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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Afghanistan: The Crossroads Of Conflicting Regional Interests, Sabera Azizi Feb 2019

Afghanistan: The Crossroads Of Conflicting Regional Interests, Sabera Azizi

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Despite 45 years of conflict, violence still thrives unwaveringly in Afghanistan. In a war charged with ambitious domestic actors and destructive regional states, peace is nowhere in sight in Afghanistan. The interaction between the actors of a conflict play a significant role in shaping the course of a war. Likewise, the interaction between the Taliban and Afghanistan’s regional states play an important role in intensifying the war. How are regional actors emboldening the Taliban? What roles do hostile regional states play in the Afghan war? This paper answers these questions by unprecedentedly identifying and examining all of the regional ...


Beyond Carrots And Sticks: An Analysis Of U.S. Approaches To Counterterrorism From 2000-2016, Margaret M. Seymour Jul 2018

Beyond Carrots And Sticks: An Analysis Of U.S. Approaches To Counterterrorism From 2000-2016, Margaret M. Seymour

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

Soft power, a concept developed and presented by Joseph Nye in 1990, has quickly become a critical concept in U.S. foreign policy. Scholars and practitioners discuss the utility or futility of soft power. Theorists rank countries by their use of effective soft power against one another. Critically lacking in the discussion, however, is an analysis of how one country’s use of soft power changes, or remains the same, over time.

Counterterrorism policy has been a focus of U.S. foreign policy since 9/11, and while there is a robust discussion on effectiveness of various policies and strategies ...


America's 'Just Wars' In The 21st Century: Implications Of Just War Theory On The Middle East, Sara Bakhtiar May 2018

America's 'Just Wars' In The 21st Century: Implications Of Just War Theory On The Middle East, Sara Bakhtiar

Senior Theses

This paper will examine the presence of just war theory in the rhetoric and actions of U.S. leaders and policymakers. I look at Afghanistan to highlight the United States' misuse of just war doctrine, which led to highly destructive consequences. I then look at Syria and how just war language is already being used to justify a potential intervention in the state. Last, I assess the United States' intervention in Yemen to argue that the U.S. does not intervene in the Middle East for strictly humanitarian purposes, but rather to pursue and advance its own interests like policies ...


“It’S A Kind Of Killing:” Afghan Refugees In Shadow Of The Eu Fear They’Re Forgotten, Kyle Mackie Dec 2017

“It’S A Kind Of Killing:” Afghan Refugees In Shadow Of The Eu Fear They’Re Forgotten, Kyle Mackie

Capstones

For Karimi Wahab, an Afghan refugee currently accommodated at a center for asylum seekers in Sjenica, Serbia, watching refugees from other war-torn countries get moved along into the European Union has become routine. Afghans make up nearly two thirds of Serbia’s stranded migrants and refugees. In Sjenica, it’s been more than a year since any Afghan got onto the list maintained by Hungarian immigration authorities that allows 10 migrants to enter the country from Serbia each business day. Compared to Syrians and Iraqis, Afghans have also been granted asylum less frequently across the EU, on average, every year ...


Building Military Helicopter Capacity: Influences On Process And Effectiveness, Rudy Goff Mar 2017

Building Military Helicopter Capacity: Influences On Process And Effectiveness, Rudy Goff

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

In 2016, the National Military Strategy of the United States of America listed building the capacity of partner nations as a key priority. By building military capacity, partner countries can become better equip to fight ongoing insurgencies, transnational terrorist organizations, and other threats to the U.S. themselves, allowing the U.S. to shift focus and resources towards other areas that need attention. In today’s battlefield, mobility and firepower are of the utmost importance. One capability that can address both of these areas is helicopters, which can greatly increase the effectiveness of a military and reduce the required number ...


Citizen Evaluation Of Government And Confidence In Public Institutions In Emergent Islamic Democracies: Evidence From Afghanistan, Nicholas O. Alozie, Andrew I.E. Ewoh Feb 2017

Citizen Evaluation Of Government And Confidence In Public Institutions In Emergent Islamic Democracies: Evidence From Afghanistan, Nicholas O. Alozie, Andrew I.E. Ewoh

Journal of Public Management & Social Policy

Extant literature on citizen evaluation of government and confidence in public institutions is anchored on findings largely derived from the rich and enduring democratic traditions of Western industrialized democracies. This research explores whether this literature informs and can be generalized to similar phenomena in a developmental Islamic democracy, such as that in Afghanistan. Analyzing national probability survey data of adult Afghans, we find that prevailing theories of citizen evaluation of government and confidence in public institutions do offer viable explanations, although the effect of each factor varies according to both level of government and institution. Also, the effects of perceptions ...


Rapport Development And Native Language Use Between U.S. Advisors And Afghan Counterparts, Sean Ryan Ryan Jan 2017

Rapport Development And Native Language Use Between U.S. Advisors And Afghan Counterparts, Sean Ryan Ryan

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Advisory activities form a central element of the U.S. National Security Strategy to mitigate the need for employment of large military formations. The commitment of large U.S. combat formations has resulted in more than 6,000 fatalities since September 11, 2001; poor relationship skills were cited as contributing factors in 51 or more fratricide-murders of U.S. soldiers by Afghan compatriots in 2012. Informed by social exchange theory, servant leadership theory, and role theory, the Army conceptual rapport framework provided a lens for this phenomenological symbolic interactionism study of rapport between Afghan counterparts and U.S. advisors. Participants ...


Competition, Compromises, And Complicity: An Analysis Of The Humanitarian Aid Sector, Fiona Bare Jan 2017

Competition, Compromises, And Complicity: An Analysis Of The Humanitarian Aid Sector, Fiona Bare

CMC Senior Theses

This paper analyzes humanitarian assistance to complex humanitarian emergencies to understand why suboptimal outcomes result even when humanitarians have ethical principles and good intentions. It focuses on the International Committee of the Red Cross, the United Nations, and Médecins Sans Frontières to understand their core principles before looking at how these principles operationalize during emergencies. Challenges arise due to complex relationships with donors, local actors, and recipients, along with issues of marketization and competition. This paper’s case studies of the post-genocide Rwandan refugee crisis and post-9/11 Afghanistan explore how humanitarian principles clash with such dilemmas. In the end ...


Which Policies Are Rewarded: Explaining The Distribution Of U.S. Foreign Aid After The End Of The Cold War, Yury V. Bosin Jun 2016

Which Policies Are Rewarded: Explaining The Distribution Of U.S. Foreign Aid After The End Of The Cold War, Yury V. Bosin

Political Science ETDs

The goal of this study is to elucidate what drives the distribution of U.S. foreign assistance. Why do some states receive more than others? Does the U.S. use aid to reward certain good' policies? Can a regime pursue such policies to secure more U.S. funding? I answer these questions by examining patterns of aid distribution of the U.S. Agency for International Development and the Millennium Challenge Corporation. I find that USAID assistance is driven primarily by strategic interests, while the MCC is more oriented towards the recipient needs. To assess the effects of various democratic policies ...


Soviet/Russian Military Capabilities: Assessing Tech, Manpower, & Loyalty, Karin Shmulevich Apr 2016

Soviet/Russian Military Capabilities: Assessing Tech, Manpower, & Loyalty, Karin Shmulevich

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

Since the Imperialist times of Peter the Great, Russia’s military ideology has been largely predicated on the goal of creating a large and powerful army. In an attempt to gain territory and prestige, a nation’s military strength was often reduced to a mere game of numbers in order to overpower the opposing side. Of course, weapons and tactics were also involved, but they meant nothing without the men who were needed to utilize them and perform accordingly. Overtime, as new threats began to emerge and a different international dynamic began to form with improved technological systems and weaponry ...


What Went Wrong: Why The Us’S State-Building Efforts Failed In The War In Afghanistan, Jeffrey S. Witter Apr 2016

What Went Wrong: Why The Us’S State-Building Efforts Failed In The War In Afghanistan, Jeffrey S. Witter

Political Science Honors Projects

The security situation has deteriorated rapidly in Afghanistan following the end of NATO’s combat mission in 2014. The Taliban has seized control of large swathes of the country, and many predict that the country will remain in a violent state of civil war for years to come. The time has come to critically examine some of the intellectual underpinnings of the war in order to understand why the US’s mission to bring about a peaceful and stable Afghanistan has failed. This project will answer the question “Why did state-building fail in Afghanistan?” I explore the divide between two ...


Alumnus Resolves Conflicts On The Ground Apr 2016

Alumnus Resolves Conflicts On The Ground

DePaul Magazine

Jason Ladnier (LAS ’95), director of the Office of Learning and Training of the Bureau of Conflict and Stabilization Operations in the U.S. Department of State, oversees a team of 15 people as they set best practices for conflict prevention and stabilization and provide professional development for the Department of State civil servants and diplomats.


Freedomland, Lindsey Mantoan Jan 2016

Freedomland, Lindsey Mantoan

Faculty Publications

Lindsey Mantoan reviews a performance of Freedomland (by Michael Gene Sullivan) for Theatre Journal.


Aid Effectiveness In Afghanistan: The Role Of Local Human Capacity In Explaining The Health Sector's Success, Ahmad Najim Dost Jan 2016

Aid Effectiveness In Afghanistan: The Role Of Local Human Capacity In Explaining The Health Sector's Success, Ahmad Najim Dost

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The effectiveness of development assistance is one of the most contested debates in international development studies. While some of its most ardent supporters consider aid as the key to solving the plight of the developing world (e.g. Sachs 2006), its opponents consider it as part of the problem rather than the solution (e.g. Moyo 2009). By investigating the case of Afghanistan as one of the world's largest aid recipients from 2002 to 2014, I show that one reason for arriving at such diametrically opposed conclusions lies in the narrow definition of aid effectiveness as income growth rates ...


Us Should Not Stonewall International Inquiry Into Kunduz Attack, Lauren Carasik Nov 2015

Us Should Not Stonewall International Inquiry Into Kunduz Attack, Lauren Carasik

Media Presence

No abstract provided.


An Independent Special Panel Was Established By Prime Minister Harper On Friday To Review Canada’S Mission And Future In Afghanistan, Cris De Clercy, Erika Simpson Aug 2015

An Independent Special Panel Was Established By Prime Minister Harper On Friday To Review Canada’S Mission And Future In Afghanistan, Cris De Clercy, Erika Simpson

Erika Simpson

An edited version of this article was published as "Is Afghanistan panel just a crass bid to deflect critics?” in London Free Press on October 17, 2007. London Free Press : http://save6.sunmedia.ca/Save/classic/doc?docid=34038784&q=Is%20Afghanistan%20panel%20just%20a%20crass%20bid%20to%20deflect%20critics&stem=false&spaceop=AND&ttype=xsl&tval=headline_sun&pos=0&hn=1&pubAbbrev=sunmedia&dtokey=yvwzsa#anchor34038784


The Nato Club And Afghanistan: Northern, Rich, And White Nations Defend The Imperial Palace, Erika Simpson Aug 2015

The Nato Club And Afghanistan: Northern, Rich, And White Nations Defend The Imperial Palace, Erika Simpson

Erika Simpson

No abstract provided.


Afghan Narcoterrorism: The Problem, Its Origins, And Why International Law Enforcement Should Fight It, Steven Fantigrossi May 2015

Afghan Narcoterrorism: The Problem, Its Origins, And Why International Law Enforcement Should Fight It, Steven Fantigrossi

Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects

This paper provides insight into the issue of opium trafficking in Afghanistan. In 2014, despite U.S., Afghan, and international efforts since 2001, poppy-opium cultivation in Afghanistan reached an all-time high. The Afghan opium trafficking industry provides funding to terrorist groups and transnational crime organizations and is responsible for the continued corruption of government officials, police officers, and intelligence agents in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran, and other nations. Aside from increased corruption and funding of terrorists and criminals, the opium trade creates opium and heroin addicts out of men, women, and children across the globe. The history of how the opium ...


Stepping Up: Burden Sharing By Nato's Newest Members, Joel Hillison Dec 2014

Stepping Up: Burden Sharing By Nato's Newest Members, Joel Hillison

Joel R. Hillison

This book examines the burden sharing behavior of new NATO members. It makes the argument that new NATO members are burden sharing at a greater rate than older NATO members. It also suggests that NATO’s expansion did not lead to greater free-riding behavior in NATO, contrary to the predictions of the collective action literature. This analysis reveals that new NATO members have demonstrated the willingness to contribute to NATO missions, but are often constrained by their limited capabilities. This argument is supported using case studies, interviews with key NATO officials, and quantitative analysis of NATO defense expenditures and troop ...


Tale Of Two Afghanistans: Comparative Governance And Insurgency In The North And South, Neil A. Englehart Oct 2014

Tale Of Two Afghanistans: Comparative Governance And Insurgency In The North And South, Neil A. Englehart

Neil A Englehart

Afghanistan is often depicted as a failing state, but its failures display distinctive patterns over time and space. Regional variations in governance have been important in shaping the ways the Afghan state has failed and the consequences of these failures. This article argues that a history of better governance in the north facilitated the disarmament of militia warlords and comparative stability. By contrast, the south has a long history of minimal formal governance, creating opportunities for increased Taliban insurgency.


An Analysis Of State Building: The Relationship Between Pashtun 'Para-State' Institutions And Political Instability In Afghanistan, Rebecca Young Greven May 2014

An Analysis Of State Building: The Relationship Between Pashtun 'Para-State' Institutions And Political Instability In Afghanistan, Rebecca Young Greven

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study arose from the desire to research the effectiveness of state building policies in Afghanistan. In order to address this topic, I review state building literature and find that state building literature focuses largely on the processes of democratization instead of institution building. In the second part of this dissertation I conduct a comparative case study of Afghanistan during the Soviet and Taliban eras to study the relationship between Pashtun `para-state' institutions (PSI's) and levels of political instability. I hypothesize that Pashtun PSI's compete with central state institutions for popular support thus increasing political instability and reducing ...


Capacity Building And The Afghan National Police Views From The Frontline, Gordon Marnoch, Gavin Boyd Jan 2014

Capacity Building And The Afghan National Police Views From The Frontline, Gordon Marnoch, Gavin Boyd

Gordon Marnoch

The article reports on a study of an intelligence management capacity building programme involving former Police Service of Northern Ireland officers mentoring members of the Afghan National Police. The study contributes to the formative evaluation of a policy transfer based on principles and practices developed in Northern Ireland. A short discussion of Afghanistan, policing, intelligence management and policy transfer is provided, before attention is given to the capacity building programme. The study is context rich drawing on qualitative data. Analysis draws on face to face interviews conducted with mentors working with the ANP during 2010-2012. Interview questions were broad in ...


U.S. Lethal Drone Policy In The Execution Of The Global War On Terrorism: The Case For Reforming The Tactics, Techniques, And Procedures For The Tactical Application Of Lethal Drone Strikes, Gordon E. Adams Jan 2014

U.S. Lethal Drone Policy In The Execution Of The Global War On Terrorism: The Case For Reforming The Tactics, Techniques, And Procedures For The Tactical Application Of Lethal Drone Strikes, Gordon E. Adams

School of Public Policy Capstones

Over the past decade-and-a-half of continuous warfare by the United States in Iraq, Afghanistan, the Philippines, and Africa, lethal drone strikes have assumed a critical role in the expeditious, time-sensitive environments which U.S. military personnel and private security contactors find themselves operating in. Contentious since their inception, lethal drone strikes, as a tool of war and as a center-piece of U.S. counterinsurgency tactics, require significant policy changes in the form of increasing transparency for legislatures. Equally important, lethal drone strikes also require tactical revision in their application in order to effectively apply the methods of counter insurgency, nation-building ...


Counterinsurgency In Afghanistan: A Last Ditch Effort To Turn Around A Failing War, Benjamin P. Mccullough Jan 2014

Counterinsurgency In Afghanistan: A Last Ditch Effort To Turn Around A Failing War, Benjamin P. Mccullough

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

As the United States moved closer to ending its military involvement in Afghanistan by the end of 2014, intense debate on the relevance and success of the United States' counterinsurgency (COIN) strategy in the country continues. Many observers have been quick to declare the strategy a failure without fully analyzing the critical components of COIN doctrine that are necessary for a campaign to succeed, and the extent to which those components were in place in Afghanistan. This study examines the case of Afghanistan by determining whether the U.S.'s counterinsurgency strategy was successful in achieving the four main objectives ...


Positive Political Outcomes From Feminist Islam In Afghanistan: Identifying Development Program Features That Raise The Status Of Women, Margaret Courtney Barnard Jan 2014

Positive Political Outcomes From Feminist Islam In Afghanistan: Identifying Development Program Features That Raise The Status Of Women, Margaret Courtney Barnard

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Existing literature establishes a connection between elevating the status of women in less developed countries and positive political outcomes including: increased national stability, decreased likelihood of civil conflict, and international stability. In particular, the literature suggests that working within the dominant cultural framework of a country makes development projects more successful. This thesis expands upon these bodies of literature and examines the outcomes of the work of two major development agencies in Afghanistan, the UN and USAID in the area of women's education and healthcare. The thesis analyzes some specific characteristics that influence the effects of these programs in ...


Still Waters Run Deep: Community-Based Water Management As A Case For Ethnofederalism In Afghanistan, Joel Blaxland Jan 2014

Still Waters Run Deep: Community-Based Water Management As A Case For Ethnofederalism In Afghanistan, Joel Blaxland

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis explores how, for more than four millennia, neighboring Afghan tribal communities have exercised highly decentralized, community-based freshwater management practices. I argue that these practices can act as both a model for how to structure Afghan polity at large as well as a global lesson in environmental resource management. The staying-power of these highly decentralized institutions is especially confounding for US policymakers because despite enduring nearly three decades of unrelenting violent conflict, these community-based freshwater management practices have remained a bulwark against "modern" western capitalist expansionism. These management practices are exceptionally resilient because they draw their strength from the ...


The U.S.-Russian Bilateral Counterterroism Efforts, Maja Bedak May 2013

The U.S.-Russian Bilateral Counterterroism Efforts, Maja Bedak

Honors College

This work focuses on the unique U.S.-Russian counterterrorism partnership. Following 9/11, the two states identified terrorism as a mutual enemy that posed utmost concerns to their national securities. Despite decades filled with antagonism, their teamwork reached unprecedented levels of cooperation on a multiplicity of matters; counterterrorism, counter-narcotics, and nuclear security are three concerns which this research centers on. Areas of such collaboration include multidimensional efforts in Afghanistan to eradicate drugs, to build infrastructure and to train Afghan police and military to fight the Taliban and to eliminate its sources of funding, which mostly come from the narcotics ...


Groundbreaking Strides Without Transformational Change: The Integration Of Gender Perspectives Into Us Department Of State Peacebuilding Strategy Under Secretary Clinton, Jessie M. Durrett Apr 2013

Groundbreaking Strides Without Transformational Change: The Integration Of Gender Perspectives Into Us Department Of State Peacebuilding Strategy Under Secretary Clinton, Jessie M. Durrett

DWA Student Scholarship

Although peacebuilding aims to address root causes of conflict, while constructing stable institutions and social relations, conventional peacebuilding’s negligence of gender in post-conflict societies and peace processes has restricted its potential. Most actors that contribute to peacebuilding efforts have participated in this ignorance, causing an outburst of feminist literature highlighting the severe need to integrate gender perspectives into peacebuilding. However, existing literature provides few specific recommendations and insufficiently examines mechanisms for integrating gender into state-led peacebuilding. Major actors, such as the United States, have recently embarked on attempts to incorporate gender perspectives into peacebuilding, creating large scopes of policy ...


Roundtable Discussion Transcript: The Legal And Ethical Limits Of Technological Warfare Symposium, February 1, 2013, University Of Utah, S.J. Quinney College Of Law, Amos N. Guiora, Harry Soyster, David R. Irvine, Geoffrey S. Corn, James Jay Carafano, Claire O. Finkelstein, Laurie R. Blank, Monica Hakimi, George R. Lucas, Trevor W. Morrison, Frederic Megret Jan 2013

Roundtable Discussion Transcript: The Legal And Ethical Limits Of Technological Warfare Symposium, February 1, 2013, University Of Utah, S.J. Quinney College Of Law, Amos N. Guiora, Harry Soyster, David R. Irvine, Geoffrey S. Corn, James Jay Carafano, Claire O. Finkelstein, Laurie R. Blank, Monica Hakimi, George R. Lucas, Trevor W. Morrison, Frederic Megret

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The Utah Law Review brought in a panel of experts for a symposium on the legal and ethical limits of technological warfare. This roundtable discussion crystalized the issues discussed throughout the symposium. The collective experience and diversity of viewpoints of the panelists produced an unparalleled discussion of the complex and poignant issues involved in drone warfare. The open dialogue in the roundtable discussion created moments of tension where the panelists openly challenged each other’s viewpoints on the ethics and legality of drone warfare. The discussion captured in this transcript uniquely conveys the diversity of perspectives and inherently challenging legal ...


To Forgive And Forget: How Reconciliation And Amnesty Legislation In Afghanistan Forgives War Criminals While Forgetting Their Victims, Sara L. Carlson Nov 2012

To Forgive And Forget: How Reconciliation And Amnesty Legislation In Afghanistan Forgives War Criminals While Forgetting Their Victims, Sara L. Carlson

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

More than three decades of war and hundreds of thousands killed or brutalized by the actions of warlords and insurgent commanders vying for power comprise the backdrop of modern Afghanistan. As Afghanistan continues toward a new era, seeking democracy in a country where tribal affiliations and ethnic groups often usurp any sense of patriotism, the reconciliation of armed fighters while providing an adequate grievance process for victims of war crimes must take priority in the process adopted to unify the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. This comment explores the current attempt by the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan to provide a system ...