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2016

International and Area Studies

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Articles 1 - 30 of 337

Full-Text Articles in Political Science

A New Pathway To Enhance The Nuclear Security Regime, Francesca Giovannini Dec 2016

A New Pathway To Enhance The Nuclear Security Regime, Francesca Giovannini

International Journal of Nuclear Security

The paper investigates the approach used by a new set of regional institutions, the Disaster Preparedness and Risk Management Organizations (DPRMOs), in strengthening regional governance and cooperation. It also inquires in what ways these new institutions might indirectly contribute to the establishment of a more cohesive global nuclear security framework. More specifically, through the examination of the case of Southeast Asia, the paper argues that these institutions, albeit without a specific and direct mandate to operate in the nuclear security domain, are fundamentally strengthening states’ capacity to assess risks and threats and to map vulnerabilities in timely fashion. They are ...


Manufacturing Consent In The Maghreb: How Mohammed Vi Of Morocco Survived The Arab Spring, David Michael Duke Ii Dec 2016

Manufacturing Consent In The Maghreb: How Mohammed Vi Of Morocco Survived The Arab Spring, David Michael Duke Ii

Dissertations and Theses

The Arab Spring of 2011 revealed stark variation in the durability of different types of authoritarian regimes. Kings and emirs demonstrably outperformed their republican peers. This paper provides a qualitative study of the Moroccan monarchy in order to better explain this pattern. The findings of an original media content analysis support the paper's thesis that Morocco's King Mohammed VI maintained his throne by effectively using a historically derived position of concentrated power and immense wealth to manipulate potential opposition and dominate public discourse. This multi-causal mechanism of manufactured consent helped create and sustain the monarch's domestic legitimacy ...


People's War In Cyberspace: Using China's Civilian Economy In The Information Domain, Kieran Richard Green Dec 2016

People's War In Cyberspace: Using China's Civilian Economy In The Information Domain, Kieran Richard Green

Military Cyber Affairs

China is identified as posing a key challenge to US national security interests in cyberspace. These threats are incurred across the spectrum of conflict, ranging from low-level crime, to network penetration, to cyberattacks that have the potential to cause major physical destruction. Thus far, the majority of strategic assessments of China’s cyber capabilities have focused on the role of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA), which is officially tasked with undertaking offensive operations in cyberspace.[1] However, China does not employ its cyber capabilities in isolation. Rather, it considers cyber to be part of the “Information Domain.” In Chinese ...


Ajit Singh, Ajit Singh Dec 2016

Ajit Singh, Ajit Singh

Digital Narratives of Asia

After thirty years as a career diplomat, Malaysia's first ASEAN Secretary-General Ajit Singh, sees his five-year term as the most productive, golden years of his life. He speaks to DNA about the challenges he faced with admitting Myanmar to ASEAN, and the visionary ASEAN leadership. He also expounds on the differences in impacts of work between an ambassador and a bureaucrat.


India's Dalit Moment, Gabriel Kenneth Carroll Conlon Dec 2016

India's Dalit Moment, Gabriel Kenneth Carroll Conlon

Capstones

This summer a brutal attack on Dalit youths in the Indian state of Gujarat set off months of street protests. The attack and subsequent protests underscored the persistence of caste-based discrimination in rural India, and the often brutal manner in which Dalits – members of India’s lowest castes – are excluded from everyday society. “India’s Dalit Moment” is a field report examining the causes and protagonists of the revolt. With on-the-ground reporting in Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Bihar, this multimedia piece – including print, radio and photo elements – conveys a synthetic, but detailed window into the Dalit community and the ...


Running For Ayotzinapa: A Father's Marathon To Find His Son, Gustavo Martínez Dec 2016

Running For Ayotzinapa: A Father's Marathon To Find His Son, Gustavo Martínez

Capstones

People find a world of reasons to run marathons: to fight cancer, to raise money for a charity, to fulfill a promise. But Antonio Tizapa runs for the reason that has dictated his every waking moment for more than two years: finding his son. The story is presented through a written piece and a video short documentary. It follows Tizapa through events and races in the New York City area.

http://intl-clarke.2016.journalism.cuny.edu/2016/12/30/running-for-ayotzinapa-a-fathers-marathon-to-find-his-missing-son/


The Electoral Success Of Communist-Successor Parties In The Czech Republic And Romania, Harley L. Roe Dec 2016

The Electoral Success Of Communist-Successor Parties In The Czech Republic And Romania, Harley L. Roe

Master's Theses

Communist-successor parties are impacted by six social and political factors: party reimaging, coalition building, corruption and scandal, party leadership, EU accession, and social indicators. This project explores how the descendants of the totalitarian communist parties in the Czech Republic and Romania are influenced by each factor by analyzing election result data against these indicators. Party reimaging and coalition building are the most influential in determining voter turnout, while the other four work in conjunction to influence election results. This project contributes to the literature on electoral volatility, post-communist countries, voter behavior, and seeks to offer a model that can predict ...


Plastic Oceans: A New Way In Solving Our Plastic Pollution, Dakota S. Floyd Dec 2016

Plastic Oceans: A New Way In Solving Our Plastic Pollution, Dakota S. Floyd

Master's Theses

By 2050, the world’s oceans will have more plastic than fish with potentially catastrophic consequences on sea life and the health of the ocean. Economically, countries with coastal boundaries will be heavily impacted as plastic pollution has already generated a 13 billion dollars in monetary losses. Considering that this is an extreme problem that we are currently facing the current solution is not enough in curbing our plastic pollution. While, recycling programs have been beneficial in reclaiming some plastic our mass consumption of plastic has outpaced the capabilities of recycling efforts. If we are to find a solution in ...


Emigration, Repatriation And The Reality Of Returned Youth In El Salvador, Isabel C. Duarte Vasquez Dec 2016

Emigration, Repatriation And The Reality Of Returned Youth In El Salvador, Isabel C. Duarte Vasquez

Master's Theses

According to US Customs and Border Protection, over 59 thousand unaccompanied minors from the Northern Triangle (Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador) have been detained at the US border, of those 59 thousand, 17 thousand are from El Salvador. El Salvador is home to some of the most dangerous and ruthless gangs of the twenty-first century. Their ruthlessness comes from 1980s guerrilla warfare experience. In addition, El Salvador serves as a transshipment point for illicit substances from South America into Mexico. These dynamics fuel the homicide rate of the region as local gang members must protect their territory by any means ...


"Who Am I?": The Development Of A Male Palestinian Political Identity, Tala J. Dayyat Dec 2016

"Who Am I?": The Development Of A Male Palestinian Political Identity, Tala J. Dayyat

Master's Theses

The Palestinian people have lived under numerous imperial rulers; first, the Ottoman Empire, then later the British. Today they live under the military occupation of the state of Israel as second class citizen millions more living abroad as refugees. Young Palestinian men have become the leaders and the physical manifestation of the struggle against Israel, a political Goliath that has used tactics to repress the Palestinians such as, detentions, beatings, and land confiscation, which many outside of the Israeli state deem as illegal. Scholar Rashid Khalidi states that “the quintessential Palestinian experience, which illustrates some of the most basic issues ...


Ideas Cambiantes Sobre Territorio, Recursos Y Redes Políticas En La Amazonía Indígena: Un Estudio De Caso Sobre Perú, Diego Leal Pereira, David Salisbury, Josué Faqín Fernández, Lizardo Cauper Pezo, Julio Silva Dec 2016

Ideas Cambiantes Sobre Territorio, Recursos Y Redes Políticas En La Amazonía Indígena: Un Estudio De Caso Sobre Perú, Diego Leal Pereira, David Salisbury, Josué Faqín Fernández, Lizardo Cauper Pezo, Julio Silva

Journal of Latin American Geography

La titulación de territorios fue el objetivo más importante del movimiento indígena de la Amazonía peruana en las últimas décadas. Aunque más de ochenta comunidades permanecen sin título en la región de Ucayali, el movimiento indígena regional busca cada vez más fortalecer la gobernanza sobre territorios titulados. Exploramos el creciente énfasis en la comercialización forestal en el discurso de derechos indígenas en Ucayali. Redes de líderes indígenas producen discursos para forjar nuevas relaciones entre sus comunidades y la economía regional. Nuestro análisis de ochenta entrevistas y testimonios de líderes y miembros de comunidades indígenas muestra la utilidad de considerar la ...


The Influence Of Social Media In Egypt During The Arab Spring, Nicole Reed Dec 2016

The Influence Of Social Media In Egypt During The Arab Spring, Nicole Reed

Capstone Collection

In the past 10 years social media has become a way of communicating, following the news, posting pictures, and marketing for brands. The platforms including Facebook and Twitter continue to grow, making them an ideal way of communication all across the world. It has been argued that what happened in the Arab Spring in 2010 was shaped and influenced by more people having access to the internet, and therefore having signed up for social media sights. The act of one man sent a region swirling into turmoil, political overthrow, and in some cases, such as Egypt, creating a revolution.

In ...


A Grand Game: Sino-American Relations In The 21st Century, Cameron T. Mccauley Dec 2016

A Grand Game: Sino-American Relations In The 21st Century, Cameron T. Mccauley

College of Security and Intelligence

This paper provides an overview and analysis of Sino-American relations, focusing primarily on the South China Sea and the implications of China’s rise on both the region and US national security. International relations theory provides the framework for the analysis and multiple viewpoints are included. This paper draws attention to the importance of properly understanding China’s ambitions in order to prevent a war in the Pacific. While not inevitable, the potential for conflict is addressed and likely scenarios are included. This paper concludes with a quick look at how the Trump administration’s policies could affect the turbulent ...


A Grand Game: Sino-American Relations In The 21st Century, Cameron Mccauley Dec 2016

A Grand Game: Sino-American Relations In The 21st Century, Cameron Mccauley

Student Works

This paper provides an overview and analysis of Sino-American relations, focusing primarily on the South China Sea and the implications of China’s rise on both the region and US national security. International relations theory provides the framework for the analysis and multiple viewpoints are included. This paper draws attention to the importance of properly understanding China’s ambitions in order to prevent a war in the Pacific. While not inevitable, the potential for conflict is addressed and likely scenarios are included. This paper concludes with a quick look at how the Trump administration’s policies could affect the turbulent ...


Jimmy Carter And Anwar El-Sadat: Relationships And Motivations Behind The 1978 Camp David Accords, Treston Paul Chandler Dec 2016

Jimmy Carter And Anwar El-Sadat: Relationships And Motivations Behind The 1978 Camp David Accords, Treston Paul Chandler

Senior Theses

This thesis addresses the American and Egyptian motivations behind the conclusion of the 1978 Camp David Accords between the United States, Egypt, and Israel. In addition, it considers the role the personal relationships developed between the principal leaders played in reaching an ultimate agreement. The thesis primarily relies on recently declassified Department of State and Central Intelligence Agency documents to reconstruct the American and Egyptian impetuses for peace, as seen from the outset of Jimmy Carter’s presidency. It also draws on the memoirs and writings of those directly involved in the peace process. Then, the thesis reviews how these ...


Use It Or Lose It: Canadian Identity And The Construction Of Arctic Security Policy, Michael P. Mccormack Dec 2016

Use It Or Lose It: Canadian Identity And The Construction Of Arctic Security Policy, Michael P. Mccormack

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation investigates the specific factors that drive state action in Canadian Arctic security policy, particularly in relation to securitization of the Arctic region and historical factors that influence decision-making. The purpose of this research is to develop stronger linkages between securitization processes and actual policymaking. When studying the Arctic as a defined geographical space, we see considerable differences between Arctic states when it comes to how cultural and historical attachment to the Arctic region may serve as a selling point for the ability of national governments to justify allocation of defense resources to their respective publics. Using the Canadian ...


Achieving And Maintaining Food Security In The Prc: The Impact On Foreign Policy, Paul D. Rittenhouse Dec 2016

Achieving And Maintaining Food Security In The Prc: The Impact On Foreign Policy, Paul D. Rittenhouse

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation is to examine how the People’s Republic of China has used domestic and foreign policy to achieve and maintain food security. This is a formidable task for the PRC given that it has 20% of the world’s population and only 7% of its arable land. It has been made more formidable by domestic policy errors and its changing position within the international system.

The PRC has evolved from a Marxist revisionist state to one that mixes state capitalism and free enterprise and has become a combination of revisionist and status quo. Such changes ...


Book Review: A History Of Rwandan Identity And Trauma: The Mythmakers' Victims, James J. Snow Dec 2016

Book Review: A History Of Rwandan Identity And Trauma: The Mythmakers' Victims, James J. Snow

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

No abstract provided.


Can International Criminal Law Deter Rebel Groups?: The Case Of Uganda, The Lord's Resistance Army, And The International Criminal Court, Julia Reilly Dec 2016

Can International Criminal Law Deter Rebel Groups?: The Case Of Uganda, The Lord's Resistance Army, And The International Criminal Court, Julia Reilly

Political Science Department -- Theses, Dissertations, and Student Scholarship

How does a state’s commitment to international criminal accountability mechanisms affect the tactics of rebel groups fighting against it? I examine the conflict between Uganda and the Lord’s Resistance Army, spanning four phases from 1996 until 2015, and parse out whether Uganda’s stance on the Rome Statute and the International Criminal Court affected the LRA’s propensity to target civilians. I use descriptive statistics of civilian and military casualties and qualitative case studies, drawing largely on newspaper and NGO reports of events in the conflict. I find that the affect of Uganda’s signaling on justice on ...


The History Problem: The Politics Of War Commemoration In East Asia, Hiro Saito Dec 2016

The History Problem: The Politics Of War Commemoration In East Asia, Hiro Saito

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

Seventy years have passed since the end of the Asia-Pacific War, yet Japan remains embroiled in controversy with its neighbors over the war’s commemoration. Among the many points of contention between Japan, China, and South Korea are interpretations of the Tokyo War Crimes Trial, apologies and compensation for foreign victims of Japanese aggression, prime ministerial visits to the Yasukuni Shrine, and the war’s portrayal in textbooks. Collectively, these controversies have come to be called the “history problem.” But why has the problem become so intractable? Can it ever be resolved, and if so, how? To answer these questions ...


De L'Affaire Katanga Au Contrat Social Global: Un Regard Sur La Cour Pénale Internationale, Juan Branco Nov 2016

De L'Affaire Katanga Au Contrat Social Global: Un Regard Sur La Cour Pénale Internationale, Juan Branco

Juan Branco

No abstract provided.


Inaugural Issue Of Dignity, Donna M. Hughes Dr. Nov 2016

Inaugural Issue Of Dignity, Donna M. Hughes Dr.

Donna M. Hughes

No abstract provided.


Rising Assertiveness Versus Peaceful Development: Making Sense Of China’S Ambivalent International Behavior, Lukas K. Danner Nov 2016

Rising Assertiveness Versus Peaceful Development: Making Sense Of China’S Ambivalent International Behavior, Lukas K. Danner

Dr. Lukas K. Danner

In the past few years, especially after the 2008 global financial crisis, China has become more assertive, not just in its military posture but also in its diplomatic affairs and economic interactions. Despite this rising assertiveness, China’s grand strategy officially remains that of ‘Peaceful Development.’ In consequence, scholars have disagreed about the trajectory of China’s grand strategy in light of its often ambivalent behavior. To explain this ambivalence, this article will take a closer empirical look at  two important developments regarding China’s international affairs: The softening on China’s preoccupation with territorial integrity and sovereignty has been ...


The Moroccan Jurist Al-Khamlīshī: Can A Woman Become A Legislator (Mujtahid)?, Nayel A. Badareen Nov 2016

The Moroccan Jurist Al-Khamlīshī: Can A Woman Become A Legislator (Mujtahid)?, Nayel A. Badareen

Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Multidisciplinary Studies

The idea of deducing legal rulings in Islamic law, or ijtihād, as well as the qualifications of the person who practices ijtihād, known as the mujtahid, has been a complex issue among Muslim ʿulamāʾ for centuries. Many Muslim ʿulamāʾ and Western scholars have maintained that the gate of ijtihād was closed. The title of mujtahid was therefore impossible to attain. The Moroccan intellectual al-Khamlīshī maintains that the strenuous conditions put forth by some of the Sunni jurists to qualify an individual to become a mujtahid actually contributed to the demise of ijtihād. These qualifications, according to al-Khamlīshī, were proven to ...


Across Systems: Preventing, Countering, And Defusing Violent Extremism—A Discussion Of Strategy, Policy, Practice, And Theory, Keenan Powers Nov 2016

Across Systems: Preventing, Countering, And Defusing Violent Extremism—A Discussion Of Strategy, Policy, Practice, And Theory, Keenan Powers

Capstone Collection

This paper explores today’s landscape of violent conflict in the context of the now 15-year-old “War on Terror” and its defining trait of strengthened, nimble, and networked violent extremist non-state militant groups. Through an exploration of primarily United Nations and United States strategies, policies, and programming the concepts of Countering Violent Extremism and Preventing Violent Extremism are melded into a discussion of the shifting frameworks and broadening notions of what it takes to create human security. This paper is particularly concerned with how the traditionally at odds fields of Counter Terrorism, Military Security, Development Assistance, and Peacebuilding practice are ...


Disaster Capitalism: Empirical Evidence From Latin America And The Caribbean, Ransford F. Edwards Jr. Nov 2016

Disaster Capitalism: Empirical Evidence From Latin America And The Caribbean, Ransford F. Edwards Jr.

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Natural disasters are uniquely transformative events. They can drastically transform physical terrain and the lives of those unfortunate enough to be caught in their wrath. However, natural disasters also provide an opportunity to reflect on past failures and, at times, a clean slate to correct those shortcomings. This project takes a political economic approach and recognizes natural disasters as occasions for agenda-setting on behalf of transnational commercial enterprises and market-oriented policy elites. These reformers often use the post-disaster policy space to articulate long-term development strategies based on market fundamentalism, and, more importantly, advance a set of policies consistent with their ...


The Conflict In Syria: Should The United States Get More Involved?, Jacob Peoples Nov 2016

The Conflict In Syria: Should The United States Get More Involved?, Jacob Peoples

Posters-at-the-Capitol

The purpose of this research is to explore the relations between Syria, Russia, and the United States in the Syrian civil war. The relationship has been in turmoil because of the complexities of the situation. Syria has been a designated state sponsor of terrorism since December 29, 1979, five years before the next designated state of Iran. Syria is a very important and strategic country and now more than ever has a large risk of being completely overrun by the newest terrorist group ISIS. The turmoil is possibly stemming initially from the result of a failed 1957 Central Intelligence Agency ...


What Is The Difference Between “Muslim” And “Islamic”?, Ahmed E. Souaiaia Nov 2016

What Is The Difference Between “Muslim” And “Islamic”?, Ahmed E. Souaiaia

Ahmed E SOUAIAIA

Social labels and categories are exercise in control. They describe opponents, create boundaries, exclude social groups, justify discrimination, and promote persecution. They are imbued with sociopolitical power. Muslims used labels, internally for the first time, during the formative period of the community to privilege the elite and marginalize dissenters. They called those who challenged the established order, Khawarij [Outsiders]. Today, Muslims living in Western societies are often labeled radical Islamic extremists. But aside from this politically charged phrase, even common adjectives, such as Islamic and Muslim, are misused. So in what contexts should these adjectives be appropriately used and why ...


The Politics Of Electoral Systems In The Former Yugoslav Republic Of Macedonia, Dardan Berisha Nov 2016

The Politics Of Electoral Systems In The Former Yugoslav Republic Of Macedonia, Dardan Berisha

Indiana Journal of Constitutional Design

The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (“FYROM”) experienced four major changes to its electoral system in the eight parliamentary elections held between 1990 and 2014. The Macedonian 1990 and 1994 parliamentary elections were held under a majority system, in which 120 members of the Parliament were elected from 120 constituencies, one member per constituency. A mixed-majority/proportional representation (“PR”) system was adopted for the 1998 elections, in which eighty-five seats were elected under the majority system from the constituencies, and thirty-five seats were elected proportionally from a nation-wide electoral district. Yet another system was adopted for the 2002 elections, in ...


Crafting Chaos: The Classification Of Unilateral Transfers Under The Current Account At Bretton Woods And Its Impact On Remittances To The Indian State Of Kerala, Anish Gawande Nov 2016

Crafting Chaos: The Classification Of Unilateral Transfers Under The Current Account At Bretton Woods And Its Impact On Remittances To The Indian State Of Kerala, Anish Gawande

Undergraduate Economic Review

This essay aims to analyse the classification of unilateral transfers under the current account at Bretton Woods despite significant opposition from larger delegations of major Allied powers, bringing to the forefront the global liquidity of remittances in the post-War years permitted by their fully currency convertible nature. Using the example of the Indian State of Kerala, this paper charts the relevance of their sustained uninterrupted flow to their subsequent exponential growth in the last three decades, using the case study as a pivot to argue for better policy measures that maximise their multiplier effect.