifted into embracing LGBT rights as human rights. Brazil followed this trend and passed federal laws ensuring rights for the LGBT community. However, the Brazilian society has not fully accepted the LGBT people, as evidenced by Brazil having one of the highest violence rates against LGBT members in the world. This thesis uses the established United Nations international legal framework that defines LGBT rights as human rights worldwide under international law to show how this framework influenced the advancements Brazil made in the 2000s to introduce LGBT-friendly laws within the ...


Race And Affirmative Action In “Post-Racial” Democratic Brazil, Alejandra T. Vazquez Baur Jan 2017

Race And Affirmative Action In “Post-Racial” Democratic Brazil, Alejandra T. Vazquez Baur

CMC Senior Theses

This thesis examines the ways that Brazilians are evaluated for their privileges in qualification for the affirmative action program. It critically examines the existing policies, how they function, and how they affect ideas of race in Brazil for both black and non-black Brazilians. Additionally, it proposes that the policies prioritize phenotype as a primary condition for qualifying for a quota in order to accomplish their initial objectives of fighting racial inequalities, compensating for historical injustices, contributing to the diversity of experiences and perspectives on campuses and in federal offices, and raising understanding of what it means to be black in ...


Developmental Challenges And Opportunities Of Brazil In The 21st Century, Henrique Ruda Vianna Ribeiro Dec 2015

Developmental Challenges And Opportunities Of Brazil In The 21st Century, Henrique Ruda Vianna Ribeiro

HIM 1990-2015

As Brazil develops into the first South American world power many changes in its society, economy and political system are necessary for a successful transformation. Nevertheless this is no easy task as the country battles corruption, vast inequality and a severe problem with freedom of information within the media. For decades the Brazilian mainstream media has been controlled by elite political forces together with elite families influencing and controlling many factors that are responsible for social, economic and political development. As new developments and implementations in the last fifteen years have been ongoing within Brazil, such as welfare programs, social ...


Ideology Versus Clientelism: Modernization And Electoral Competition In Brazil, Cássio Da Silva Muniz Aug 2015

Ideology Versus Clientelism: Modernization And Electoral Competition In Brazil, Cássio Da Silva Muniz

Theses and Dissertations

This study investigates how parties utilize the political dimensions of ideology (left-right) and clientelism (programmatic-patronage) to compete electorally in developing democracies. It proposes a combined utility theory, which suggests polarized competitive elections in modernizing national electoral markets compel programmatic parties to coalesce with clientelistic parties to gain access to regional private electoral markets. Methodologically, this study draws on a mixed-method approach focusing on Brazil as a crucial test case. It applies spatial voting models to assess the validity of ideological competition as well as geospatial voting distribution based on clustering and dispersion to devise a new quantitative measurement of clientelism ...


“If It Ain’T Broke, Don’T Fix It”?: Analyzing The Politics Of The Un Security Council And The Viability Of The Group Of Four’S Proposal For Reform, Marissa A. Mcomber Jan 2015

“If It Ain’T Broke, Don’T Fix It”?: Analyzing The Politics Of The Un Security Council And The Viability Of The Group Of Four’S Proposal For Reform, Marissa A. Mcomber

University Honors Program Theses

The United Nations Security Council (UNSC)’s mandate gives it the unique authority to maintain international peace and security. Made up of ten nonpermanent rotating and five permanent Member States (P5), the UNSC gives this decision making power to less than eight percent of the Member States of the UN at a time, five of whom never change. It has long been argued that the P5 represent a power distribution of the world as it existed in 1945, directly after World War II, and has not kept up with changing membership and power dynamics. This paper analyzes the history of ...


Ordem E Progresso: The Programa De Aceleração Do Crescimento, Developmentalism And Democracy In Brazil, Grant Burrier Sep 2014

Ordem E Progresso: The Programa De Aceleração Do Crescimento, Developmentalism And Democracy In Brazil, Grant Burrier

Political Science ETDs

The dissertation analyzes the developmental state and public policy in Brazil, exploring the extent to which the policymaking process is rationalized or politicized. Specifically, I look at these issues in the multi-year infrastructure project, the Programa de Aceleração do Crescimento (PAC). Brazil has a long history of clientelism and pork barrel spending. At the same time, the rise of developmentalist leaders has undermined these historical legacies and encouraged the implementation of more rationalized economic policies. In order to function properly, a developmental state requires rationalization and most scholars have assumed that authoritarian, one party states would provide the necessary insulation ...


The Revolutionary Climate: Applying Theories Of Revolution To Assess Political Stability In Contemporary Brazil, Arden Andrew Nicholls May 2014

The Revolutionary Climate: Applying Theories Of Revolution To Assess Political Stability In Contemporary Brazil, Arden Andrew Nicholls

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Rapid modernization has throughout history presented unique challenges for developing countries. Generally judged to be a good thing--but if too rapid--modernization can strain a government if that governmental system is unable to keep up. Historically concrete social classes begin to blur or shift as massive capital investments are injected--often unequally. Proliferation of the middle class is commonly seen as a country modernizes quickly; with the new middleclass comes rising expectations and modern demands on government. Social programs, infrastructure, political and social equality and general societal advancements are all expected to increase at roughly the same pace as the economy. Social ...


The International Human Rights Policies Of New Democracies: Brazil And Chile In Comparative Perspective, Claudia Fuentes Julio Jan 2014

The International Human Rights Policies Of New Democracies: Brazil And Chile In Comparative Perspective, Claudia Fuentes Julio

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Since the beginning of the 1990s, the majority of Latin American states have attempted to incorporate in some way or another human rights concern into their respective foreign policies, highlighting a history of human rights abuses and the return of democratic political rule as a trigger for galvanizing a commitment to assist in preventing such violations in other countries. Yet, while human rights have come to play a non-trivial role in the contemporary foreign policy of many Latin American states, there is great diversity in the ways and the extent to which they go about incorporating human rights concerns into ...


Microfinance And Poverty Reduction: How Risks Associated With Government Policies Affect Whether Microfinance Alleviates Poverty In Latin-America, Brian Warby Jan 2014

Microfinance And Poverty Reduction: How Risks Associated With Government Policies Affect Whether Microfinance Alleviates Poverty In Latin-America, Brian Warby

Theses and Dissertations

The expansion of financial services to the poor, now widely referred to as microfinance, quickly saw tremendous success in Bangladesh beginning in the 1970's and was exported to a number of other countries. For a time microfinance was spoken of as a panacea, in part because it is more detached from governments than other forms of poverty alleviation. I develop a model based on expected utility theory that looks at how risks associated with government policies and characteristics affect whether this mechanism eases poverty. Using a large N analysis of Latin-American states from 1990-2010 and a case study analysis ...


The Evolving Executive: Provisional Decrees And Their Impact On Brazil's Executive-Legislative Relationship, Lance L. Arberry Dec 2013

The Evolving Executive: Provisional Decrees And Their Impact On Brazil's Executive-Legislative Relationship, Lance L. Arberry

Theses

Comparatively, the lawmaking process in presidential systems is often comprised of negotiations between a legislative body, tasked with authoring and legislating laws, and an executive, who must authorize and administer the enactment of the law. While executives are often empowered with certain constitutional powers to help influence the lawmaking process, these powers are typically constrained and supervisory in nature. Presidents are rarely given broad-and-discretionary legislative powers, since lawmaking is ultimately the responsibility of the legislative body; however, this does not hold true for the case of Brazil. Following the adoption of Brazil’s 1988 Constitution, Presidents were empowered with the ...


An Evaluation Of The Potential Impact Of Community Oriented Policing In Latin America, Gabriella A. Ippolito Aug 2013

An Evaluation Of The Potential Impact Of Community Oriented Policing In Latin America, Gabriella A. Ippolito

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis examines the potential impact of community oriented policing in Latin America through a series of case studies from Brazil, Mexico, Chile, Colombia and El Salvador dating from the early 1990’s to the present. They are analyzed through a typology that organizes community oriented policing strategies according to costliness to the police. Costliness is defined as the amount of power that the police have to renounce to the community to implement a certain strategy. The thesis concludes that community oriented policing is an improvement over militarized policing strategies as it has the possibility to enhance both human security ...


The 2014 Brazilian World Cup: Consequences And Legacies, Elissa Josefina Ronquillo Apr 2012

The 2014 Brazilian World Cup: Consequences And Legacies, Elissa Josefina Ronquillo

Scripps Senior Theses

Sport is often not a topic one contemplates of when thinking of global and national narratives. For many it is not a valid or significant tool to study race or development. Sport has been minimized to an after school activity or a distraction, but sport crosses many spheres including, but not limited to, politics and identity. It has the capability of influencing people’s histories and growth as an individual. Many scholars have in recent years used the politics of sport as a legitimate way to understand race and global history. The 2014 World Cup presented itself as the perfect ...


Examining The Relationship Between Participatory Democracy And Nonwhite Domestic Workers In Porto Alegre, Brazil: Issues Of Race, Class And Privilege, Alexis Nicole Mootoo Jan 2012

Examining The Relationship Between Participatory Democracy And Nonwhite Domestic Workers In Porto Alegre, Brazil: Issues Of Race, Class And Privilege, Alexis Nicole Mootoo

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Brazil is a nation that has professed to be a `racial democracy' such that race categories are not recognized. This implies that every citizen experiences equal access from a political, social and economic point of view, irrespective of skin color. Nevertheless, palpable racial inequalities exist in Brazil such that there is a primarily white elite class while Brazilians of African descent are typically poor. Male dominance is a worldwide phenomenon. When racial inequities are coupled with male dominance, Brazilian women of African origins suffer as they occupy the lowest socio-economic strata, which often remand them to work as domestics. Some ...


Brazil As A Regional And International Leader, Justin Ferber Jan 2012

Brazil As A Regional And International Leader, Justin Ferber

Dissertations and Theses

Brazil's critical role in South American integration and political crisis management in Latin America, as well as its increasing power in international trade, finance, and security underscorethat Brazil influence over regional and international affairs.This thesis argues that Brazil has leveraged its economic strength and soft power—which it derives from its successful domestic social policies and distinguished diplomatic history of promoting international cooperation and peaceful conflict—to project regional and international leadership.


The Absent Empire: The United States And The South American Regional Subsystem, Carlos Gustavo Poggio Teixerira Jul 2011

The Absent Empire: The United States And The South American Regional Subsystem, Carlos Gustavo Poggio Teixerira

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

The United States often acted in Latin America as an empire. Nevertheless, there has been an obvious dissimilarity between US actions in South America and US actions in the rest of Latin America, which is illustrated by the fact that the United States never sent troops to invade a South American country. While geographic distance and strategic considerations may have played a role, they provide at best incomplete explanations for US relative absence south of Panama. The fact that the United States has had a distinct pattern of interactions with South America is thus not captured by the typical concept ...


The Threat To Democracy In Brazil's Public Sphere, Daniel Nettuno Jan 2011

The Threat To Democracy In Brazil's Public Sphere, Daniel Nettuno

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis looks at the nature of violence with its endemic, and increasingly epidemic, presence in Brazil. I analyze the structure of the justice system, police force, and the many governmental security programs in order to better explain why Brazil is so violent and its government has been unable to control this violence. Living under violent conditions, Brazil has become a society where the efficient functioning of the public sphere has been undermined. This public space, shared by citizens, is what many academics believe to be a critical component of a robust and functioning democracy. In Brazil, it is shown ...


Seats At The Table: Civil Society And Participatory Governance In Brazilian Housing Policy, Maureen Mary Donaghy Jan 2011

Seats At The Table: Civil Society And Participatory Governance In Brazilian Housing Policy, Maureen Mary Donaghy

Political Science Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Can democratic institutions be created to address social challenges? Democratic institutions should promote accountability of government officials to the needs of citizens. Civil society then plays a role in exposing corruption as well as in communicating the needs of low-income residents to officials. Neither the institutions of representative democracy nor the presence of civil society, however, appears to automatically guarantee adoption of social benefits for the poor. Scholars, development practitioners, donors, and activists propose participatory governance institutions as mechanisms to create accountability and responsiveness through a public forum incorporating civil society. To date, however, little comparative research exists to confirm ...


Democracy And The Environment In Latin America, Javier Albert Escamilla Dec 2009

Democracy And The Environment In Latin America, Javier Albert Escamilla

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

This study examines the ability of democratic and non-democratic states alike to protect the environment. Democracy has long been an important concept in the study of politics and environmental protection is an increasingly important issue in world politics. Advocates of democracy claim democratic states are better able to protect the environment than non-democracies. In contrast there are those that argue democracy's emphasis on individual rights leads to excessive resource consumption. This thesis employs a mixed methods approach to determine if democratic countries protect the environment more than their non-democratic counterparts. In short democracies do protect the environment better than ...


How Does A Democratic Brazil Constrast With Authoritarian Brazil In Terms Of Promoting Human Security?, Pablo Albuquerque Banhos Jan 2009

How Does A Democratic Brazil Constrast With Authoritarian Brazil In Terms Of Promoting Human Security?, Pablo Albuquerque Banhos

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

This study compares and contrasts two distinct regimes, the Brazilian military regime (1964-1985) and Brazil's current democratic regime (1985-2007). The focus of this thesis is to determine why, compared to the authoritarian regime, human security has improved measurably under democracy in some areas but not in others. To assess this paradox, one variable has been chosen: the rule of law, specifically conceptualized as violations of physical integrity. This research centers on the metropolitan areas of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro and is based on a qualitative examination supplemented by quantitative evidence. The study finds that violations of physical ...


Youth Movements In Latin America: 20th Century Stories Of Age, Struggle, And Socio-Political Independence, Amaris Delcarmen Guzman Jan 2009

Youth Movements In Latin America: 20th Century Stories Of Age, Struggle, And Socio-Political Independence, Amaris Delcarmen Guzman

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Throughout the latter half of the 20th Century, the very nature and everyday functions of Latin American governments under dictatorship, authoritarian-like governments, and military regimes were questioned and challenged by many of its citizens, especially its young citizenry. Literary journals and books suggest that many young people in the late 1950's to early 1980's were very aware of their government's practices, did not agree with such practices of the government, and therefore created youth movements in countries as the case in the Dominican Republic, Mexico, and Brazil to bring about change. This topic was brought about as ...


Institutions, Developmental Alliances, And Economic Development In Korea And Brazil (1950-1985), Charles Paul Winebarger Apr 1998

Institutions, Developmental Alliances, And Economic Development In Korea And Brazil (1950-1985), Charles Paul Winebarger

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

This paper compares the development of Korea and Brazil, 1950-85. These newly industrialized countries developed at above-average rates among less developed countries. Korea developed more rapidly than Brazil. The paper contends that institutions, interest groups (especially firms) and the state, enter into developmental alliances. Alliances affect policies. Policies, then, affect development.

Findings reveal interesting trends in the 1950s' democracies of the cases. Both countries had semi-autonomous states, equivocally committed to industrialization. Industry was the growth point in each. Korea used local firms to industrialize; Brazil used foreign firms. In both cases, the state allied itself with firms. Policy mostly favored ...