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2016

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Articles 1 - 27 of 27

Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Hunger In America: The Rise And Evolution Of America’S Public/Private Hunger Response Network, A Philadelphia Case Study, Jessica Abrams Nov 2016

Hunger In America: The Rise And Evolution Of America’S Public/Private Hunger Response Network, A Philadelphia Case Study, Jessica Abrams

Honors Theses (PPE)

Since their emergence in the 1980s, food banks across the country have transformed from small, independent, community-run operations into complex organizations that move millions of pounds of food. In its infancy, this type of hunger response was provided on an “emergency” basis; however, as “emergency food” increasingly became a fundamental part of people’s diets, charitable organizations partnered with large scale government programs, food industry corporations and millions of volunteers. As the system grew, it evolved from a network of church basements to substantial institutions that provide food choice as well as programs intended to address poverty (a root cause ...


American Bishops And Religious Freedom: Legacy And Limits, Melissa J. Wilde Nov 2016

American Bishops And Religious Freedom: Legacy And Limits, Melissa J. Wilde

Departmental Papers (Sociology)

This paper explores continuity and change in the American Catholic hierarchy’s promotion of and later reliance on religious freedom. With an analysis spanning more than 50 years, it first traces the pressures for reform that created the Declaration more than 50 years ago, demonstrating that American bishops were crucial actors in the Declaration’s existence and passage, and that this was the case because of the strong legitimacy pressures they were under as Roman Catholic leaders in a predominantly Protestant country. The paper then turns to a summary of how the Birth Control Mandate of the Affordable Care Act ...


The Pollyvote Forecast For The 2016 American Presidential Election, Andreas Graefe, Randall J. Jones, J. Scott Armstrong, Alfred G. Cuzán Oct 2016

The Pollyvote Forecast For The 2016 American Presidential Election, Andreas Graefe, Randall J. Jones, J. Scott Armstrong, Alfred G. Cuzán

Marketing Papers

The PollyVote applies a century-old principle of combining different evidence-based methods for forecasting the outcome of American presidential elections. In this article, we discuss the principles followed in constructing the PollyVote formula, summarize its components, review the accuracy of its previous forecasts, and make a prediction for this year's presidential election.


Soviet/Russian Military Capabilities: Assessing Tech, Manpower, & Loyalty, Karin Shmulevich Apr 2016

Soviet/Russian Military Capabilities: Assessing Tech, Manpower, & Loyalty, Karin Shmulevich

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

Since the Imperialist times of Peter the Great, Russia’s military ideology has been largely predicated on the goal of creating a large and powerful army. In an attempt to gain territory and prestige, a nation’s military strength was often reduced to a mere game of numbers in order to overpower the opposing side. Of course, weapons and tactics were also involved, but they meant nothing without the men who were needed to utilize them and perform accordingly. Overtime, as new threats began to emerge and a different international dynamic began to form with improved technological systems and weaponry ...


“You Can Rely On The Old Man's Money”: The Incumbency Advantage And Potential For Favor Exchanging In Congressional Elections, Brandon Slotkin Apr 2016

“You Can Rely On The Old Man's Money”: The Incumbency Advantage And Potential For Favor Exchanging In Congressional Elections, Brandon Slotkin

Honors Theses (PPE)

The definition of corruption currently used by the United States judicial system for congresspeople is very stringent, requiring full knowledge of exchanging money for legislative favors in order to convict. However, the increasing amount of outside money in congressional elections suggests that the environment is ripe for a quid pro quo exchange. This is especially true for incumbents, who have an established, built-in advantage favoring reelection and receive the majority of outside spending. To investigate whether there exists the potential for a quid pro quo, I look at incumbents fundraising and expenditure data in 2010 and 2014, after the Supreme ...


A Constitutional Political Economy Perspective On The Colonization Of Mars, Shashank Sirivolu Apr 2016

A Constitutional Political Economy Perspective On The Colonization Of Mars, Shashank Sirivolu

Honors Theses (PPE)

NASA has released an account of the agency's plans for a mission to Mars. Private organizations, like SpaceX, too have expressed a goal to visit or, in some cases, even establish settlements on Mars. Yet the prospect of establishing settlements, that is, colonizing - as opposed to simply exploring - raises a number of issues. The focus of this study is on the emergence of institutions and organizations on an extraterrestrial planet like Mars. Specifically, the thesis will explore the conscious design of organizations and institutions of collective action, from the Constitutional Political Economy perspective.


The Planner In Action: China’S Influence As A Developing And Non-Market Economy On The Wto, Lauren Shapiro Apr 2016

The Planner In Action: China’S Influence As A Developing And Non-Market Economy On The Wto, Lauren Shapiro

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

Chinese accession to the World Trade Organization in 2001 forever altered the international economy as it marked the political-economic diversification of international trade negotiations and law. Before the implications of Chinese accession became apparent, scholars predicted that Chinese WTO membership would greatly affect the Organization. While this thesis agrees with this general sentiment, it insists that China’s effect on the WTO is not wholly negative or positive and requires a nuanced, sub-institutional assessment to understand. Qualifying and expanding upon scholars’ pre-2001 predictions, this thesis argues that for the most part, China did not proactively cause instances of institutional weakness ...


Understanding Our Own Cassandra: The Construction Of Public Opinion And The Anita Hill/Clarence Thomas Hearings, Sonja Li Breda Mar 2016

Understanding Our Own Cassandra: The Construction Of Public Opinion And The Anita Hill/Clarence Thomas Hearings, Sonja Li Breda

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

The Senate Judiciary hearings of 1991 held in the wake of allegations that Clarence Thomas, nominated to the Supreme Court by George H.W. Bush, had sexually harassed a woman named Anita Hill captivated the nation. Thomas’ confirmation was eventually postponed in order to allow Dr. Hill an opportunity to testify before the country. Hill’s testimony would prove groundbreaking for women who were victims of sexual harassment in the workplace and usher in the 1992 “Year of the Woman.”

Initially, fast-reaction public opinion polls conducted in the wake of the hearings seemed to show immense support for Clarence Thomas ...


Daca/Dapa And The Relational Conception: An Assessment Of Inter-Branch Conflict Over Constitutional Authority In Immigration, Yessenia Moreno Mar 2016

Daca/Dapa And The Relational Conception: An Assessment Of Inter-Branch Conflict Over Constitutional Authority In Immigration, Yessenia Moreno

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

In the history of the American republic, no branch of government has increased its powers more than the Executive Branch and no area of policy, arguably, has caused as much intense inter-branch conflict in recent years as immigration. Since the last major bipartisan immigration reform in 1986, Presidents have time and again exercised their executive powers to make immigration policy. Most of these exercises of power have been in the form of executive orders and actions granting reprieve from deportation to groups of undocumented immigrants. With the rise of illegal immigration in the 90s and steady decline in recent years ...


Eurozone In Crisis: Socialist And Liberal Critiques, Clara Jane Hendrickson Mar 2016

Eurozone In Crisis: Socialist And Liberal Critiques, Clara Jane Hendrickson

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

Postwar European federalist efforts to encourage cooperation between traditionally hostile countries ultimately gave birth to the European Union and its single currency. Today, the political and economic institutions and structures that emerged from the process of European integration confront the challenges posed by the recent Eurozone crisis. Europe’s survival demonstrates resilience but does not evidence a transformation in the politically contested nature of European economic and political union. This thesis asks why the thick regulatory framework and rules-based nature of the Eurozone produced a suboptimal currency union. To answer this question, this thesis draws on the two major theories ...


Rise Of The Yuan: Export Similarity And Comparisons To The Yen, Kishan Patel Jan 2016

Rise Of The Yuan: Export Similarity And Comparisons To The Yen, Kishan Patel

Joseph Wharton Scholars

According to recent studies, the yuan has become a reference currency rivaling the US dollar in East Asia within the past decade. The yen never gained enough influence to challenge that of the dollar despite holding a similar share of trade 20 years ago as China does now in the region. This paper asks why the yuan became a reference currency in East Asia while the yen did not 20 years ago. This study hypothesizes that a reason for this discrepancy is that China competes more with its neighbors today than Japan did 20 years ago. In order to test ...


The Politics Of Prison Reform: Juvenile Justice Policy In Texas, California And Pennsylvania, Sarah Cate Jan 2016

The Politics Of Prison Reform: Juvenile Justice Policy In Texas, California And Pennsylvania, Sarah Cate

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

At a moment when there is a great deal of enthusiasm for reforming the prison system in the United States, a number of states across the country have enacted legislation that aims to reduce the number of juveniles sent to state-run prisons. These new policies have focused on expanding community-based alternatives. The three state-level cases on Texas, California and Pennsylvania show that this strategy for reform entrenches punishment at the local level. As counties are given more responsibility to handle juvenile offenders they have contracted out services to the private-sector and invested in expanding jails and punitive conditions of probation ...


Supply-Side Education: Race, Inequality, And The Rise Of The Punitive Education State, Daniel Stephen Moak Jan 2016

Supply-Side Education: Race, Inequality, And The Rise Of The Punitive Education State, Daniel Stephen Moak

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The 1930s were dominated by an understanding that unemployment and inequality were primarily the result of structural failures of the market economy. However, the unraveling of New Deal liberalism throughout the 1940s and 1950s shifted ideological understandings of problems like unemployment, poverty and racial inequality to explanations focused on individual deficiencies. This development had dramatic consequences for federal education policy. Buttressed by a coalition of civil rights groups and educational organizations pushing for federal involvement in education, Democratic policymakers turned towards education as a cheaper and more effective replacement to earlier redistributive taxation and full employment policies. The success of ...


Epicurean Justice And Law, Jan Maximilian Robitzsch Jan 2016

Epicurean Justice And Law, Jan Maximilian Robitzsch

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation concerns a cluster of related issues surrounding the Epicurean conception of justice. First, I show that the Epicureans defend a sophisticated kind of social contract theory and maintain a kind of legal positivism, views that are widely held today and so are of continuing interest for contemporary readers. In doing so, I argue that thinking about justice and law forms an integral part of Epicurean philosophy (pace the standard view). Second, I take up some neglected issues regarding justice and so provide detailed accounts of the metaphysics of moral properties in Epicureanism as well as of Epicurean moral ...


2016 North American Think Tank Summit: Think Tank, Politics, Public Interest, And Public Scrutiny, James G. Mcgann Jan 2016

2016 North American Think Tank Summit: Think Tank, Politics, Public Interest, And Public Scrutiny, James G. Mcgann

TTCSP Global and Regional Think Tank Summit Reports

No abstract provided.


2016 Asia Think Tank Summit, James G. Mcgann Jan 2016

2016 Asia Think Tank Summit, James G. Mcgann

TTCSP Global and Regional Think Tank Summit Reports

All requests, questions, and comments should be directed to:

James G. McGann, Ph.D. Senior Lecturer, International Studies Director Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program The Lauder Institute University of Pennsylvania Telephone: (215) 746-2928 Email: jmcgann@wharton.upenn.edu

2017 Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this report may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the University of Pennsylvania, Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program.


2016 Global Think Tank Summit: Responding To Globalization And Its Discontents: The Role Of Think Tanks, James G. Mcgann Jan 2016

2016 Global Think Tank Summit: Responding To Globalization And Its Discontents: The Role Of Think Tanks, James G. Mcgann

TTCSP Global and Regional Think Tank Summit Reports

No abstract provided.


A Different Kind Of Restructuring: Forty Years Of Debate And The Prospect Of A Formal International Sovereign Debt Regime, Aidan W. Mcconnell Jan 2016

A Different Kind Of Restructuring: Forty Years Of Debate And The Prospect Of A Formal International Sovereign Debt Regime, Aidan W. Mcconnell

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

This thesis will examine how the organization of creditors and debtors within an ad hoc sovereign debt framework affects the prospect of establishing a formal international mechanism for debt disputes. Since sovereign debtors are not bounded by the same constraints and guarantees as domestic actors, crisis-driven political battles and case-by-case compromises between creditor interests and indebted countries are the ideal building blocks for constructing a picture of the contemporary debt regime. A review of sovereign debt disputes between the 1970s and the present day – corresponding to the North-South Dialogue, the Latin American debt crisis of the 1980s, the International Monetary ...


Interest Groups, Lobbying And Polarization In The United States, Alexander Russell Garlick Jan 2016

Interest Groups, Lobbying And Polarization In The United States, Alexander Russell Garlick

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Most lobbying in the United States comes from business interests, but not all. Previous work has not paid sufficient attention to how non-business lobbying affects legislative behavior. Firms are more interested in particular goods than advocacy groups which pursue broad-based policy change. These citizen-based organizations often employ grassroots tactics and align with one of the major parties. Advocacy groups are also less likely to support maintaining the status quo.

This dissertation argues that interest group lobbyists perform two functions. First, these groups set the agenda by engaging in positive promotion of legislation. Second, advocacy organizations push legislators to vote along ...


The Slave South In The Far West: California, The Pacific, And Proslavery Visions Of Empire, Kevin Waite Jan 2016

The Slave South In The Far West: California, The Pacific, And Proslavery Visions Of Empire, Kevin Waite

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation rests on a relatively simple premise: America’s road to disunion ran west, and unless we account for the transcontinental and trans-Pacific ambitions of slaveholders, our understanding of the nation’s bloodiest conflict will remain incomplete. Whereas a number of important works have explored southern imperialism within the Atlantic Basin, surprisingly little has been written on the far western dimension of proslavery expansion. My work traces two interrelated initiatives – the southern campaign for a transcontinental railroad and the extension of a proslavery political order across the Far Southwest – in order to situate the struggle over slavery in a ...


Voting For Victory: The Impact Of Elections On Counterinsurgency Wars, Krishan Douglas Malhotra Jan 2016

Voting For Victory: The Impact Of Elections On Counterinsurgency Wars, Krishan Douglas Malhotra

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

What role do elections play during counterinsurgency wars? Prompted by the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, two broad empirical trends also underlay the posing of this research question. In the modern era, the number of electoral regimes in the international system has expanded dramatically. And in this same period, the fortunes of governments combatting asymmetric internal threats has reversed, with incumbents being defeated by their ‘weaker’ opponents one third of the time, and securing outright victory for themselves only to an equal extent. But while the grievances expounded by insurgents vary across conflicts, the inclusivity of access to the ...


Powerless In Movement: How Social Movements Influence, And Fail To Influence, American Politics And Policy, Matthew Mongiello Mongiello Jan 2016

Powerless In Movement: How Social Movements Influence, And Fail To Influence, American Politics And Policy, Matthew Mongiello Mongiello

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Much of the literature on social movements centers on cyclical theories of political opportunity. While such work lays an important foundation for understanding contentious politics, it fails to fully integrate movements as actors in the American political system and public policy process. As such, the ways movements exercise power in the American political system, and the ways that power is constrained, are often not clearly conceptualized. This dissertation argues that movements exercise political power in the US in three distinct but overlapping ways; pluralist interest group power, plebiscitary opinion power, and disruptive contentious power. Through public law and empirical analyses ...


China In The Media: Effects On American Opinion, Laura Ruth Silver Jan 2016

China In The Media: Effects On American Opinion, Laura Ruth Silver

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

I explore how the tone of media coverage affects opinions of foreign countries by

studying a particular case: the People’s Republic of China. I exploit the fact that recent

presidential campaigns have focused a great deal of attention on China. Indeed, before

the 2012 presidential election, media coverage of China was particularly high and largely negative due to campaign rhetoric about how China was stealing American jobs and ruining the U.S. economy.

Using a nationally representative, pre- and post- election panel, I explore how

these changes in media valence affect opinions of China. I use an original content ...


Revealing The Role Of Higher Education In A Diverse Democracy: A Theory Of College Student Political Identity Development, Demetri Lloyd Morgan Jan 2016

Revealing The Role Of Higher Education In A Diverse Democracy: A Theory Of College Student Political Identity Development, Demetri Lloyd Morgan

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

ABSTRACT

REVEALING THE ROLE OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN A DIVERSE DEMOCRACY: A THEORY OF COLLEGE STUDENT

POLITICAL IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT

Demetri L. Morgan

J. Matthew Hartley

This dissertation sought to investigate how students make meaning of their curricular and cocurricular educational experiences while in college to better theorize how and why these experiences influence the development of their political identity. To date, research has shown that people who attend college are more likely to be civically and politically engaged compared to those who do not attend college. Yet few studies have sought to ascertain what about the totality of a person ...


Making Markets: The Political Causes And Consequences Of Private Education In India, Emmerich Davies Jan 2016

Making Markets: The Political Causes And Consequences Of Private Education In India, Emmerich Davies

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The two questions motivating this project are, first, why did India see such a rapid growth in private education since 1980? And, second, what are the effects of this growth on citizen-state relations? Approximately 35 percent of students attended a private school in 2012, nearly a doubling in private school enrollment since 2003. In 1987, Indian households spent an average of 10 Rupees (approximately 17 cents) out of pocket on education per year. That figure stood at 2,700 Rupees (approximately $45) per year in 2014.

To answer the first question, I rely on a variety of methods, including historical ...


Politics As Sport: The Effects Of Partisan Media On Perceptions Of Electoral Integrity, Andrew Michael Daniller Jan 2016

Politics As Sport: The Effects Of Partisan Media On Perceptions Of Electoral Integrity, Andrew Michael Daniller

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Just as fans of two opposing teams watching the same game reach opposite conclusions about the quality of referees, citizens’ assessments of the legitimacy of their democratic institutions depend to a worrying degree upon the outcome, rather than the procedures, of an election. Citizens who voted for the losing side in an election are much less likely to believe that the process was fair than citizens who voted for the winner. However, little attention has been paid to partisan media’s potential to exacerbate this phenomenon. I hypothesized that like-minded media amplify the effects of winning and losing on perceptions ...


Making Autocrats Accountable: Interests, Priorities, And Cooperation For Regime Change, Başak Taraktaş Jan 2016

Making Autocrats Accountable: Interests, Priorities, And Cooperation For Regime Change, Başak Taraktaş

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

In nearly all authoritarian regimes, democratization finds significant societal support and a number of organized opposition groups struggle for regime change. In some cases—such as in Iran in 1979— opposition groups are able to cooperate with one another and bring down authoritarianism. In others—such as the Assad regime in Syria—groups are not able to cooperate, and the ruler remains in place. Studies that apply cooperation theory on regimes predict that shared grievances about the current government and common interests in changing the existing regime foster cooperation among challengers. Yet, evidence suggests the contrary. This study examines the ...