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2017

Democracy

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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

What Congress's Repeal Efforts Can Teach Us About Regulatory Reform, Cary Coglianese, Gabriel Scheffler Dec 2017

What Congress's Repeal Efforts Can Teach Us About Regulatory Reform, Cary Coglianese, Gabriel Scheffler

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Major legislative actions during the early part of the 115th Congress have undermined the central argument for regulatory reform measures such as the REINS Act, a bill that would require congressional approval of all new major regulations. Proponents of the REINS Act argue that it would make the federal regulatory system more democratic by shifting responsibility for regulatory decisions away from unelected bureaucrats and toward the people’s representatives in Congress. But separate legislative actions in the opening of the 115th Congress only call this argument into question. Congress’s most significant initiatives during this period — its derailed attempts to ...


Political Exiles Reckon With Rising China And A Lost Cause, Han Chen Dec 2017

Political Exiles Reckon With Rising China And A Lost Cause, Han Chen

Capstones

This capstone explores the overseas Chinese democracy movement in the United States. English-language coverage about the movement has been limited, and little systemic coverage exists. However, the exile movement is fundamental to understanding how China’s most prominent political opposition is faring as China became the second largest world economy. It will also detail human drama and infighting in this exile community. I interviewed more than a dozen U.S.-based political exiles, journalists and experts, in both Chinese and English.

Link to my capstone project: https://hanchen.atavist.com/chinese-exiles


Controlling Political Corruption In Latin America: Institutional Constraints On Executive Power, George G. Lluberes Dec 2017

Controlling Political Corruption In Latin America: Institutional Constraints On Executive Power, George G. Lluberes

Dissertations

Corruption has remained resilient in Latin America. In just two decades, six Latin American executives from five distinct countries have faced impeachment processes resulting in removals from office due to issues surrounding corruption. Certainly, corruption has been a longstanding challenge to Latin American democracy and good governance. This study analyzes this phenomenon while discerning between grand and petty corruption. By focusing on executive corruption specifically, this study creates a more nuanced understanding of what affects corruption at high-levels of government in Latin America.

Why have political corruption levels in Latin America remained stagnant in spite of significant gains in political ...


What We Bring With Us And What We Leave Behind: Six Months In Post-Apartheid South Africa, Virginia Casper, Donna Futterman, Evan Casper-Futterman Nov 2017

What We Bring With Us And What We Leave Behind: Six Months In Post-Apartheid South Africa, Virginia Casper, Donna Futterman, Evan Casper-Futterman

Occasional Paper Series

The authors, a family, reflect on their experiences living, volunteering, and going to school in South Africa for six months. They sought to live in a society in which white people were not the majority and to experience the transformation of the new South Africa, not as tourists, but as participants.


Sins Against Democracy, David Marcou Nov 2017

Sins Against Democracy, David Marcou

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

No abstract provided.


American Populism Shouldn’T Have To Embrace Ignorance, Daniel R. Denicola Nov 2017

American Populism Shouldn’T Have To Embrace Ignorance, Daniel R. Denicola

Philosophy Faculty Publications

Public ignorance is an inherent threat to democracy. It breeds superstition, prejudice, and error; and it prevents both a clear-eyed understanding of the world and the formulation of wise policies to adapt to that world.

Plato believed it was more than a threat: He thought it characterized democracies, and would lead them inevitably into anarchy and ultimately tyranny. But the liberal democracies of the modern era, grudgingly extending suffrage, have extended public education in parallel, in the hope of cultivating an informed citizenry. Yet today, given the persistence and severity of public ignorance, the ideal of an enlightened electorate seems ...


Elections In The Shadow Of Ebola: Sierra Leone’S African Socialist Movement And The Struggle For Democracy, Joshua Mcdermott Nov 2017

Elections In The Shadow Of Ebola: Sierra Leone’S African Socialist Movement And The Struggle For Democracy, Joshua Mcdermott

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

The West African eEbola outbreak of 2014-15 claimed the lives of nearly 12,000 people, most of them from the Mano River region, comprising Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Guinea-Conakry, three of the world’s poorest nations. In the wake of the outbreak, Sierra Leone’s ruling party, the All People’s Congress (APC), postponed the country’s 2017 elections for one year, under the pretext that the crisis had undermined the agenda of the president, Ernest Bai Koroma.

Authoritarianism is not new to Sierra Leone: The APC ruled the small coastal nation under a one-party state from the 1960s until ...


Dilemmas About The Core Values In The European Union, Elisabeth Kardos Kaponyi Oct 2017

Dilemmas About The Core Values In The European Union, Elisabeth Kardos Kaponyi

UBT International Conference

The European integration was primarily about economic cooperation, but the European Union’s role in protecting the core values in its member states. EU values were first mentioned in the 1992 Maastricht Treaty on European Union, and since the Amsterdam Treaty the community law has a sufficiently precise description of this values, which should be respected not only by countries aspiring to the EU but also by the Member States themselves. The Lisbon Treaty defines EU values as “respect for human dignity, freedom, democracy, equality, the rule of law and respect for human rights, including the rights of persons belonging ...


The Public Sphere As Site Of Emancipation And Enlightenment: A Discourse Theoretic Critique Of Digital Communication, David Ingram, Asaf Bar-Tura Sep 2017

The Public Sphere As Site Of Emancipation And Enlightenment: A Discourse Theoretic Critique Of Digital Communication, David Ingram, Asaf Bar-Tura

David Ingram

Habermas claims that an inclusive public sphere is the only deliberative forum for generating public opinion that satisfies the epistemic and normative conditions underlying legitimate decision-making. He adds that digital technologies and other mass media need not undermine – but can extend – rational deliberation when properly instituted. This paper draws from social epistemology and technology studies to demonstrate the epistemic and normative limitations of this extension. We argue that current online communication structures fall short of satisfying the required epistemic and normative conditions. Furthermore, the extent to which Internet-based communications contribute to legitimate democratic opinion and will formation depends on the ...


Finding The Limits Of France's State Of Emergency, Filip G. Bozinovic Sep 2017

Finding The Limits Of France's State Of Emergency, Filip G. Bozinovic

Claremont-UC Undergraduate Research Conference on the European Union

Since 2015, France has experienced a particularly high number of terrorist attacks. This paper examines the French state response to such events and analyzes its effect on the relationship between civil liberties and national security. The activation of the state of emergency – as an exceptional measure that suspends warranted searches and certain freedoms – highlights a potential impediment to reconciling France’s national values such as liberté with the urgent need to mitigate terrorist activity. Following the fifth consecutive renewal of this exceptional measure in December 2016, a close scrutiny of its legitimacy, its effectiveness, and its objectives is both timely ...


Fake News And Information Literacy: Creating Resources To Develop Source Evaluation Skills At The University Of Oregon Libraries, Carolina Hernandez Aug 2017

Fake News And Information Literacy: Creating Resources To Develop Source Evaluation Skills At The University Of Oregon Libraries, Carolina Hernandez

OLA Quarterly

In the months following the 2016 presidential election, much discussion has occurred regarding the proliferation of “fake news” and what impact it may have had on the election results. Regardless of whether there was an actual increase in fake news in the last year, it is certainly true that interest in the topic has increased dramatically. Interest appeared to peak in January, according to Google Trends (Google Trends, n.d.). Widespread concern over how to prevent the spread of this problem has lead to possible solutions cropping up often.

Though often excluded from these recommendations, libraries have the opportunity to ...


Guns And America And The Library And Us: What We Learned From The Worst Library Program … Ever!, Barratt Miller, Jane Scheppke Aug 2017

Guns And America And The Library And Us: What We Learned From The Worst Library Program … Ever!, Barratt Miller, Jane Scheppke

OLA Quarterly

On a dark and stormy night in Prineville, fifty members of the community gathered in Crook County Library’s meeting room. The program facilitator walked in the door five minutes before go-time. The Assistant Director introduced him to the room. And then all hell broke loose. The program topic? Guns and America.

Guns and America was offered as part of the Conversation Project series of community discussion programs given by Oregon Humanities. Conversation Project programs are intended to be open-ended discussions run by a trained facilitator who is an expert in the topic at hand. The facilitator creates a neutral ...


Enhancing Civic Knowledge/Inspiring Political Engagement: The Role Of Public Libraries In Civic Participation, Donna Cohen Aug 2017

Enhancing Civic Knowledge/Inspiring Political Engagement: The Role Of Public Libraries In Civic Participation, Donna Cohen

OLA Quarterly

For the past several months I have been conducting “civic education” workshops under the umbrella title: Civics for Adults—To Enhance Civic Knowledge and Inspire Political Engagement. I doubt there is anyone in the library community who is not concerned about the public’s level of civic understanding, political discourse and civic engagement. As Robert Putnam pointed out in his book Bowling Alone, the cohesive function of social and civic groups—as with the simple bowling league—has withered, and along with the demise of those groups a correlative decline in political activities like voting. Public libraries should be primary ...


The Right Tool For The Job? Ignorance, Evolution, Reflection, And The #Resistance, Lynne Stahl Aug 2017

The Right Tool For The Job? Ignorance, Evolution, Reflection, And The #Resistance, Lynne Stahl

OLA Quarterly

“Librarians are Swiss Army knives for the #Resistance,” tweeted musician and activist Neko Case on January 27, 2017, a characterization both fortifying and thought provoking for library workers everywhere. Like any tool, a knife is useless without an agent to wield it—and destructive if applied incorrectly or to the wrong material. If library workers are instruments to be plied to all manner of social ills, what are the potentialities and limits of our agency, and how can we best equip those who would put us to use? This essay works to unpack Case’s metaphor within the context of ...


It’S A Long Drive And Learning Experience, Victoria Cross Aug 2017

It’S A Long Drive And Learning Experience, Victoria Cross

OLA Quarterly

Victoria Cross moved to Oregon in 1998 with her husband, Richard, and her daughter, Olga. She quickly realized that reading American literature and watching American movies and television shows can only educate immigrants so much about what is in store for them in the American workforce. Refugees and other displaced people often experience hardships adjusting to their new culture, particularly at work. They face language gaps, along with different rules and customs. In this article, Victoria remembers when she first arrived in the United States and joined a carpool to Portland from her home in Scappoose, Oregon. Through listening, observing ...


Constitutionalism And Democracy Dataset, Version 1.0, Todd A. Eisenstadt, Carl Levan, Tofigh Maboudi May 2017

Constitutionalism And Democracy Dataset, Version 1.0, Todd A. Eisenstadt, Carl Levan, Tofigh Maboudi

Political Science: Faculty Publications and Other Works

The main objective of the CDD is to quantify the process of constitution-making since 1974. This is the first public release of any data on the process of constitution-making. This release includes data on 144 national constitutions promulgated in 119 countries from 1974 to 2014. The unit of analysis in the data is national constitutions. The data in this release includes only “new” constitutions and does not include suspended, re-installed, amended, or interim constitutions. In this release, only countries with a population larger than 500,000 are included. The authors intend to update the data by including all countries, expanding ...


Too Much Democracy?: Trends In American Public Opinion Of Israel, Alexander Thomas May 2017

Too Much Democracy?: Trends In American Public Opinion Of Israel, Alexander Thomas

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

This paper analyzes the factors that influence the American electorate’s support of Israel using data gleaned from the 2016 American National Election Study. Americans have formally recognized the state of Israel since 1948, starting 11 minutes after it declared its independence. Since then, American foreign policy has consistently endeavored to create and maintain a strong Israeli state in the Middle East. However, there is general agreement among foreign policy experts that such one-sided support for Israel has been both economically as well as strategically costly. According to experts, such support has at times contradicted the broader foreign policy goals ...


Philip Kotler, Confronting Capitalism (2015) & Democracy In Decline (2016), Mark Peterson May 2017

Philip Kotler, Confronting Capitalism (2015) & Democracy In Decline (2016), Mark Peterson

Markets, Globalization & Development Review

No abstract provided.


Tempered Experience: The Educational Foundation Of Democratic Ideology, Nicholas J. Schwarm Apr 2017

Tempered Experience: The Educational Foundation Of Democratic Ideology, Nicholas J. Schwarm

The Review: A Journal of Undergraduate Student Research

Democracy is a political ideology, one that requires a person to believe in that ideology for it to exist. The contemporary political landscape is dominated by democracies, and for this reason we need to understand how to build and sustain them. There needs to be a well-educated populace of citizens, who are able to engage in democratic actions, and aid the community. What they need is tempered experience, experience that is understood though the knowledge that a citizen already has.


Us Aid In The Arab World Fact Checking Us Democratization Rhetoric Against Reality, Nicholas Canfield Apr 2017

Us Aid In The Arab World Fact Checking Us Democratization Rhetoric Against Reality, Nicholas Canfield

Stevenson Center for Community and Economic Development to Stevenson Center for Community and Economic Development—Student Research

Many factors have been used to explain durable authoritarianism in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), and one of the most important external influences of MENA governments’ structure is support from the United States. The US balances security concerns and democratization rhetoric in the region, but much literature promotes that security concerns are the most important factor for US support in MENA. Using US aid as a proxy for US support, this study finds that US aid actually increases democratization in MENA, and counterintuitively, aid to MENA military and police forces seems to have a stronger democratization effect than ...


And That's The Word: Effects Of The Colbert Report On Political Knowledge And Participation, Nicholas Canfield Apr 2017

And That's The Word: Effects Of The Colbert Report On Political Knowledge And Participation, Nicholas Canfield

Stevenson Center for Community and Economic Development to Stevenson Center for Community and Economic Development—Student Research

The Colbert Report was a satirical, political, and “fake” news show that lasted for almost a decade on the Comedy Central Network. Although many scholars have argued the program was less impactful and influential than Jon Stewart’s The Daily Show, phenomena such as the “Colbert Bump” show a definite impact on the political lives of many Americans. Using four quantitative surveys from 2008 to 2012, this thesis investigates the effects of watching The Colbert Report on individuals’ political knowledge and political participation. Results indicate non-Republican viewers increased their political knowledge, but not participation, from watching the show. The educational ...


Reason, Deliberation, And Democracy In Divided Societies: Perspectives From The Jafari School Of Thought, Nicolas Pirsoul Apr 2017

Reason, Deliberation, And Democracy In Divided Societies: Perspectives From The Jafari School Of Thought, Nicolas Pirsoul

Journal of Public Deliberation

In this article I argue that because of its emphasis on the use of reason, the Jafari Islamic school of thought is not only compatible with, but even promotes certain forms of deliberative democracy. I particularly focus on how this characteristic offers a valuable conceptual tool to promote peace and justice in deeply divided societies. My argument is grounded in traditional Shia theology and history but develops a political framework embedded within contemporary political theory. I distinguish this democratic political framework from the theocratic model of Wilayat-ul-Faqih, the political system currently being applied in Iran, and argue that an emphasis ...


Endpoints After Empire: Explaining Varying Levels Of Democracy In Post-Communist Europe, William John Eger Jr. Apr 2017

Endpoints After Empire: Explaining Varying Levels Of Democracy In Post-Communist Europe, William John Eger Jr.

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

This study seeks to determine the impetus behind varying levels of post-communist democratization in central and eastern Europe. It explores the different theories of democratization. The work takes a regional approach to examining the states. This approach isolates less traditional factors that contribute to democratic quality: history, culture and geography. Qualitative studies of each help explain why the countries of the region have such a varying level of rights and freedoms.


Why Have Youth From Different Neighborhoods Of Durban, South Africa Developed Different Opinions Regarding The Role And Importance Of Voting In The Current State Of South African Democracy?, Anthony L. Wagner Apr 2017

Why Have Youth From Different Neighborhoods Of Durban, South Africa Developed Different Opinions Regarding The Role And Importance Of Voting In The Current State Of South African Democracy?, Anthony L. Wagner

Student Publications

The field of political science has become increasingly interested in the electoral participatory habits of young people in recent decades, and in post-apartheid South Africa more specifically in light of the recent and ongoing #feesmustfall movement within the nation's tertiary institutions. Since 1994, South Africa has made a great deal of progress towards dismantling the apartheid system; however, vast inequalities remain and many, mostly black African communities have not yet reaped the rewards of a democratic South Africa. Using qualitative data gathered from three focus groups, this paper examines why youth from black African township communities of Durban, South ...


And That’S The Word: Effects Of The Colbert Report On Political Knowledge And Participation, Nicholas Anthony Canfield Mar 2017

And That’S The Word: Effects Of The Colbert Report On Political Knowledge And Participation, Nicholas Anthony Canfield

Theses and Dissertations

The Colbert Report was a satirical, political, and “fake” news show that lasted for almost a decade on the Comedy Central Network. Although many scholars have argued the program was less impactful and influential than Jon Stewart’s The Daily Show, phenomena such as the “Colbert Bump” show a definite impact on the political lives of many Americans. Using four quantitative surveys from 2008 to 2012, this thesis investigates the effects of watching The Colbert Report on individuals’ political knowledge and political participation. Results indicate non-Republican viewers increased their political knowledge, but not participation, from watching the show. The educational ...


How The War Over Obamacare Can Erode American Democracy, Daniel Beland, Philip Rocco, Alex Waddan Mar 2017

How The War Over Obamacare Can Erode American Democracy, Daniel Beland, Philip Rocco, Alex Waddan

Political Science Faculty Research and Publications

No abstract provided.


American Civil Associations And The Growth Of American Government: An Appraisal Of Alexis De Tocqueville’S Democracy In America (1835-1840) Applied To Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal And The Post-World War Ii Welfare State, John P. Varacalli Feb 2017

American Civil Associations And The Growth Of American Government: An Appraisal Of Alexis De Tocqueville’S Democracy In America (1835-1840) Applied To Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal And The Post-World War Ii Welfare State, John P. Varacalli

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In Democracy in America, Alexis de Tocqueville (1805-1859), a French aristocrat, intellectual, and commentator on American society during the 1830’s, described the United States as a society marked by a general “equality of condition,” that is, by a lack of noticeable social and economic distinctions among the citizenry. For Tocqueville, this characteristic of democracy encouraged the formation of an informal political bloc he termed “the majority” - a group who would often elect demagogues to political offices, since the latter were best able to give voice to majority opinion. Furthermore, de Tocqueville believed that this group was not only capable ...


A Taxonomy Of Independent Electoral Reapportionment Systems, James Ruley Jan 2017

A Taxonomy Of Independent Electoral Reapportionment Systems, James Ruley

Indiana Journal of Constitutional Design

This paper addresses a means of checking legislative gerrymandering, which I have called the Independent Electoral Reapportionment Commission (IERC). Its purpose is to prevent self-interested politicians from drawing biased constituency lines. While scholars have researched gerrymandering, few scholars have researched commissions designed to limit such gerrymandering, and no comprehensive work details the global means of accomplishing this goal.

Thus, the purpose of this paper is not to normatively prescribe the best practices for composing and empowering an IERC, but rather to descriptively show how different countries conduct this process. While Part II makes some determinations about which commissions may conceptually ...


Democracy, Minnesota State University, Mankato Jan 2017

Democracy, Minnesota State University, Mankato

Democracy/Government

Bibliography and photographs of a display of government documents from Minnesota State University, Mankato.


Democratizing Criminal Law: Feasibility, Utility, And The Challenge Of Social Change, Paul H. Robinson Jan 2017

Democratizing Criminal Law: Feasibility, Utility, And The Challenge Of Social Change, Paul H. Robinson

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The notion of “democratizing criminal law” has an initial appeal because, after all, we believe in the importance of democracy and because criminal law is so important – it protects us from the most egregious wrongs and is the vehicle by which we allow the most serious governmental intrusions in the lives of individuals. Given criminal law’s special status, isn’t it appropriate that this most important and most intrusive governmental power be subject to the constraints of democratic determination?

But perhaps the initial appeal of this grand principle must give way to practical realities. As much as we are ...