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Political Science Commons

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2016

University of South Florida

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Articles 1 - 28 of 28

Full-Text Articles in Political Science

People's War In Cyberspace: Using China's Civilian Economy In The Information Domain, Kieran Richard Green Dec 2016

People's War In Cyberspace: Using China's Civilian Economy In The Information Domain, Kieran Richard Green

Military Cyber Affairs

China is identified as posing a key challenge to US national security interests in cyberspace. These threats are incurred across the spectrum of conflict, ranging from low-level crime, to network penetration, to cyberattacks that have the potential to cause major physical destruction. Thus far, the majority of strategic assessments of China’s cyber capabilities have focused on the role of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA), which is officially tasked with undertaking offensive operations in cyberspace.[1] However, China does not employ its cyber capabilities in isolation. Rather, it considers cyber to be part of the “Information Domain.” In Chinese ...


Military Cyber Professionals Have An Important Part To Play In The Obama-Trump Transition, Michael V. Hayden Dec 2016

Military Cyber Professionals Have An Important Part To Play In The Obama-Trump Transition, Michael V. Hayden

Military Cyber Affairs

Over the course of decades in service, I have experienced multiple presidential transitions. Each new Commander in Chief updates policies, personnel, and priorities…especially when the transition involves a new political party. In this respect, the current transition from the Obama to the Trump administration is no different. While this periodic exercise of our democracy may seem disruptive to some, it is a true opportunity for military cyber professionals to help shape our future national security posture.


Book Review: A History Of Rwandan Identity And Trauma: The Mythmakers' Victims, James J. Snow Dec 2016

Book Review: A History Of Rwandan Identity And Trauma: The Mythmakers' Victims, James J. Snow

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

No abstract provided.


Minority Protection And Democratic Consolidation: The Role Of European Integration In The Republic Of Macedonia, Eltion Meka Oct 2016

Minority Protection And Democratic Consolidation: The Role Of European Integration In The Republic Of Macedonia, Eltion Meka

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

The purpose of this article is to take stock of the European integration literature in reference to Eastern Europe in order to better understand how international forces affect minority rights. The article will focus on the status of the Albanian minority in the case of the Republic of Macedonia and attempt to illustrate how European integration has contributed to or hindered ethnic reconciliation between the ethnic Albanian minority and Macedonian majority through a historical-sociological analysis. Additionally, by linking the protection of minority rights to democratic consolidation, this article will show how the former is largely dependent on the latter.


Genocide Denial: Perpetuating Victimization And The Cycle Of Violence In Bosnia And Herzegovina (Bih), Genevieve Parent Oct 2016

Genocide Denial: Perpetuating Victimization And The Cycle Of Violence In Bosnia And Herzegovina (Bih), Genevieve Parent

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

The denial of the Armenian genocide led to devastating effects on both the individual and collective levels which in many cases were passed down to their descendants. In BiH, many of the facts are not denied per se but the interpretation is such that genocidal intent is denied. While some research has been done on the consequences of trauma among BiH survivors, no in-depth studies are found on the effects of denial on the survivors’ psychosocial well-being. This article aims to fill in the gaps based on in-depth-interviews carried out since 2011 in BiH, investigating the cognitive, affective and behavioral ...


Book Review: Conflict In The Nuba Mountains: From Genocide-By-Attrition To The Contemporary Crisis In Sudan, Alan J. Kuperman Oct 2016

Book Review: Conflict In The Nuba Mountains: From Genocide-By-Attrition To The Contemporary Crisis In Sudan, Alan J. Kuperman

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

No abstract provided.


Book Review: Thieves Of State, Hugh E. Breakey Oct 2016

Book Review: Thieves Of State, Hugh E. Breakey

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

No abstract provided.


China And Africa’S Peace And Security Agenda: The Burgeoning Appetite, Oita Etyang, Simon Oswan Panyako Sep 2016

China And Africa’S Peace And Security Agenda: The Burgeoning Appetite, Oita Etyang, Simon Oswan Panyako

Journal of African Conflicts and Peace Studies

China and Africa have had contacts since time immemorial. It is, however, in the last two decades that China vastly increased its engagement with Africa, following the first Ministerial Conference of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) that took place in 2000 and the Beijing Summit held in 2006. China has skillfully utilized its international strategy of multipolarity and non-interference to champion its economic interests as well as its hegemonic quest. It is undeniable that China has heavily invested in Africa through Foreign Direct Investments (FDI), and infrastructure development. China has also increased its appetite on matters peace and security ...


The Cost Of Inter-Ethnic Conflicts In Ghana’S Northern Region: The Case Of The Nawuri-Gonja Conflicts, Emmanuel Debrah, Seidu Alidu, Isaac Owusu-Mensah Sep 2016

The Cost Of Inter-Ethnic Conflicts In Ghana’S Northern Region: The Case Of The Nawuri-Gonja Conflicts, Emmanuel Debrah, Seidu Alidu, Isaac Owusu-Mensah

Journal of African Conflicts and Peace Studies

The article assesses the socio-economic and human repercussions of one of the fiercest ethnic conflicts in Ghana’s Northern Region on people and society. While Ghana remains a stable democracy, sporadic ethnic and chieftaincy conflicts have been a recurrent feature of the political process. Analyzing data from survey opinions and interviews from wide spectrum of respondents, the study noted that the Nawuri-Gonja conflicts have destroyed the fabric of the society leaving behind squalor, breakdown of healthcare, education and psychological trauma. Women and children have suffered rape assaults and unprecedented high rate of mortality due to malnourishments respectively. The plights of ...


Conflict Of Interest In Exploitation And Utilisation Of Transboundary Natural Resources On Lake Victoria, Edmond M. Were Sep 2016

Conflict Of Interest In Exploitation And Utilisation Of Transboundary Natural Resources On Lake Victoria, Edmond M. Were

Journal of African Conflicts and Peace Studies

The management of Lake Victoria as a “regional common” is expected to adhere to the global principles of transboundary natural resource management. However, national interest and power asymmetry amongst riparian states buoyed by external demand have overwhelmed global and regional norms leading to incessant exploitation of the common resources. This paper uses idealist and realist perspectives of power relations to inform the analysis of conflicting interests in transboundary natural resource exploitation. It partly relies on 2012-2013 primary data from purposively selected Beach Management Units in Kenya and Uganda and secondary data from regional fisheries institutions. Notwithstanding the normative value of ...


Shaping Climate Citizenship: The Ethics Of Inclusion In Climate Change Communication And Policy, Lauren E. Cagle Jul 2016

Shaping Climate Citizenship: The Ethics Of Inclusion In Climate Change Communication And Policy, Lauren E. Cagle

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The problem of climate change is not simply scientific or technical, but also political and social. This dissertation analyzes both the role and the ethical foundations of citizenship and citizen engagement in the political and social aspects of climate change communication and policy-making. Using a critical discourse analysis of a policy recommendations drafted by the Southeast Florida Regional Climate Change Compact, I demonstrate how climate change policy documentation naturalizes a particular version of citizenship I call “climate citizenship.” Based on environmental critiques of liberal and civic republican citizenship, I show how this “climate citizenship” would be more productive and ethical ...


How Presidents Can Become "Hip" By Using High Definition Metaphors Strategic Communication Of Leadership In A Digital Age, Mirela Camelia Stimus Jun 2016

How Presidents Can Become "Hip" By Using High Definition Metaphors Strategic Communication Of Leadership In A Digital Age, Mirela Camelia Stimus

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The aim of this interdisciplinary research was to see whether American presidents can reach Millennials more effectively in the digital age while publicly advancing the legislative agenda of their administration. The rationale is that presidents need to gain public support to pressure Congress into passing their legislation; while doing that, they can capture the public’s interest in politics and educate civically the most inattentive audience. To accomplish the task, strategic messaging adequate to digital media is necessary. Millennials appear as having modest interest and knowledge of politics despite their intense presence on digital media. On the other hand, they ...


Editors' Introduction, Melanie O'Brien, Joann Digeorgio-Lutz, Lior Zylberman, Christian Gudehus, Douglas Irvin-Erickson, Randle Defalco, Hilary Earl Jun 2016

Editors' Introduction, Melanie O'Brien, Joann Digeorgio-Lutz, Lior Zylberman, Christian Gudehus, Douglas Irvin-Erickson, Randle Defalco, Hilary Earl

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

No abstract provided.


Guest Editors’ Introduction: Genocide Studies, Colonization, And Indigenous Peoples, David B. Macdonald, Tricia Logan Jun 2016

Guest Editors’ Introduction: Genocide Studies, Colonization, And Indigenous Peoples, David B. Macdonald, Tricia Logan

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

No abstract provided.


Towards A Theory Of Displacement Atrocities: The Cherokee Trail Of Tears, The Herero Genocide, And The Pontic Greek Genocide, Andrew R. Basso Jun 2016

Towards A Theory Of Displacement Atrocities: The Cherokee Trail Of Tears, The Herero Genocide, And The Pontic Greek Genocide, Andrew R. Basso

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

This article examines how displacement is used as a tool of atrocity perpetration and offers initial observations that will be used to create a future typology of Displacement Atrocities. Perpetrators' uses of forced population displacement coupled with systematic deprivations of vital daily needs (i.e., food, water, clothing, shelter, and medical care) combine to kill targeted victims through primarily indirect methods. A preliminary theoretical framework of Displacement Atrocities is offered and the critical elements that comprise this crime are explored. I argue that the Displacement Atrocity crime is a new way of understanding lethal forced population displacement. This theoretical framework ...


Revitalizing The Ethnosphere: Global Society, Ethnodiversity, And The Stakes Of Cultural Genocide, Christopher Powell Ph.D. Jun 2016

Revitalizing The Ethnosphere: Global Society, Ethnodiversity, And The Stakes Of Cultural Genocide, Christopher Powell Ph.D.

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

This paper uses the concepts of ethnosphere and ethnodiversity to frame the stakes of cultural genocide in the context of the emerging global society. We are in an era of rapid global ethnodiversity loss. Global ethnodiversity is important because different cultures produce different solutions to the subjective and objective problems of human society, and because cultures have an intrinsic value. Rapid ethnodiversity loss is a byproduct of the expansion of the modern world-system, and Lemkin’s invention of the concept of genocide can be understood as a dialectical reaction to this tendency. The current phase of globalization creates pressures towards ...


Book Review: Remembering Genocide, Tony Barta Jun 2016

Book Review: Remembering Genocide, Tony Barta

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

No abstract provided.


Application Of Spatial And Descriptive Analysis Methods To Determine Relationship Between Hardware Subsidies And The Sanitation Marketplace, Danielle Devuyst Mar 2016

Application Of Spatial And Descriptive Analysis Methods To Determine Relationship Between Hardware Subsidies And The Sanitation Marketplace, Danielle Devuyst

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Sanitation marketing is an emerging approach of strengthening the local private sector to implement scalable and sustainable improved sanitation coverage in developing countries, specifically among the poor. It encourages the enhancement of sanitation market supply and demand by developing distribution infrastructure and stimulating consumer interest. Unlike interventions that provide hardware subsidies to initiate sanitation demand, financial support for sanitation marketing is used exclusively for the research and development of the market; this encourages the private sector to become independent and self-sufficient. Qualitative data suggests that while sanitation marketing projects have been successful at implementing replicable and sustainable sanitation coverage, they ...


Containment: A Failed American Foreign Policy And How The Truman Doctrine Led To The Rise In Islamic Extremism In The Muslim World, Christopher Jonathan Gerber Mar 2016

Containment: A Failed American Foreign Policy And How The Truman Doctrine Led To The Rise In Islamic Extremism In The Muslim World, Christopher Jonathan Gerber

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

After World War II the United States, faced with the new Soviet threat of Communism, instituted the foreign policy known as “containment” in order to mitigate the threat to Western European states of Soviet expansionism. After the fall of Communism in the USSR in 1991 that policy was deemed, at once, a success and an anachronism. The power vacuum that the subsequent abandonment of that policy created was most notable in the Islamic states that had served as proxies in the Cold War against Communism. Both the backdrop of containment as well as the withdrawal of that policy served to ...


Why The U.S. Government Failed To Anticipate The Rwandan Genocide Of 1994: Lessons For Early Warning And Prevention, Matthew Levinger Feb 2016

Why The U.S. Government Failed To Anticipate The Rwandan Genocide Of 1994: Lessons For Early Warning And Prevention, Matthew Levinger

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

During the months leading up to the Rwandan genocide of 1994, cognitive biases obstructed the capacity of U.S. government analysts and policymakers to anticipate mass violence against the country’s Tutsi minority. Drawing on recently declassified U.S. government documents and on interviews with key current and former officials, this essay shows that most U.S. government reporting on Rwanda before April 1994 utilized a faulty cognitive frame that failed to differentiate between threats of civil war and genocide. Because U.S. officials framed the crisis in Rwanda as a potential civil war, they underestimated the virulence of the ...


Turning Atrocity Prevention Inside-Out: Community-Based Approaches To Preventing, Protecting, And Recovering From Mass Violence, Bridget Moix Feb 2016

Turning Atrocity Prevention Inside-Out: Community-Based Approaches To Preventing, Protecting, And Recovering From Mass Violence, Bridget Moix

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

Abstract: This article reviews recent research and evolving practice of community-based approaches to preventing and mitigating mass violence. It considers growing evidence that externally driven international interventions in response to violence are failing due to a lack of recognition and support for local actors, and increasing research into locally-led efforts, such as community protection strategies, early warning and response systems, interreligious peacebuilding, and post-atrocity trauma healing. Drawing from examples from a wide range of cases, including Rwanda, Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Central African Republic, Colombia, and Sri Lanka, the article identifies key lessons for improving atrocity prevention policy and ...


Predicting Genocide And Mass Atrocities, Ernesto Verdeja Feb 2016

Predicting Genocide And Mass Atrocities, Ernesto Verdeja

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

This article examines several current risk assessment and early warning models to predict genocide and mass atrocities. Risk assessment (RA) concerns a country’s long­-term structural conditions (regime type, state-led discrimination, etc.) that determine overall risk for atrocities. Early warning (EW) focuses on short/midterm dynamics that can serve as triggers. The article evaluates contemporary RA and EW forecast modeling, and asks: How well can we predict mass atrocities and genocide? What are the strengths and limitations to current predictive modeling? Part I examines several quantitative (statistical) RA models and identifies several strengths and limitations in current research. Part ...


Dangerous Speech And Dangerous Ideology: An Integrated Model For Monitoring And Prevention, Jonathan Leader Maynard, Susan Benesch Feb 2016

Dangerous Speech And Dangerous Ideology: An Integrated Model For Monitoring And Prevention, Jonathan Leader Maynard, Susan Benesch

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

There is considerable agreement amongst scholars and international actors that ideologies and speech play a critical role in the path of escalation towards mass atrocity crimes. Speech features prominently in the jurisprudence of the U.N. war crimes tribunal for Rwanda, for example, and in historical accounts of the months and years preceding many other genocides. Nonetheless, this is one of the most underdeveloped components of genocide and atrocity prevention, in both theory and practice. This paper draws together the authors’ independent past work on dangerous speech and the ideological dynamics of mass atrocities by offering a new integrated model ...


More Lessons Learned From The Holocaust - Towards A Complexity-Embracing Approach To Why Genocide Occurs, Timothy Williams Feb 2016

More Lessons Learned From The Holocaust - Towards A Complexity-Embracing Approach To Why Genocide Occurs, Timothy Williams

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

Why do genocides occur? This paper applies qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) to revisit this question, and analyses 139 cases of genocide and non-genocide. The paper demonstrates the importance of both priming, contextual conditions which provide a political opportunity structure conducive to genocide, as well as triggering, more proximate conditions which constitute immanent motivations. Most centrally, sufficiency is demonstrated for genocide occurrence when an autocratic regime and the salience of an elite's ethnicity are present, and are combined with either an exclusionary ideology or political upheaval. As such, the autocratic nature of the state provides an opportunity structure allowing genocide ...


Book Review: The Structural Prevention Of Mass Atrocities: Understanding Risk And Resilience, Rhiannon S. Neilsen Feb 2016

Book Review: The Structural Prevention Of Mass Atrocities: Understanding Risk And Resilience, Rhiannon S. Neilsen

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

Scholarship on the structural prevention of genocide and mass atrocities is, for the most part, saturated with identifying the ‘root causes’ of deadly violence. Conversely, the causes of peace and the processes that de-escalate tensions – in effect, “what goes right” – remain comparatively under researched. In his book The Structural Prevention of Mass Atrocities, Stephen McLoughlin contends that positioning prevention simply on identifying and ameliorating risk factors erroneously assumes a linear inevitability between cause and outcome, and thus “fails to explain why some at-risk countries experience mass atrocities, yet others do not” (3). McLoughlin convincingly advocates an analytical framework, which broadens ...


The Impossibility To Protect? Media Narratives And The Responsibility To Protect, Kjell Føllingstad Anderson, Ingjerd Veiden Brakstad Feb 2016

The Impossibility To Protect? Media Narratives And The Responsibility To Protect, Kjell Føllingstad Anderson, Ingjerd Veiden Brakstad

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

The media plays an important role in communicating mass atrocities to audiences across the globe. This article critically examines how journalists’ framing of mass atrocities may contribute to public discourse on the responsibility to protect principle, in particular the perceived obligation to intervene in cases of mass atrocities. It will draw from a broader conceptual framework on bystander responses to mass atrocities and utilise evidence from the analysis of newspaper accounts of the Rwandan and Bosnian genocides. It will argue that, in some cases, media narratives may actually erode political will and encourage passivity in response to mass atrocities.


Book Review: Disposable Futures: The Seduction Of Violence In The Age Of Spectacle, Jack D. Palmer Feb 2016

Book Review: Disposable Futures: The Seduction Of Violence In The Age Of Spectacle, Jack D. Palmer

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

No abstract provided.


Transparency And Accountability In The Management Of Oil Revenues In Ghana, Ransford E. Van Gyampo Jan 2016

Transparency And Accountability In The Management Of Oil Revenues In Ghana, Ransford E. Van Gyampo

Government and International Affairs Faculty Publications

This paper undertakes a five-year review of the management of oil revenues in Ghana since the commencement of oil production in 2010. Using reports from the Petroleum Transparency and Accountability Index, official records from key state agencies, and interviews with core individuals within the petroleum sector, the paper assesses the quality of transparency and accountability in the management of Ghana’s oil revenue. It argues that even though some progress has been made in the transparent and accountable use of oil revenues, more can be achieved if certain critical bills are passed and proactive interventions pursued without further delay on ...