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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Heroism Research: A Review Of Theories, Methods, Challenges, And Trends, Zeno E. Franco, Scott T. Allison, Elaine L. Kinsella, Ari Kohen, Matt Langdon, Philip G. Zimbardo Dec 2016

Heroism Research: A Review Of Theories, Methods, Challenges, And Trends, Zeno E. Franco, Scott T. Allison, Elaine L. Kinsella, Ari Kohen, Matt Langdon, Philip G. Zimbardo

Faculty Publications: Political Science

Heroism as an expression of self-actualization and a pinnacle social state is of fundamental interest to humanistic psychology and the field more broadly. This review places the growing discussion on heroic action in a humanistic perspective, as heroism aligns with ethical self-actualization in its highest form, personal meaning making, and social good, and can also involve profound existential costs. This review is organized in four major sections: First, the historical and philosophical underpinnings of heroism are examined, moving from ancient Greco-Roman perspectives, to more modern interpretations of Continental philosophy, and to Freud and Le Bon. Second, the article summarizes in ...


Are Military Regimes Really Belligerent?, Nam Kyu Kim Aug 2016

Are Military Regimes Really Belligerent?, Nam Kyu Kim

Faculty Publications: Political Science

Does military rule make a state more belligerent internationally? Several studies have recently established that military autocracies are more likely than civilian autocracies to deploy and use military force in pursuit of foreign policy objectives. I argue that military regimes are more likely to resort to military force because they are located in more hostile security environments, and not because they are inherently aggressive. First, I show that rule by military institution is more likely to emerge and exist in states facing external territorial threats. Second, by examining the relationship between military autocracies and conflict initiation, I find that once ...


Anti-Regime Uprisings And The Emergence Of Electoral Authoritarianism, Nam Kyu Kim Jun 2016

Anti-Regime Uprisings And The Emergence Of Electoral Authoritarianism, Nam Kyu Kim

Faculty Publications: Political Science

This paper explores the role of threats from below in the emergence of electoral authoritarianism. Mass uprisings for democratic regime change undermine closed authoritarian regimes by making it difficult for autocrats to maintain their regimes through repression and co-optation. Anti-regime uprisings also promote the establishment of electoral authoritarianism by toppling existing closed regimes or by compelling autocrats to offer political reform as a survival strategy. My analysis of closed authoritarian regimes, from 1961 to 2006, reveals that anti- regime mass uprisings are significantly associated with transitions to electoral authoritarianism. I also find that nonviolent uprisings are more likely than violent ...


Just The Facts? Media Coverage Of Female And Male High Court Appointees In Five Democracies, Maria C. Escobar-Lemmon, Valerie Hoekstra, Alice Kang, Miki Caul Kittilson May 2016

Just The Facts? Media Coverage Of Female And Male High Court Appointees In Five Democracies, Maria C. Escobar-Lemmon, Valerie Hoekstra, Alice Kang, Miki Caul Kittilson

Faculty Publications: Political Science

In this article, we examine gender differences in news media portrayals of nominees to high courts and whether those differences vary across country and time. Although past research has examined gender differences in news media coverage of candidates for elective office, few studies have looked at media coverage of high court nominees. As women are increasingly nominated to courts around the world, it is important to examine how nominations are covered by the news media and whether there is significant variation in coverage based on gender. We analyze media coverage of high court justices in five democracies: Argentina, Australia, Canada ...


Political Psychology (Annotated Bibliography), Ingrid J. Haas Feb 2016

Political Psychology (Annotated Bibliography), Ingrid J. Haas

Faculty Publications: Political Science

The field of political psychology explains political behavior as a function of both individual- and group-level psychological processes. While the field is interdisciplinary, political psychologists tend to work in either psychology or political science departments. Although the overall aim is often similar, researchers from each discipline approach the same questions in different ways, and interested scholars are encouraged to examine literatures from both fields. The general approach to research is to focus on individual political attitudes, emotion, beliefs, and behavior, and attempt to explain these phenomena using psychological research and theory. Historical approaches to research in this field often relied ...


Review Of Bargaining For Women’S Rights: Activism In An Aspiring Muslim Democracy By Alice J. Kang, Susanna D. Wing Jan 2016

Review Of Bargaining For Women’S Rights: Activism In An Aspiring Muslim Democracy By Alice J. Kang, Susanna D. Wing

Faculty Publications: Political Science

Many people consider women’s rights and Muslim democracy as antithetical to each other. Conventional wisdom would have us believe that a Muslim majority country would be an unlikely place to see the adoption of women-friendly policies. In her terrific book, Bargaining for Women’s Rights, Alice Kang dispels this idea through her thoughtful research and richly nuanced analysis of negotiation over women’s rights reforms in Niger. She explains the variation in policy-making in Niger over time and argues that Islam per se is not the fundamental constraint to the adoption of women-friendly policies. Instead, mobilisation for or against ...


Representation And Governance In International Organizations, David P. Rapkin, Jonathan R. Strand, Michael W. Trevathan Jan 2016

Representation And Governance In International Organizations, David P. Rapkin, Jonathan R. Strand, Michael W. Trevathan

Faculty Publications: Political Science

What does representation mean when applied to international organizations? While many scholars working on normative questions related to global governance often make use of the concept of representation, few have addressed specifics of applying the concept to the rules and practices by which IOs operate. This article examines representation as a fundamental, albeit often neglected, norm of governance which, if perceived to be deficient or unfair, can interfere with other components of governance, as well as with performance of an organization’s core tasks by undermining legitimacy. We argue that the concept of representation has been neglected in the ongoing ...


The Impact Of Uncertainty, Threat, And Political Identity On Support For Political Compromise, Ingrid J. Haas Jan 2016

The Impact Of Uncertainty, Threat, And Political Identity On Support For Political Compromise, Ingrid J. Haas

Faculty Publications: Political Science

This work examines the impact of uncertainty and threat on support for political compromise. In Study 1, uncertainty, threat, and support for compromise were measured. Uncertainty increased support for compromise only when paired with positive or neutral affect. Studies 2 and 3 used an experimental design to examine the impact of incidental affect on support for political compromise as a function of political identification. Uncertainty was more likely to increase support for compromise in positive or neutral contexts and for political moderates and liberals. The combination of uncertainty and threat led conservatives to express reduced support for compromise.


Political Neuroscience, Ingrid J. Haas Jan 2016

Political Neuroscience, Ingrid J. Haas

Faculty Publications: Political Science

The field of political science has traditionally had close ties to disciplines like economics, history, and sociology. While political science has always been somewhat interdisciplinary in nature, in recent years this interdisciplinary approach has expanded to include biology, psychology, and neuroscience. This interest in the human sciences has led to the development of new subfields within political science, including biopolitics, political psychology, and political neuroscience (also called neuropolitics). What these new subfields have in common is an interest in individual human behavior and decision-making as an approach to understanding political behavior. While political science has traditionally focused on understanding politics ...


Revolutionary Leaders And Mass Killing, Nam Kyu Kim Jan 2016

Revolutionary Leaders And Mass Killing, Nam Kyu Kim

Faculty Publications: Political Science

This article argues that revolutionary leaders are more willing to commit mass killing than nonrevolutionary leaders. Revolutionary leaders are more ideologically committed to transforming society, more risk tolerant, and more likely to view the use of violence as appropriate and effective. Furthermore, such leaders tend to command highly disciplined and loyal organizations, built in the course of revolutionary struggles, that can perpetrate mass killing. This study uses time series cross-sectional data from 1955 to 2004 to demonstrate that revolutionary leaders are more likely to initiate genocide or politicide than nonrevolutionary leaders. The violent behaviors of revolutionary leaders are not limited ...


Review Of Alice Kang, Bargaining For Women’S Rights: Activism In An Aspiring Muslim Democracy, Jaimie Bleck Jan 2016

Review Of Alice Kang, Bargaining For Women’S Rights: Activism In An Aspiring Muslim Democracy, Jaimie Bleck

Faculty Publications: Political Science

In Alice Kang’s Bargaining for Women’s Rights: Activism in an Aspiring Muslim Democracy, readers are introduced to the contentious debates about the inclusion of women’s rights policy in Niger. Based on fourteen months of fieldwork, the author provides a vivid exploration of domestic politics as the Muslim-majority state negotiates its transition to democracy. Kang shows that political actors adopt some women’s rights policy, while simultaneously rejecting comparable legislation on women’s rights.

This book offers an important step forward for research trajectories that seriously consider domestic determinants of policy outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa, but also Muslim-majority ...


Review Of Muslim Women In Postcolonial Kenya: Leadership, Representation And Social Change By Ousseina D. Alidou, And: Bargaining For Women’S Rights: Activism In An Aspiring Muslim Democracy By Alice J. Kang.", Lisa Mueller Jan 2016

Review Of Muslim Women In Postcolonial Kenya: Leadership, Representation And Social Change By Ousseina D. Alidou, And: Bargaining For Women’S Rights: Activism In An Aspiring Muslim Democracy By Alice J. Kang.", Lisa Mueller

Faculty Publications: Political Science

Alidou offers an important lesson for scholars who study Muslim women in contemporary Africa: gender and religion are transnational identities, but “being a Muslim in a predominantly Muslim area has different implications for Muslim women and men than being a Muslim in a predominantly non- Muslim area” (103). This is an implicit invitation to read Muslim Women in Postcolonial Kenya alongside literature on regions of Africa where Muslim women are in the religious majority.

Enter Bargaining for Women’s Rights: Activism in an Aspiring Muslim Democracy by Alice J. Kang, who studies women in the context of Niger, a country ...


Review Of Joe Renouard, Human Rights In American Foreign Policy; From The 1960s To The Soviet Collapse (Philadelphia: University Of Pennsylvania Press, 2016), Isbn 9780812247732, 324 Pages., David P. Forsythe Jan 2016

Review Of Joe Renouard, Human Rights In American Foreign Policy; From The 1960s To The Soviet Collapse (Philadelphia: University Of Pennsylvania Press, 2016), Isbn 9780812247732, 324 Pages., David P. Forsythe

Faculty Publications: Political Science

There are historians who do dense narrative history with great attention to documenting the details. And there are other historians who use history to paint a big conceptual picture whose accuracy often leads to much debate. Joe Renouard is in the former camp, with his new book on human rights in US foreign policy during the middle and late stages of the Cold War. Samuel Moyn is in the latter camp, with his stimulating and widely read but controversial interpretations in The Last Utopia: Human Rights in History.