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2017

Gettysburg College

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Articles 1 - 26 of 26

Full-Text Articles in Political Science

When Does Sexuality-Based Discrimination Motivate Political Participation?, Douglas D. Page Dec 2017

When Does Sexuality-Based Discrimination Motivate Political Participation?, Douglas D. Page

Political Science Faculty Publications

The established consensus in political behavior research is that discrimination by political institutions motivates marginalized groups to vote and protest their conditions. However, existing studies miss a comparison between states with high and low levels of political discrimination, and they miss a comparison between states before and after the development of opportunities for groups to mobilize. In particular, a growing body of research shows that sexual-minority groups face discrimination to varying degrees across Europe. Sexual minorities in states with high levels of discrimination lack the support of other minority-group members, which encourages political participation. The analysis is based on surveys ...


Political Elites Or Average Citizens? Perspectives On The Political Legitimacy And Future Of The European Union, Jessica R. Frydenberg Dec 2017

Political Elites Or Average Citizens? Perspectives On The Political Legitimacy And Future Of The European Union, Jessica R. Frydenberg

Gettysburg Social Sciences Review

The confidence that Informed Citizenry and their Economic Elites have in the European Union were assessed. Survey data, from the 2009 Eurobarometer 72.4 with a sample size of 8,499 citizens, from 27 European nations, were supplemented with interviews with two professionals knowledgeable about EU politics and content analyses of current events, such as the EU debt crisis, the rise in terrorist attacks, the British Referendum, and the immigration crisis. Although both citizens and elites were confident about the EU’s future, voices of informed citizenry shaped the confidence in the EU more than economic elites. These findings substantiated ...


American Populism Shouldn’T Have To Embrace Ignorance, Daniel R. Denicola Nov 2017

American Populism Shouldn’T Have To Embrace Ignorance, Daniel R. Denicola

Philosophy Faculty Publications

Public ignorance is an inherent threat to democracy. It breeds superstition, prejudice, and error; and it prevents both a clear-eyed understanding of the world and the formulation of wise policies to adapt to that world.

Plato believed it was more than a threat: He thought it characterized democracies, and would lead them inevitably into anarchy and ultimately tyranny. But the liberal democracies of the modern era, grudgingly extending suffrage, have extended public education in parallel, in the hope of cultivating an informed citizenry. Yet today, given the persistence and severity of public ignorance, the ideal of an enlightened electorate seems ...


First Trump, Now Clinton -- Investigative Hand-Grenades Keep Flying, Allen C. Guelzo Nov 2017

First Trump, Now Clinton -- Investigative Hand-Grenades Keep Flying, Allen C. Guelzo

Civil War Era Studies Faculty Publications

As long as there has been politics, there has been corruption. So the investigative hand-grenades which have been flying for the past year, first at the Trump campaign, now at Mrs. Clinton’s, are not exactly new in American political life. What is new, however, is the geography.

Corruption used to be something American politicians did with other Americans. Now, it’s become something that involves other countries, and one in particular – Russia – which can’t be accused of friendly intentions toward the United States.

Curiously, at the beginning of the nation, Americans were confident that political corruption would never ...


Honor And Compromise, And Getting History Right, Allen C. Guelzo Nov 2017

Honor And Compromise, And Getting History Right, Allen C. Guelzo

Civil War Era Studies Faculty Publications

White House Chief of Staff John F. Kelly does not have a Ph.D. in history, although he does have two master’s degrees, in Strategic Studies (from the National Defense University) and in National Security Affairs from the Georgetown School of Foreign Service. So perhaps it was simply that he believed what he said about the Civil War this past Monday on Laura Ingraham’s new Fox News ‘Ingraham Angle’ was so innocuous that he could also believe that it wouldn’t even become a blip on anyone’s radar screen. (excerpt)


Healthcare: What Comes Next?, William H. Lane Oct 2017

Healthcare: What Comes Next?, William H. Lane

English Faculty Publications

Where do we go from here on healthcare?

America has been talking about fixing its fragmented and overly expensive healthcare system for quite a while now. At times, it seems as though we simply keep having the same conversation (or argument, if you prefer) over and over again without making much progress in ensuring access to affordable care to all Americans. In fact, however, some significant gains have been made. Twenty million left without insurance (our situation now) has got to be better than forty million left without (our situation a decade ago).


Green In Your Wallet Or A Green Planet: Views On Government Spending And Climate Change, Lincoln M. Butcher Oct 2017

Green In Your Wallet Or A Green Planet: Views On Government Spending And Climate Change, Lincoln M. Butcher

Student Publications

The scientific community is a near consensus that climate change is not only anthropogenic but is also a major threat to people around the world. Despite the alarm bells from the scientific community many people in the United States simply deny the science of climate change. Many studies have targeted level of education, party membership, and gender in their role in influencing how individuals perceive climate change. This study showed that views on government spending plays a very important role in the importance of the environment. Individuals who supported decreased government spending tend to view jobs as more important than ...


Presidency First: The Unitary Executive Governs America, Benjamin R. Pontz Oct 2017

Presidency First: The Unitary Executive Governs America, Benjamin R. Pontz

Student Publications

While considerable debate has occurred over the founders’ original conception of the executive’s proper role, most can agree that the unitary executive theory developed during the George W. Bush administration expanded executive power far beyond that original conception. Though a vocal opponent to Bush’s expansion of power, President Barack Obama asserted similarly sweeping powers in both foreign and domestic policy. While President Donald Trump demonstrates clear ambivalence towards an all-encompassing rule of law, early indicators suggest that he will exhibit a proclivity for robust assertions of executive power that will rival or surpass his immediate predecessors even if ...


Global Warming: Why Is There Debate?, Mackenzie E. Smith Oct 2017

Global Warming: Why Is There Debate?, Mackenzie E. Smith

Student Publications

Previous studies have produced conflicting results for the determining factors of acceptance or rejection of the science behind the global warming phenomenon; some cite religion as a hindrance to the acceptance of this scientific theory [Kilburn 2008], some conclude lack of education is the driving force [Brechin 2003], and some deduce that party affiliation plays the most significant role in determining belief in global warming. In this study, the National Election Survey of 2012 dataset, consisting of 5,916 individual data points from the United States of America, is analyzed to determine the effects of party affiliation on one’s ...


Seismic Waves, Aubrey L. Kamppila Oct 2017

Seismic Waves, Aubrey L. Kamppila

Student Publications

I was studying abroad in Florence, Italy on November 9, 2016, when I awoke to the news that Donald Trump had been elected President. To say it was a shock was an understatement, like many Americans, I had never dreamed the scenario possible. At that moment, I felt more powerless and disconnected from my country than ever before. For the next few weeks, I struggled to comprehend how I personally could combat the assault on my political views and values, what stand I could take, and what impact it might have. Finally, on one of many emotional phone calls with ...


Levels Of Media Consumption And Muslim Intolerance, Kathryn E. Cushman Oct 2017

Levels Of Media Consumption And Muslim Intolerance, Kathryn E. Cushman

Student Publications

Exploring the various factors that lead to Muslim intolerance, specifically the role of media consumption and the control variables of age and education levels


The Rusher Who Wouldn't Take The Knee, Allen C. Guelzo Sep 2017

The Rusher Who Wouldn't Take The Knee, Allen C. Guelzo

Civil War Era Studies Faculty Publications

No law requires the playing of the National Anthem at the outset of professional sporting events. Also, no law requires people to stand when the anthem is played, or that people to sing along—although federal law does mandate that we “should face the flag and stand at attention . . . right hand over the heart,” and that “men not in uniform . . . should remove their headdress with their right hand” (36 U.S. Code § 301).

But there is nothing in the statute which says that one cannot use posture as a means for what ESPN called “demonstrating for social justice.” So it ...


Commentary: Will The Courts Make Trump's Presidency Less Imperial?, Allen C. Guelzo, James H. Hulme Apr 2017

Commentary: Will The Courts Make Trump's Presidency Less Imperial?, Allen C. Guelzo, James H. Hulme

Civil War Era Studies Faculty Publications

Nearly three months ago, Donald Trump assumed a presidency that, for more than a century, had grown seemingly endless discretionary powers. And he did so in company with Republican majorities in Congress and in 32 state legislatures -- all of which should have made his decisions unassailable.

Instead, he has been stymied and embarrassed by resistance from a federal judiciary that has twice halted executive orders on the most prominent issue of his presidential campaign. So, will the federal judiciary become the wall against which Trump bleeds away the power not just of his own presidency but of the “imperial presidency ...


In Solidarity, Musselman Library, Salma Monani, Sarah M. Principato, Dave Powell, Brent C. Talbot, Charles L. Weise, Bruce A. Larson, Scott Hancock, Mckinley E. Melton, David S. Walsh, Jennifer Q. Mccary, Kristina G. Chamberlin Apr 2017

In Solidarity, Musselman Library, Salma Monani, Sarah M. Principato, Dave Powell, Brent C. Talbot, Charles L. Weise, Bruce A. Larson, Scott Hancock, Mckinley E. Melton, David S. Walsh, Jennifer Q. Mccary, Kristina G. Chamberlin

Next Page

This edition of Next Page is a departure from our usual question and answer format with a featured campus reader. Instead, we asked speakers who participated in the College’s recent Student Solidarity Rally (March 1, 2017) to recommend readings that might further our understanding of the topics on which they spoke.


Ike's Leadership Lessons For New President, Michael J. Birkner Apr 2017

Ike's Leadership Lessons For New President, Michael J. Birkner

History Faculty Publications

Just days into his presidency in the winter of 1953, Dwight Eisenhower met with his advisers and discussed a challenge from within the majority Republican caucus. If mishandled, it could have endangered his program for a stronger America.

The issue, as he later related, was the demand of conservative Republican legislative leaders that Eisenhower "balance the budget immediately and cut taxes no matter what the result." [excerpt]


Schisms: The Inherent Dangers Of Religious Variance Within A Single Faith – An Analysis Of Intra-State Conflict In The Modern World, Benjamin E. Hazen Apr 2017

Schisms: The Inherent Dangers Of Religious Variance Within A Single Faith – An Analysis Of Intra-State Conflict In The Modern World, Benjamin E. Hazen

Student Publications

This essay explores the relationship between religious variance within a single faith and the frequency of intra-state conflict. Specifically, an emphasis is placed on Sunni and Shia conflict within the overarching umbrella of Islam. Utilizing the most recent empirical data in conjunction with other scholarly research, it can be hypothesized that the more diverse a state is within a single subset of one particular religion, the more frequent the incidence of intra-state conflict is as well.


Why Does Sweden Have Higher Levels Of Voter Turnout Than Finland?, Hannah M. Christensen Apr 2017

Why Does Sweden Have Higher Levels Of Voter Turnout Than Finland?, Hannah M. Christensen

Student Publications

Voter turnout is considered the “canary in the coal mine” when it comes to assessing the health of civic participation in a democracy; low turnout in particular is indicative of broader problems. Although voter turnout is quite high in both Sweden and Finland, turnout is notably higher in Sweden despite a long list of similarities between the two countries. Why is there this puzzling discrepancy? This paper employs a “most similar systems” research design to consider a wide variety of factors that can affect voter turnout and ultimately concludes that the difference lies in several different features of the two ...


Miedo Y Multilateralismo: Chile Y México En El Consejo De Seguridad De Las Naciones Unidas Antes De La Invasión De Irak De 2003, Amanda K. Krehbiel Apr 2017

Miedo Y Multilateralismo: Chile Y México En El Consejo De Seguridad De Las Naciones Unidas Antes De La Invasión De Irak De 2003, Amanda K. Krehbiel

Student Publications

En este proyecto, exploro la pregunta: ¿cuál fue la motivación de los gobiernos de Chile y México para votar en contra de los EEUU y que fue el efecto de tales acciones en sus relaciones políticos con los Estados Unidos? Investigo documentos oficiales de la ONU, archivos de periódicos, y documentos publicados por las embajadas de los EEUU, Chile, y México. Esta pregunta está en el contexto de la Guerra con Irak en 2003. Examino este tema en el contexto de la Guerra con Irak en 2003. En las semanas antes de la Invasión, en el 19 de marzo de ...


Why Have Youth From Different Neighborhoods Of Durban, South Africa Developed Different Opinions Regarding The Role And Importance Of Voting In The Current State Of South African Democracy?, Anthony L. Wagner Apr 2017

Why Have Youth From Different Neighborhoods Of Durban, South Africa Developed Different Opinions Regarding The Role And Importance Of Voting In The Current State Of South African Democracy?, Anthony L. Wagner

Student Publications

The field of political science has become increasingly interested in the electoral participatory habits of young people in recent decades, and in post-apartheid South Africa more specifically in light of the recent and ongoing #feesmustfall movement within the nation's tertiary institutions. Since 1994, South Africa has made a great deal of progress towards dismantling the apartheid system; however, vast inequalities remain and many, mostly black African communities have not yet reaped the rewards of a democratic South Africa. Using qualitative data gathered from three focus groups, this paper examines why youth from black African township communities of Durban, South ...


The Economics Of Refugees: How Refugees Influence The Economies Of Spain And England, Mary K. Bovard Apr 2017

The Economics Of Refugees: How Refugees Influence The Economies Of Spain And England, Mary K. Bovard

Student Publications

The economic impact of refugee movements is a topic disputed throughout the world, but even more highly disputed in the European Union. In this last Syrian refugee movement, we have heard many different interpretations of how the movement would affect the European economy. Whether based on factual data or speculation, this paper aims to unpack several of the main economic arguments for and against the movement of refugees into European countries, particularly Spain and England. This paper argues that the perceived economic impacts of the refugee movement in Europe does not match the measured economic impacts.


Women And Peace: Female Political Empowerment & The Prevention Of Civil Violence, Piper D. O'Keefe Apr 2017

Women And Peace: Female Political Empowerment & The Prevention Of Civil Violence, Piper D. O'Keefe

Student Publications

Today conflict mainly occurs within nations (as opposed to between nations), and the importance of women in creating and maintaining peace (which can be most simply defined as the absence of violence) through informal and formal leadership roles has also become known, offering much for the possibility of the reduction of violence within nations. Testing this relationship through a Poisson regression for the hypothesis that countries that have higher political empowerment for women will have less civil violence in their nations than countries with a lower level of political empowerment for women, this study is able to reject the null ...


Enlightenment, Latin America, Age Of Revolutions, Spanish America, Brazil, Katherine A. Lentz Apr 2017

Enlightenment, Latin America, Age Of Revolutions, Spanish America, Brazil, Katherine A. Lentz

Student Publications

An essay analyzing the effect of Enlightenment thinking on the political and societal elite of the colonial Spanish and Portuguese Americas, and the subsequent colonial revolutions.


Funding The Arts And Humanities Is Worth Fighting For, Dave Powell Feb 2017

Funding The Arts And Humanities Is Worth Fighting For, Dave Powell

Education Faculty Publications

There’s an old story about Winston Churchill that is not true but is worth repeating. When approached about cutting funding for the arts so the money could go to the war effort during World War II, Churchill supposedly replied: “Then what are we fighting for?”

As far as we can tell Churchill never actually said this, but you can be forgiven for being taken by the sentiment. This apocryphal quote still makes the rounds because it suggests that even in times of war art can help us realize what it is, exactly, that’s worth defending. [excerpt]


Commentary: California Secessionists Channel Logic Of Southern Slaveholders, Allen C. Guelzo, James H. Hulme Feb 2017

Commentary: California Secessionists Channel Logic Of Southern Slaveholders, Allen C. Guelzo, James H. Hulme

Civil War Era Studies Faculty Publications

'Thursday night the streets were filled with excited crowds. No one talks of anything but the necessity for prompt action. . . . It is hardly prudent for any man to express his opinion adverse to immediate secession, so heated are the public passions, so intolerant of restraint is the popular will."

You would probably assume that this report came from California in the wake of the 2016 election, right? After all, Alex Padilla, the California secretary of state, has now authorized the Yes California Independence Campaign to begin collecting signatures for a state referendum on California's secession from the United States ...


Commentary: Challenging Three Electoral College Indictments, Allen C. Guelzo, James H. Hulme Jan 2017

Commentary: Challenging Three Electoral College Indictments, Allen C. Guelzo, James H. Hulme

Civil War Era Studies Faculty Publications

On the day the Electoral College met and elected Donald J. Trump the 45th president of the United States, the New York Times editorial board published a scathing attack on the Electoral College as an "antiquated mechanism" which "overwhelming majorities" of Americans would prefer to eliminate in favor of a direct national popular vote. [excerpt]


In Defense Of The Electoral College, Allen C. Guelzo, James H. Hulme Jan 2017

In Defense Of The Electoral College, Allen C. Guelzo, James H. Hulme

Civil War Era Studies Faculty Publications

There is hardly anything in the Constitution harder to explain, or easier to misunderstand, than the Electoral College. And when a presidential election hands the palm to a candidate who comes in second in the popular vote but first in the Electoral College tally, something deep in our democratic viscera balks and asks why the Electoral College shouldn’t be dumped as a useless relic of 18th century white, gentry privilege. Actually, there have been only five occasions when a closely divided popular vote and the electoral vote have failed to point in the same direction. No matter. After last ...