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2019

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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

The Role Of Women In Terrorism, Zeynep Bayar May 2019

The Role Of Women In Terrorism, Zeynep Bayar

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The main purpose of this paper is to understand what motivate women to join terrorist groups and why these organizations prefer to work with female terrorists. Although each woman has different reasons to involve in terrorist groups, this research demonstrates 'religious, political and personal' reasons as the major motivating factors. This study also focuses on the question of why women are the targets of terror recruiters. In order to answer these, the research analysis examines 'psychological, gender, and media' factors as major recruitment reasons of terrorist organizations. This study also analyzes the similarities and differences between female terrorists' profiles of ...


The Role Of The Intelligentsia In The Collapse Of The Ussr: Soviet Intellectuals And The Idea Of The West, Alma Boltirik May 2019

The Role Of The Intelligentsia In The Collapse Of The Ussr: Soviet Intellectuals And The Idea Of The West, Alma Boltirik

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

A lot of scholars wrote about the causes of the collapse of the Soviet Union, paying close attention to economic, social, political, institutional, and external forces, which are undoubtedly important. Yet, almost none of them sufficiently addresses the essential cultural and ideological aspects, which gave rise to the new thinking embraced by Gorbachev and ultimately influenced his policies of glasnost and perestroika. This thesis argues that the revival of a particular social stratum known as the Soviet intelligentsia developed new critical ways of thinking about the country’s present, future, and its domestic problems. The main claim is that the ...


The Growing Middle Class And The Absence Of Democracy In China, Danni Mei May 2019

The Growing Middle Class And The Absence Of Democracy In China, Danni Mei

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Contrary to the prediction of modernization theory, the vibrant Chinese economy and its growing middle class have not brought democratic change to the authoritarian country. This work sheds light on the puzzle of the absence of democracy in China despite a fast-growing middle class. The study argues that the key to explaining the middle class’ inert political behavior is to be found in its fragmentation. It is necessary to disaggregate the political, economic, and social positions of different subgroups of the Chinese middle class—government officials and party cadres, private entrepreneurs of small or medium businesses, professionals, and white-collar employees ...


Presidential Power: Assessing The Unitary Executive As The Strongest Determinant Of Presidential Success, Maxwell J. Fuerderer May 2019

Presidential Power: Assessing The Unitary Executive As The Strongest Determinant Of Presidential Success, Maxwell J. Fuerderer

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The Unitary Executive Theory, which implies that the president should have plenary authority over executive branch functions, and is the sole arbiter of executive power, can be attributed to increasing the powers of the presidency and overall making a president more successful in his policy endeavors. I have concentrated my research to contextualize different variables for presidential success, including prior experience, bureaucratic loyalty, historical context, and, most importantly, the unitary executive. I apply these determinants to two case studies to determine which are most effective. Using the examples of Andrew Jackson and Jimmy Carter, I show how their contrasting uses ...


American Digital Election Infrastructure: Policy, Risks, Options, Tyson S. Himes May 2019

American Digital Election Infrastructure: Policy, Risks, Options, Tyson S. Himes

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Why is US digital election infrastructure (DEI) in a vulnerable state and what are the possible options to better secure it? To answer these questions systematically, federal policy and current DEI are analyzed through a risk management lens, including both elite and democratic models of risk management. This analysis suggests that DEI is at risk because federal policy currently enables states to use Direct-Recording Electronic (DRE) voting machines without a paper trail and allows states to manage their own risk environment with respect to digital voter registration databases (VRDs). This in turn produces significant variance in outcomes in levels of ...


Cyborgean Horizons: Gender, Disability And Technology In Olympic And Paralympic Sport, An Intersectional Approach, Stephanie O'Neill May 2019

Cyborgean Horizons: Gender, Disability And Technology In Olympic And Paralympic Sport, An Intersectional Approach, Stephanie O'Neill

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This paper examines two types of embodiment and its verification in the context of contemporary sports: sex/gender-verification testing in the Olympics, and the International Paralympic Committee’s multi-tiered grading system for assessing disability, the premises of which raise important questions for feminist and disability theory, as well as for the increasing and increasingly integrated role that technology plays in both the Olympics and the Paralympics. I outline the 80-year history of policing the gender binary in international sport and its controversies, with particular attention to the Castor Semenya case, and the implications for intersex and transgender athletes. I examine ...


Hybridity And Political Disorder : A Mixed Method Approach To Understanding The Hybrid Regime., Bryce Jamison Kleinsteuber May 2019

Hybridity And Political Disorder : A Mixed Method Approach To Understanding The Hybrid Regime., Bryce Jamison Kleinsteuber

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis focuses on two central questions; first, does regime hybridity lead to an increased propensity for political disorder; and second, what specific regime level characteristics are responsible for the increased propensity. The theoretical basis for this study is founded in the understanding that the duality of Hybrid regimes ensures that they receive neither the benefit of Authoritarian, coercive force nor Democratic plasticity and thus are unable to prevent political disorder. Therefore, during periods of political transition leaders in these regimes not only cannot prevent these events but may be incentivized to allow or even encourage certain events as a ...


Religion And Third Parties: The 2016 Presidential Election In Utah, Nathan Lee Osborne May 2019

Religion And Third Parties: The 2016 Presidential Election In Utah, Nathan Lee Osborne

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Third parties in the United States face a litany of obstacles to electoral success. Duverger’s Law explains that single-member, plurality-based elections will favor a two party system. However, on rare occasion a third party candidate is able to do abnormally well, even winning elections on occasion. Evan McMullin presents a unique success story among third party campaigns. He is without the name recognition, strong financial backing, or political experience that most successful third party candidates have. Despite these challenges, he became the second most successful third party presidential candidate in the history of the state of Utah. Evan McMullin ...


Close The Partner Loophole! A Toolkit For Feminist Action Against Gun Violence, Kimberly Barboza May 2019

Close The Partner Loophole! A Toolkit For Feminist Action Against Gun Violence, Kimberly Barboza

Honors Theses

The Domestic Violence Offender Gun Ban (DVOGB) is a federal policy that prohibits people convicted of domestic violence or under a restraining order from having access to firearms. However, the DVOGB only bans gun purchases made by spouses, former spouses, and cohabitating partners convicted of domestic abuse. It does not cover abuse between dating partners, creating a “dating partner loophole” in gun violence policy.

This thesis combines this policy issue with existing canon on grassroots activism to create a political action toolkit, a series of digital and printable materials that aim to empower young people, feminist groups, and anti-domestic violence ...


The Finnish Line: Verbal Tactics Of Small States In Immature Anarchy, Christopher Main May 2019

The Finnish Line: Verbal Tactics Of Small States In Immature Anarchy, Christopher Main

Theses and Dissertations

The rules-based international system which has steadily emerged over the last century is in decline. Realists fail to realize that the fundamental anarchy of the international system can mature into a rules-based system which constrains geopolitics. Liberals fail to realize that it can regress in the opposite direction, towards the self-help system described by the realists. Small states stand to lose the most in this regression and are least equipped to fight it by material means. Finland is an ideal example of such a small state, and its foreign policy is articulated by President Sauli Niinistö. This paper will analyze ...


External Support In Civil Wars And Its Effects On Refugee Flow, Josiah Mezera May 2019

External Support In Civil Wars And Its Effects On Refugee Flow, Josiah Mezera

Honors Theses

The refugee crisis in Syria that began in 2011 raised several questions in terms of civil war interventions and their effects on refugee flow. Did a third party’s decision to intervene in the Syrian Civil War have any impact on the flow of refugees from the region? This thesis attempts to answer this question. There are multiple forms that external support by a third party can assume: direct military support, indirect military support, and humanitarian aid. This thesis hypothesized that direct and indirect military support would correlate with an increased number of refugees, and that humanitarian aid would have ...


Representation And Restraint : Cross-National Analysis Of Fractionalization And State-Building., David Lian May 2019

Representation And Restraint : Cross-National Analysis Of Fractionalization And State-Building., David Lian

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study seeks to understand the relationships between democracy, ethnic-linguistic-religious (ELR) fractionalizations and state-building. The speed of a country’s economic recovery from war is used as proxy to determine the state-building process. Using Cox PH model, I conducted a large sample hazard analysis of 107 conflicts, having polity and ELR as explanatory variables. I found that competitiveness of political participation and executive constraints are associated with state-recovery while ethno-linguistic fractionalizations have the reverse effect. I propose that the institutional feedback process is equal to the product of negative executive power centralization and representation minus fractionalization; as in F = – e ...


Margaret Chase Smith's 1972 Election: The Fall Of An Institutional Giant, Allison Kobzowicz Apr 2019

Margaret Chase Smith's 1972 Election: The Fall Of An Institutional Giant, Allison Kobzowicz

Senior Honors Theses

Margaret Chase Smith was the first woman to serve in both houses of Congress and was well-known by her constituents in Maine as a principled, integrous public servant. In 1972, after 24 years in the Senate, Margaret Chase Smith lost her first ever election to democratic challenger, William Hathaway. An examination of the primary source documents available at the Margaret Chase Smith Library in Skowhegan, Maine, as well as local and national newspaper coverage, finds three main reasons that Smith suffered defeat: Smith was unwilling to let go of her traditional way of campaigning, she was berated by a press ...


Disruptive Innovation: The Rise Of The Knowledge-Sharing Market In China, Yaqing Lan Apr 2019

Disruptive Innovation: The Rise Of The Knowledge-Sharing Market In China, Yaqing Lan

International Studies Honors Projects

Innovation is a major subject of international political economy, but mainstream discussions focus on scientific research and development and detach innovation development from their social contexts. In response to this view, this project reveals the importance of cultural and social factors in influencing innovation development by examining the rise of the knowledge-sharing market (KSM) -- a social-network-site-based economy in China. It suggests the KSM is a disruptive innovation not only because it is pioneered by a latecomer in the global innovation market, China, but also because its emergence from the changing Chinese consumer demands disrupts the mainstream thinking of innovation.


Should States Adopt Overdose Immunity Laws?, Jordan Norton Apr 2019

Should States Adopt Overdose Immunity Laws?, Jordan Norton

Theses and Dissertations

From 2014-2015, the CDC saw a 72.2% increase in death rates related to synthetic opioids other than methadone, and a 20.6% increase in heroin related death rates. States have looked to one another for policy examples that would bring these numbers down. One of the earliest of these policies came out of 2001 in New Mexico with the first Naloxone Access Laws (NALs) followed by Drug Overdose Immunity Laws (DOILs) in 2007. These laws sought to remove barriers to people administering Naloxone and calling emergency responders due to overdoses, granting immunity to callers and overdose sufferers. This study ...


The Wealth Of Nations And The Advancement Of Collective Security, Kerry Daniel Good Apr 2019

The Wealth Of Nations And The Advancement Of Collective Security, Kerry Daniel Good

Senior Honors Theses

This thesis will address the economic development of countries from the strategic perspective of the United States, and consider how this development will progress overlaid in the context of the Chinese framework for the projection of national power. Using an inter-disciplinary approach, this research will synthesize sources on national security policy and economics, while seeking a Christian apologetic framework to answer these questions: How can the United States promote the economic development of countries in the Asia-Pacific region using a biblical economic-development model, as a part of its national strategy? This thesis focuses on some of the political and socio-economic ...


The Effect Of Foreign Aid On Political Violence: Learning From Case Studies Of Nigeria And Sierra Leone, Charlotte Rohrer Apr 2019

The Effect Of Foreign Aid On Political Violence: Learning From Case Studies Of Nigeria And Sierra Leone, Charlotte Rohrer

Politics Honors Papers

Policymakers in OECD countries regularly cite reducing political violence as a fundamental purpose of foreign aid. For example, countries such as Pakistan and Iraq have received considerable amounts of aid meant to address the root causes of political violence. This project analyzes quantitative and qualitative evidence to assess whether foreign aid can reduce political violence. The quantitative and qualitative analyses study Boko Haram in Nigeria and the Revolutionary United Front in Sierra Leone to focus on regional and country-wide political violence. The study further focuses on aid projects in Sierra Leone and Nigeria as a means to reduce or curb ...


Liberation In Southern Africa: Comparing Democratic Consolidation In South Africa And Zimbabwe, John J. Solomon Apr 2019

Liberation In Southern Africa: Comparing Democratic Consolidation In South Africa And Zimbabwe, John J. Solomon

International Relations Honors Papers

The research question that this thesis seeks to answer is: in what ways do liberation movements impact a nation’s experience with democratic consolidation after conflict ends? When the rebel organization is relatively weaker than the state, the state can control their actions. The liberation movement will not be able to manipulate the state, but will be able to impose costs on status quo maintenance. This will then lead the two parties to form a democratic pact and negotiate, resulting in the organization’s increased preference for democratic methods in the future. However, when the liberation movement and the state ...


Women's Rights And Representation In Saudi Arabia, Iran, And Turkey: The Patriarchal Domination Of Religious Interpretations, Roumaissaa Tailassane Apr 2019

Women's Rights And Representation In Saudi Arabia, Iran, And Turkey: The Patriarchal Domination Of Religious Interpretations, Roumaissaa Tailassane

International Relations Honors Papers

This research paper is divided into three case studies: Saudi Arabia, Iran and Turkey. The main focus of the paper is to examine barriers to women’s economic and political participation as well as the limits on their rights within the family and society. All three case studies are Muslim-majority countries. The paper argues that the subordination of women is not intrinsic to Islam but stems from patriarchal interpretations of Islam by religious authorities working in conjunction with autocratic political leaders. Furthermore, the paper analyzes cultural, political, and economic explanations for limits on women’s rights in these Muslim-majority countries ...


The Far Right In Europe: The Effects Of The Migrant Crisis On European Enlargement, Gregory Stryker Apr 2019

The Far Right In Europe: The Effects Of The Migrant Crisis On European Enlargement, Gregory Stryker

International Relations Honors Papers

The migrant crisis continues to affect member states of the European Union (EU) and the EU itself as attempts to expand the membership of the EU have been repeatedly delayed. Scholars have previously examined other crises related to the EU and European integration, but scholars have not as of yet used these European integration theories to explain how the European migrant crisis affects the EU or the enlargement policy. This paper addresses that deficit of scholarship by applying European integration theory to the migrant crisis in order to explain how the migrant crisis affects EU enlargement. I argue that the ...


Oral Argument Tactics On The Supreme Court Bench: A Comparative Analysis Of Verbal Tools Used By Justices Sotomayor, Kagan, And Gorsuch, Corinne Cichowicz Apr 2019

Oral Argument Tactics On The Supreme Court Bench: A Comparative Analysis Of Verbal Tools Used By Justices Sotomayor, Kagan, And Gorsuch, Corinne Cichowicz

Politics Honors Papers

Oral argument scholars like Adam Feldman have categorized the Supreme Court justices’ behavior during oral argument using the approach-based method, labeling each as one-sided, even-handed, or restrained. This approach is too narrowly constructed. Scholars sometimes categorize justices in terms of the tools they use, which include questions, hypotheticals, declarations, interruptions, tone of voice, and silence (Feldman 2018a). Neither of these methods alone produce a nuanced analysis of each justice’s actions during an individual case or across a Term. As the Court’s composition and dynamics are continuously changing, scholarship on oral argument needs to adapt to become more effective ...


“Paying” The Way For A Better Bart Future: A Call For Better Enforcement Of Fare Evasion Policies And Strategic Planning At Bart, Ethan S. Tan Apr 2019

“Paying” The Way For A Better Bart Future: A Call For Better Enforcement Of Fare Evasion Policies And Strategic Planning At Bart, Ethan S. Tan

Creative Activity and Research Day - CARD

The Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) system has undoubtedly shaped the way the San Francisco Bay Area operates today. BART has molded itself to becoming a popular form of transportation for citizens of the area. However, numerous problems have arisen in recent years in regard to the overall “healthiness” of the BART system with its ex-aging fleet of trains, undertrained staff, lack of BART Police presence, rampant illegal drug use, etc. which has made BART unpopular with riders. The root cause of these problems through, is the lost revenue through “stolen” rides. At any one of BART’s 48 stations ...


Modernizing The Hermit Kingdom: Bridging The Economic And Cultural Gap Through Soft Power Diplomacy, Jane Son Apr 2019

Modernizing The Hermit Kingdom: Bridging The Economic And Cultural Gap Through Soft Power Diplomacy, Jane Son

Creative Activity and Research Day - CARD

Modernizing the “Hermit Kingdom”:

Bridging the Cultural and Economic Gap through Soft Power Diplomacy

Following the Korean War, the Republic of Korea embraced modernization and rose as an economic power while its Northern counterpart employed isolationist policies and acquired the name “Hermit Kingdom.” In recent years, however, the “Hermit Kingdom” is exhibiting potential for change in under the Kim Jong-Un regime. In the wake of continued economic strife, shifting East Asian political dynamics, and insecure power consolidation, Kim appeared in the international scene with a different attitude: eagerness for dialogue. Such change in Pyongyang’s political stance engenders renewed hope ...


Disillusioning The Illusion Of Choice: A Rogerian Approach On Electoral College Reform, Mei Lin Apr 2019

Disillusioning The Illusion Of Choice: A Rogerian Approach On Electoral College Reform, Mei Lin

Creative Activity and Research Day - CARD

The Electoral College is used by the United States of America to elect the president every four years. It has been amended and updated several times; however, it remains an extremely convoluted and outdated system. Four presidencies were the product of incongruent elections –– the candidate won the electoral college but lost the popular vote –– and each of these presidencies resulted in immense consequences. Reforming the current electoral college will be difficult, but it is extremely vital and necessary. The American election system must be restructured so that it may fairly and adequately represent the voices of its citizens.


History, Security, And Peace: A Comparison Of Sectarian Conflicts In Northern Ireland And The Middle East, Ahmed I. Hamed, Noah Chamberlain Spicer Apr 2019

History, Security, And Peace: A Comparison Of Sectarian Conflicts In Northern Ireland And The Middle East, Ahmed I. Hamed, Noah Chamberlain Spicer

Student Symposium

“The Troubles,” a violent conflict that began in Northern Ireland in 1968 and lasted until the Good Friday Agreement of 1998, saw high levels of violence and terrorism on both sides--Protestants and Catholics--of the socio-political conflict. While major issues of violence were addressed by the Good Friday Agreement, many key ontological issues remain very much alive and active, resulting in “peace walls” which separate Catholic and Protestant neighborhoods in Northern Ireland. The impediments to peace stem not just from these issues of violence, but also from the minimal attention paid to ontological security in peace negotiations: the security of oneself ...


General Campus Climate From A Conservative Student Perspective, Sarah Mattick Apr 2019

General Campus Climate From A Conservative Student Perspective, Sarah Mattick

Student Symposium

Campus Climate Research studies how students and others in a college community feel about the climate of their institutions, especially how the climate facilitates learning, growth, and expression. Typically, this research has been applied to diversity concerns, especially in the decades after affirmative action became a common practice in higher education admissions. My research adds to this literature, because in the midst of creating a campus community and campus climate that is sensitive and in alliance with the needs of marginalized students, institutions will often find that a struggle occurs between the needs of marginalized students and the perceived neglect ...


Charisma's Triumph Over Organization: Peronism Throughout The Decades, Alyssa Dipadova Apr 2019

Charisma's Triumph Over Organization: Peronism Throughout The Decades, Alyssa Dipadova

Student Symposium

“A party’s organization characteristics depend more upon its history, i.e. on how the organization orientated and how it consolidated…[e]very organization bears the mark of its formation, of the crucial political-administrative decision made by its founders, the decision which ‘molded’ the organization." The validity (or maybe the potency/breadth) of this idea when applied to Peronism is the main topic for this paper. The importance of this topic cannot be understated as the Partido Justicialista (PJ), the largest component of the Peronist movement, continues to be one of the most prevalent parties in Argentina’s two-party system--the ...


The Efficacy Of Gender Quotas In Politics: The United States And Europe, Emily Larson Apr 2019

The Efficacy Of Gender Quotas In Politics: The United States And Europe, Emily Larson

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

In the United States, along with most other nations, women are underrepresented in positions of political office. There are many reasons that help to explain why women are not running, and are not getting elected, such as socialization, stereotyping, and voter biases against gender. However, there must be more research not only on the reasons why we see these patterns, but also how the United States can solve the problem of the underrepresentation of women in national politics. As a representative democracy, the governing bodies of the United States should reflect its citizens, and so far, this has not been ...


Ticket-Splitting In Montana Elections, Andrew Matheison Apr 2019

Ticket-Splitting In Montana Elections, Andrew Matheison

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

My research used data gathered in the Carroll College Exit Polls of midterm and general elections to analyze the prevalence of ticket-splitting for different demographic and political groups. I sought to determine if any groups exhibited increased or decreased levels of ticket splitting. My hypothesis was that different demographics would show minimal differences in rates of ticket-splitting, while party affiliation would show greater differences in ticket-splitting rates. Specifically, I believed voters identifying with major parties would be less likely to split their ticket than voters not belonging to either major party.


Rural Resentment In Montana's 2018 Election, Aggie Putnam Apr 2019

Rural Resentment In Montana's 2018 Election, Aggie Putnam

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

In the 2016 presidential election, we saw stark partisan and rural divides. While Hillary Clinton easily won the Democratic vote in urban communities, the rural vote carried Republican candidate Donald Trump to the presidency. I wanted to learn whether or not these divides affected how Montanans felt about representation. To determine this, my Elections class and I conducted an exit poll on election day of 2018 where voters from Lewis and Clark County were asked how well they felt the government represented their values. These answers were then compared with whether the respondents identified as a Democrat or a Republican ...