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2016

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Articles 1 - 30 of 61

Full-Text Articles in Political Science

The Constellation Of Social Ontology: Walter Benjamin, Eduard Fuchs, And The Body Of History, Kevin S. Amidon, Daniel A. Krier Dec 2016

The Constellation Of Social Ontology: Walter Benjamin, Eduard Fuchs, And The Body Of History, Kevin S. Amidon, Daniel A. Krier

Kevin S. Amidon

“The Constellation of Social Ontology” says that Walter Benjamin, best known among scholars for his work on “The Work of Art in the Age of its Technological Reproducibility,” in which he argues that all visual art, including its modern emanations like film, has always been constituted through modes not just of production, but also of reproduction. Relatively unknown, however, is that these claims about art and reproduction took shape as part of a larger set of arguments about the nature of historical knowledge and the ways that knowledge emerges and derives from embodied, corporeal practices. Benjamin made these arguments in ...


The Body Ontology Of Capitalism, Daniel A. Krier, Kevin S. Amidon Dec 2016

The Body Ontology Of Capitalism, Daniel A. Krier, Kevin S. Amidon

Kevin S. Amidon

Critical social theory powerfully negates symbolic structures of political economy and imaginary projections of ideological culture but never quite knows what to do with corporeal bodies. “The Body Ontology of Capitalism” reviews Marx’s account of body ontology in his post-1859 writings (especially Capital, Vol. 1), in which value (abstract labor) is extracted from the concrete bodies of laborers caught in capital’s grasp. Body ontology is analyzed in Marx’s work as well as Lacan’s psychoanalytic social theory, exploring the relationship between structurally wounded bodies and imaginary projections. Zižek’s embodied account of wounded subjects of sublime ideological ...


People's War In Cyberspace: Using China's Civilian Economy In The Information Domain, Kieran Richard Green Dec 2016

People's War In Cyberspace: Using China's Civilian Economy In The Information Domain, Kieran Richard Green

Military Cyber Affairs

China is identified as posing a key challenge to US national security interests in cyberspace. These threats are incurred across the spectrum of conflict, ranging from low-level crime, to network penetration, to cyberattacks that have the potential to cause major physical destruction. Thus far, the majority of strategic assessments of China’s cyber capabilities have focused on the role of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA), which is officially tasked with undertaking offensive operations in cyberspace.[1] However, China does not employ its cyber capabilities in isolation. Rather, it considers cyber to be part of the “Information Domain.” In Chinese ...


From Fief To Clan: Boisot’S Information Space Model As A Documentary Theory For Cultural And Institutional Analysis, Lin Wang, Michael Buckland Dec 2016

From Fief To Clan: Boisot’S Information Space Model As A Documentary Theory For Cultural And Institutional Analysis, Lin Wang, Michael Buckland

Proceedings from the Document Academy

Max Boisot (1943-2011) and his Information Space (I-Space) model are introduced. The I-Space model characterized information flow on three dimensions (codification, abstraction, and diffusion). It can be seen as a document-based model. Boisot and colleagues identifies four types of institutional information practices (bureaucracies, markets, fiefs, and clans). Chinese economic reform in the 1980s is used as a case-study to demonstrate how document configuration and infrastructure is associated with cultural and institutional change. This echoes Suzanne Briet's assertion that documentation is a cultural technique.


Contributing Factors To Perspectives On Gun Regulations, Syd Kotar Dec 2016

Contributing Factors To Perspectives On Gun Regulations, Syd Kotar

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

With a rising amount of gun violence, issues of stricter gun regulations have been brought to the government’s attention. Location, gender, and ideology all contribute to how one perceives the individual use of firearms, and believes how much the government should intervene. This paper will explore the different variables such as the three listed above that affect one’s opinions on government intervention concerning stricter gun regulations. The results of data analysis from the ANES 2012 studies conclude that the more conservative one self identifies as, one would want either the same or less government intervention concerning stricter gun ...


Cultural Awareness In Nuclear Security Programs: A Critical Link, Al-Sharif Nasser Bin Nasser, Jasmine Auda, Katherine Bachner Nov 2016

Cultural Awareness In Nuclear Security Programs: A Critical Link, Al-Sharif Nasser Bin Nasser, Jasmine Auda, Katherine Bachner

International Journal of Nuclear Security

Nuclear security programs that offer training and capacity building opportunities to practitioners working in nuclear facilities play a central role in strengthening the global nuclear security architecture. There is often a significant divide, however, between both the development of these programs and their implementation, and between the programs’ intended and actual outcomes. As this article will argue, this disconnect can often be attributed to an absence of cultural awareness and an inability for internationally-designed programs to effectively resonate with local audiences. Accordingly, the importance of the role of cultural awareness in implementing nuclear security programs will be assessed, and its ...


Across Systems: Preventing, Countering, And Defusing Violent Extremism—A Discussion Of Strategy, Policy, Practice, And Theory, Keenan Powers Nov 2016

Across Systems: Preventing, Countering, And Defusing Violent Extremism—A Discussion Of Strategy, Policy, Practice, And Theory, Keenan Powers

Capstone Collection

This paper explores today’s landscape of violent conflict in the context of the now 15-year-old “War on Terror” and its defining trait of strengthened, nimble, and networked violent extremist non-state militant groups. Through an exploration of primarily United Nations and United States strategies, policies, and programming the concepts of Countering Violent Extremism and Preventing Violent Extremism are melded into a discussion of the shifting frameworks and broadening notions of what it takes to create human security. This paper is particularly concerned with how the traditionally at odds fields of Counter Terrorism, Military Security, Development Assistance, and Peacebuilding practice are ...


Disaster Capitalism: Empirical Evidence From Latin America And The Caribbean, Ransford F. Edwards Jr. Nov 2016

Disaster Capitalism: Empirical Evidence From Latin America And The Caribbean, Ransford F. Edwards Jr.

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Natural disasters are uniquely transformative events. They can drastically transform physical terrain and the lives of those unfortunate enough to be caught in their wrath. However, natural disasters also provide an opportunity to reflect on past failures and, at times, a clean slate to correct those shortcomings. This project takes a political economic approach and recognizes natural disasters as occasions for agenda-setting on behalf of transnational commercial enterprises and market-oriented policy elites. These reformers often use the post-disaster policy space to articulate long-term development strategies based on market fundamentalism, and, more importantly, advance a set of policies consistent with their ...


The Pollyvote Forecast For The 2016 American Presidential Election, Andreas Graefe, Randall J. Jones, J. Scott Armstrong, Alfred G. Cuzán Oct 2016

The Pollyvote Forecast For The 2016 American Presidential Election, Andreas Graefe, Randall J. Jones, J. Scott Armstrong, Alfred G. Cuzán

Marketing Papers

The PollyVote applies a century-old principle of combining different evidence-based methods for forecasting the outcome of American presidential elections. In this article, we discuss the principles followed in constructing the PollyVote formula, summarize its components, review the accuracy of its previous forecasts, and make a prediction for this year's presidential election.


Book Review Of The Quiet Power Of Indicators: Measuring Governance, Corruption, And The Rule Of Law, Sital Kalantry Oct 2016

Book Review Of The Quiet Power Of Indicators: Measuring Governance, Corruption, And The Rule Of Law, Sital Kalantry

Cornell Law Faculty Working Papers

No abstract provided.


An Analysis Of The Organizational Structures Of New Types Of Children's Associations In Relation To Changing Views Of Children's Capacities As Citizens, Bijan Kimiagar Sep 2016

An Analysis Of The Organizational Structures Of New Types Of Children's Associations In Relation To Changing Views Of Children's Capacities As Citizens, Bijan Kimiagar

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The goal of this study is to learn how new types of children’s associations around the world are organizing themselves and how their organizational structures reflect contemporary understandings of children’s capacities as citizens. The purpose is to identify different types and qualities of participatory children’s associations and how each affords opportunities for children to exercise their right to freedom of association, develop capacities for self-governance in groups, and promote the principles of inclusion (non-discrimination) and equity (fairness). To this end, I document and analyze diagrams of organizational structures that members of different children’s associations created during ...


The Fate Of Armed Resistance Groups After Peace, David C. Williams Aug 2016

The Fate Of Armed Resistance Groups After Peace, David C. Williams

Indiana Journal of Constitutional Design

No abstract provided.


Voter Turnout In A Low Interest, Off-Year Election: A Field Experiment, Zachary Miller Aug 2016

Voter Turnout In A Low Interest, Off-Year Election: A Field Experiment, Zachary Miller

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

This thesis is an analysis on the effects of a low cost get out the vote (GOTV) effort through direct mail on a low interest, off year election. By conducting a field experiment divided into two stages, this project measures the effects of direct mail contact on voter turnout in the state of Kentucky. Postcards were sent during the final week of both the 2015 primary and general elections. The expectation is that those who received a postcard will be more likely to vote than non-recipients. Using data provided by the Kentucky Board of Elections, a data set was created ...


The Subterranean Counterrevolution: The Supreme Court, The Media, And Litigation Retrenchment, Stephen B. Burbank, Sean Farhang Aug 2016

The Subterranean Counterrevolution: The Supreme Court, The Media, And Litigation Retrenchment, Stephen B. Burbank, Sean Farhang

Sean Farhang

This article is part of a larger project to study the counterrevolution against private enforcement of federal law from an institutional perspective. In a series of articles emerging from the project, we show how the Executive, Congress and the Supreme Court (wielding both judicial power under Article III of the Constitution and delegated legislative power under the Rules Enabling Act) fared in efforts to reverse or dull the effects of statutory and other incentives for private enforcement. An institutional perspective helps to explain the outcome we document: the long-term erosion of the infrastructure of private enforcement as a result of ...


Litigation Reform: An Institutional Approach, Stephen B. Burbank, Sean Farhang Aug 2016

Litigation Reform: An Institutional Approach, Stephen B. Burbank, Sean Farhang

Sean Farhang

The program of regulation through private litigation that Democratic Congresses purposefully created starting in the late 1960s soon met opposition emanating primarily from the Republican party. In the long campaign for retrenchment that began in the Reagan administration, consequential reform proved difficult and ultimately failed in Congress. Litigation reformers turned to the courts and, in marked contrast to their legislative failure, were well-rewarded, achieving growing rates of voting support from an increasingly conservative Supreme Court on issues curtailing private enforcement under individual statutes. We also demonstrate that the judiciary’s control of procedure has been central to the campaign to ...


Class Actions And The Counterrevolution Against Federal Litigation, Stephen B. Burbank, Sean Farhang Aug 2016

Class Actions And The Counterrevolution Against Federal Litigation, Stephen B. Burbank, Sean Farhang

Sean Farhang

In this article we situate consideration of class actions in a framework, and fortify it with data, that we have developed as part of a larger project, the goal of which is to assess the counterrevolution against private enforcement of federal law from an institutional perspective. In a series of articles emerging from the project, we have documented how the Executive, Congress and the Supreme Court (wielding both judicial power under Article III of the Constitution and delegated legislative power under the Rules Enabling Act) fared in efforts to reverse or dull the effects of statutory and other incentives for ...


Familiarity Bias: Examining A Cognitive-Affective Mechanism Underlying Ideological Support For The Status Quo, John C. Blanchar Aug 2016

Familiarity Bias: Examining A Cognitive-Affective Mechanism Underlying Ideological Support For The Status Quo, John C. Blanchar

Theses and Dissertations

It is well established that people like familiarity over novelty. Because that which is most familiar is frequently indicative of the way things are, favoring familiarity should create a psychological advantage for the status quo. In two studies, I tested the hypothesis that familiarity bias—susceptibility to the mere-exposure effect whereby attitude objects receive increasingly favorable evaluations due to repeated sensory experience—is foundational to ideological support for the status quo. In Study 1, individual variation in familiarity bias predicted greater Right-Wing Authoritarianism. Existential threat was experimentally manipulated via the salience of international terrorism in Study 2, but was unsuccessful ...


Rethinking Linkage To The West: What Authoritarian Stability In Singapore Tells Us, Su-Mei Ooi Jul 2016

Rethinking Linkage To The West: What Authoritarian Stability In Singapore Tells Us, Su-Mei Ooi

Su-Mei Ooi

Recent regime change literatures compellingly assert that linkage to the West has been a significant factor in democratisation where the organisational capacity of authoritarian incumbents has overwhelmingly weakened pro-democracy forces. Detailed case studies confirming these findings have not included Singapore although high levels of linkage to the West suggest that democratisation should have taken place there. This qualitative case study fills the empirical and theoretical gap by explaining why linkage has so far failed to raise the cost of authoritarianism for Singapore's government. By eschewing the current structural approach, which conceptualises linkage as mere channels of external pressure or ...


Best Practices For Self-Exclusion Reinstatement And Renewal, Alex Price Jun 2016

Best Practices For Self-Exclusion Reinstatement And Renewal, Alex Price

International Conference on Gambling & Risk Taking

While many studies have examined self-exclusion few have focused on the processes through which gamblers return at the end of their agreements. In 2014, the RGC Centre for the Advancement of Best Practices examined voluntary self-exclusion reinstatement and renewal in an effort to develop evidence-informed best-practices for both land-based and online gambling operations. The presentation outlines the findings of the study and the recommended best practices for reintegration and ban renewal.

The study examined a range of practices around the world. In the end the study recommended an active reinstatement process in which all participants are required to apply to ...


Review Of Do-It-Yourself Democracy By Caroline Lee (Oxford University Press, 2015), Christopher Beem Jun 2016

Review Of Do-It-Yourself Democracy By Caroline Lee (Oxford University Press, 2015), Christopher Beem

Journal of Public Deliberation

Review of Do-It-Yourself Democracy by Caroline Lee (Oxford University Press, 2015)


An Epistemic Justification For Voting, Julia Maskivker Jun 2016

An Epistemic Justification For Voting, Julia Maskivker

Faculty Publications

Received wisdom in most democracies is that voting should be seen as a political freedom that citizens have a right to exercise or not to exercise. But would liberal democracies be any less liberal if voting were seen as a duty? Contrasting the libertarian argument against the moral duty to vote, this paper proposes that we have a duty to vote well – with knowledge and a sense of impartiality. The obligation is one among many instantiations of a natural duty to promote and support just institutions in society. The paper links justice with democratic epistemic virtues to ground the morality ...


Policy Options To Mitigate Cigarette Filter Litter In California, Max Wechsler May 2016

Policy Options To Mitigate Cigarette Filter Litter In California, Max Wechsler

Master's Projects and Capstones

Approximately 16.2 billion cellulose acetate cigarette filters are littered in California annually. Cigarette filter litter (CFL) creates an annual financial burden of over $1.27 billion for California. CFL also poses unquantifiable damages to human and environmental health in the form of ingestion, toxicity, formation into microplastics, and quality of life degradation. These costs and damages warrant the adoption of policy measures in order to mitigate CFL. Cigarette taxes and fees raise government revenue, but they are politically challenging due to California Proposition 26. Locational smoking bans encourage anti-smoking cultural norms and may decrease consumption, although indoor smoking bans ...


Citizen Perceptions Of Public Policy Success: A Cross-National Analysis, Nurgul R. Aitalieva, Andrew L. Morelock May 2016

Citizen Perceptions Of Public Policy Success: A Cross-National Analysis, Nurgul R. Aitalieva, Andrew L. Morelock

Nurgul R. Aitalieva, Ph.D.

No abstract provided.


What Is Your Present Religion, If Any? None, Not Nun., Ming Siegel May 2016

What Is Your Present Religion, If Any? None, Not Nun., Ming Siegel

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In this paper, I examine the rise of the religiously unaffiliated in the United States. The Pew Research Center has recently reported on this phenomenon in their “America’s Changing Religious Landscape” demographic study. In this analysis, Pew has defined the unaffiliated to include atheists, agnostics and Americans who identify with “nothing in particular.” However, atheists and agnostics only make up about a third of the total population of religiously unaffiliated Americans. This means that a large portion of the religiously affiliated may be spiritual or even religious to some degree outside of organized religion. Who are the religiously unaffiliated ...


“Bracketing” Foreign Policy From Domestic Affairs: A New Paradigm For International Negotiation And Decision-Making, Scott Gerschwer Ph.D. May 2016

“Bracketing” Foreign Policy From Domestic Affairs: A New Paradigm For International Negotiation And Decision-Making, Scott Gerschwer Ph.D.

Journal of Interdisciplinary Conflict Science

This paper argues that geo-political negotiators must separate domestic issues from their calculations and consider only strategic goals and international concerns when working through issues with other global leaders. The impetus for this paper is a recent poll that shows that 52% of Americans want to bomb Iran, apparently without considering the consequences. I will give some history, present some recent cases and attempt to create a mechanism for separating international and domestic issues to relieve a source of pressure on negotiators.


Slavery And Freedom In Theory And Practice, David Watkins Apr 2016

Slavery And Freedom In Theory And Practice, David Watkins

David Watkins

Slavery has long stood as a mirror image to the conception of a free person in republican theory. This essay contends that slavery deserves this central status in a theory of freedom, but a more thorough examination of slavery in theory and in practice will reveal additional insights about freedom previously unacknowledged by republicans. Slavery combines imperium (state domination) and dominium (private domination) in a way that both destroys freedom today and diminishes opportunities to achieve freedom tomorrow. Dominium and imperium working together are a greater affront to freedom than either working alone. However, an examination of slavery in practice ...


The Saltwater Theory: A Directed Study Of Failed Revolutions, James Gulliksen Apr 2016

The Saltwater Theory: A Directed Study Of Failed Revolutions, James Gulliksen

Student Works

From the Second World War to date, social scientists who study revolutions have engaged in a pivot from initially focusing on the conditions of the state to a more actor-centric model. In their eyes, the actors (revolutionaries, political parties, foreign nations) within a sphere decide a path for political change, rather than the existing conditions (political rights, economic conditions, repression, etc.) in the same environment. This essay counters this thinking by introducing a Saltwater Theory to explain how different forms of uprisings (the same as different species of animals) can survive in some environments but not others. Additionally, the paper ...


Can The International Criminal Court Deter Atrocity?, Hyeran Jo, Beth A. Simmons Mar 2016

Can The International Criminal Court Deter Atrocity?, Hyeran Jo, Beth A. Simmons

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Whether and how violence can be controlled to spare innocent lives is a central issue in international relations. The most ambitious effort to date has been the International Criminal Court (ICC), designed to enhance security and safety by preventing egregious human rights abuses and deterring international crimes. We offer the first systematic assessment of the ICC's deterrent effects for both state and nonstate actors. Although no institution can deter all actors, the ICC can deter some governments and those rebel groups that seek legitimacy. We find support for this conditional impact of the ICC cross-nationally. Our work has implications ...


Aristotle's Ideal Regime As Utopia, Steven Thomason Mar 2016

Aristotle's Ideal Regime As Utopia, Steven Thomason

Presentations and Lectures

Although Aristotle’s ideal regime discussed in books seven and eight of his Politics seems much more feasible and less utopian than the regime outlined in Plato’s Republic, a few scholars have questioned its feasiblity in light of the real world demands of politics. Similarly, I argue that carefully considered his ideal regime turns-out not to be feasible or a practical recommendation for politics, but rather a thought experiment like Plato’s Republic meant to show the limitations of what is politically achievable. I do so by comparing his ideal regime to his prior discussions of democracy in the ...


The West And The Rest Of Us: Islamic Militancy, Refugee Crisis And The Migration Wave Towards Europe, Simeon Onyemachi Hilary Alozieuwa Ph.D. Feb 2016

The West And The Rest Of Us: Islamic Militancy, Refugee Crisis And The Migration Wave Towards Europe, Simeon Onyemachi Hilary Alozieuwa Ph.D.

Journal of Interdisciplinary Conflict Science

The recent migration wave to Europe from the Arab world thrusts to the fore for serious discourse, an issue the world has hitherto shied away from: the gradual Islamization of the world beginning with the west. The issue is not the Islamic faith itself. Certain elements of the faithful are imbued with hegemonic-domination tendencies marked by the excessive obsession to obliterate others’ cultures. This paper views the Euro/West-ward movement of the Muslim Arab refugees/migrants as a grand strategy for the Islamization agenda; the smuggled Islamists militias are its foot-soldiers. The West needs to interrogate its overextended human rights ...