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2015

Development

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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Developmental Challenges And Opportunities Of Brazil In The 21st Century, Henrique Ruda Vianna Ribeiro Dec 2015

Developmental Challenges And Opportunities Of Brazil In The 21st Century, Henrique Ruda Vianna Ribeiro

HIM 1990-2015

As Brazil develops into the first South American world power many changes in its society, economy and political system are necessary for a successful transformation. Nevertheless this is no easy task as the country battles corruption, vast inequality and a severe problem with freedom of information within the media. For decades the Brazilian mainstream media has been controlled by elite political forces together with elite families influencing and controlling many factors that are responsible for social, economic and political development. As new developments and implementations in the last fifteen years have been ongoing within Brazil, such as welfare programs, social ...


Reproductive Rights In Latin America: A Case Study Of Guatemala And Nicaragua, Katherine W. Bogen Oct 2015

Reproductive Rights In Latin America: A Case Study Of Guatemala And Nicaragua, Katherine W. Bogen

Scholarly Undergraduate Research Journal at Clark

A lack of access to contraceptives and legal abortion for women throughout the nations of Nicaragua and Guatemala creates critical health care problems. Moreover, rural and underprivileged women in Guatemala and Nicaragua are facing greater limitations to birth control access, demonstrating a classist aspect in the global struggle for female reproductive rights. Although some efforts have been made over the past half-century to initiate a dialogue on the failure of medical care in these nations to adequately address issues of maternal mortality and reproductive rights, the women's reproductive health movements of Nicaragua and Guatemala have struggled to reach an ...


Philosopher's Stone: The Faustian Geist Of Development, Salikyu Sangtam Aug 2015

Philosopher's Stone: The Faustian Geist Of Development, Salikyu Sangtam

Dissertations

The present study juxtaposes scientific rationality with polyphonic rationality in respect to societal development. This is done to illuminate how scientific rationality provides a narrow and truncated view of development. In order to explicate the exclusion of polyphonic rationalities/knowledges in favor of scientific rationality, several development scholarships are examined along with an episode of developmental scheme and two episodes of development programs. This is done to expound (note: ‘→’ = influences) how scientific rationalityscholarshipsorganizational/institutional schemes, such as the MDGs → actual applications of development schemes, such as transmigration and compulsory villagization. The present inquest, more importantly, propounds for polyphonic ...


Do The Right Thing: The Impact Of Ingo Legitimacy Standards On Stakeholder Input, Christopher Pallas, David Gethings, Max Harris Jul 2015

Do The Right Thing: The Impact Of Ingo Legitimacy Standards On Stakeholder Input, Christopher Pallas, David Gethings, Max Harris

Christopher L. Pallas

International nongovernmental organizations (INGOs) are frequently criticized for failing to adequately represent or engage with grassroots stakeholders. Yet most explanations of this shortcoming have focused on factors external to the organizations, e.g., economic pressures that privilege donor interests. What has been largely lacking is an examination of the role of internal INGO characteristics. We address this by examining INGOs’ legitimacy standards: how INGOs understand themselves to be doing the right thing and seek to convey that righteousness to others. Drawing on the literature from business ethics and organizational behavior, we show that organizations’ self-selected standards of legitimacy are key ...


Poverty Within Nation-States: The Impact Of Corruption, Trade, Income Inequality, Population Growth, Foreign Aid, And Military Expenditure, Mustafa Karapinar Jul 2015

Poverty Within Nation-States: The Impact Of Corruption, Trade, Income Inequality, Population Growth, Foreign Aid, And Military Expenditure, Mustafa Karapinar

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

Theoretical approaches to development have marginalized poverty and the individual from the developmental debates. Instead, these approaches place the state as the conventional unit of development and tended to address poverty at the societal level. In these respects, these approaches have neglected how development affects poverty at the individual level.

This study criticizes one of these approaches, the modernization theory of Development, and analyzes the relationship between poverty and some economic, political, and social factors. These factors include openness to trade, foreign aid, military expenditure, income inequality, corruption, and population. There have been several studies examining the relationship between poverty ...


Public Actors In Private Markets: Toward A Developmental Finance State, Robert Hockett, Saule Omarova Jun 2015

Public Actors In Private Markets: Toward A Developmental Finance State, Robert Hockett, Saule Omarova

Saule T. Omarova

The recent financial crisis brought into sharp relief fundamental questions about the social function and purpose of the financial system, including its relation to the “real” economy. This Article argues that, to answer these questions, we must recapture a distinctively American view of the proper relations among state, financial market, and development. This programmatic vision – captured in what we call a “developmental finance state” – is based on three key propositions: (1) that economic and social development is not an “end-state” but a continuing national policy priority; (2) that the modalities of finance are the most potent means of fueling continuous ...


The Metro Manila Report: National Landscape, Current Challenges And Opportunities For Growth, Institute For Societal Leadership, John W. Ellington May 2015

The Metro Manila Report: National Landscape, Current Challenges And Opportunities For Growth, Institute For Societal Leadership, John W. Ellington

Institute of Societal Leadership Research Collection

Although Western colonisers have, to varying degrees, shaped the political structures and economies of nearly all modern Southeast Asian nations, they achieved an unmatched level of cultural and institutional penetration in the Philippines. Far from the Indic influences that inspired Angkor Wat, Borobudur and Bagan, the island group was only marginally sanskritised during the pre-colonial period. With some notable exceptions in the south, Muslim communities were also never able to establish firm roots. Mindanao, Sulu and even southern Luzon were home to maritime sultanates beginning in the late 14th century, but a Spanish victory over the Muslim Rajah of Maynila ...


App Newsletter 3, Riccardo Pelizzo Apr 2015

App Newsletter 3, Riccardo Pelizzo

Riccardo Pelizzo

third issue of the APP newsletter where we discuss the results of the Nigerian elections, the consequences of falling oil price, and the costs of instability


App Newsletter 2, Riccardo Pelizzo Apr 2015

App Newsletter 2, Riccardo Pelizzo

riccardo pelizzo

This is the second issue of the newsletter of African Politics and Policy. In this issue our collaborators discuss the uneasy relationship between democracy and development, Tourism in Tanzania, elections in Togo, and Chinese Investments in Africa.


The Singapore Report: National Landscape, Current Challenges And Opportunities For Growth, Institute For Societal Leadership, Aji Paramartha, Shihui Khee, Regina Unson, Sai Hein Apr 2015

The Singapore Report: National Landscape, Current Challenges And Opportunities For Growth, Institute For Societal Leadership, Aji Paramartha, Shihui Khee, Regina Unson, Sai Hein

Institute of Societal Leadership Research Collection

Singapore has come a long way, since her beginnings as a sleepy fishing village and a tiny Malay settlement ruled by the Sultan of Johor. Sir Stamford Raffles first arrived in Singapore in 1819 and immediately recognised that its strategic location along the Straits of Malacca would be useful to the British in developing an alternative to challenge Dutch influence and monopoly in the region. During British colonial rule, Singapore developed into an important free port and trade city, an essential trait that continues to feature heavily in Singapore’s economic development to this day.


Removing The Rust: Comparative Post-Industrial Revitalization In Buffalo, Cleveland, And Pittsburgh, Scott Nicholas Duryea Apr 2015

Removing The Rust: Comparative Post-Industrial Revitalization In Buffalo, Cleveland, And Pittsburgh, Scott Nicholas Duryea

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

This study seeks to understand the differences in post-industrial redevelopment among the cities of Buffalo, Cleveland, and Pittsburgh. Part of the so-called "rust belt," these three cities experienced industrial decline from the 1960s through the 1980s, largely as a result of the economic globalization of heavy industry. Intensive manufacturing and output had come to a screeching halt, unemployment skyrocketed, outmigration ensued, and each metropolitan area faced formidable challenges to convert to service-oriented industries. Over the past twenty years, these cities, and the regions that encompass them, have begun to redevelop, although unevenly. At a glance, the Pittsburgh region appears to ...


The Effect Of Women In Government On Government Effectiveness, Abigail L. Tootell Apr 2015

The Effect Of Women In Government On Government Effectiveness, Abigail L. Tootell

Student Publications

A critical factor of gender and development is the political empowerment of women. Beyond this equality, however, what are the effects of women in government? This paper investigates these effects by examining the relationship between the percentage of women in parliament and overall government effectiveness. The research strongly supports the theory that women are more effective political leaders than their male counterparts.


Newsletter, Riccardo Pelizzo Mar 2015

Newsletter, Riccardo Pelizzo

riccardo pelizzo

first issue of the African Politics and Policy Newsletter


Impact Of Ethnic Conflict On Development: A Case Study Of Guyana, Visnoonand Bisram Feb 2015

Impact Of Ethnic Conflict On Development: A Case Study Of Guyana, Visnoonand Bisram

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The study presents an alternative framework, from the dominant political and economic theories, for explaining the feeble and relatively slow pace of development of an ethnically divided, resource rich country.

The study, using primary and secondary sources, empirical evidence, and interpretive analysis, examines the emergence and role of racial conflict and its stifling impact on national development in Guyana, which represents an extreme case of a society plagued by racial division. Organizations including labor unions and political parties, as well as occupations and aspects of the economy, among other social constructs, are all racially divided. Utilizing an inter-disciplinary (sociology, political ...


Volunteering For Development: Tensions Around Conducting Multi-Sited Ethnography With Volunteers, Nichole Georgeou Jan 2015

Volunteering For Development: Tensions Around Conducting Multi-Sited Ethnography With Volunteers, Nichole Georgeou

Nichole Georgeou

A scholarly and personal account of the ethical, and human issues and values involved in a specific example of ethnographic research and field-work, with wider research implications and relevance.


Submission To The Strategic Policy Division, Department Of Defence, On The Development Of The 2013 Defence White Paper, Christopher Rahman Jan 2015

Submission To The Strategic Policy Division, Department Of Defence, On The Development Of The 2013 Defence White Paper, Christopher Rahman

Chris Rahman

This submission on the development of the 2013 Defence White Paper addresses briefly four aspects: 1. The structure and content of the White Paper itself 2. Australia’s strategic environment 3. Australia’s military strategy 4. Force structure


Identifying Tensions In The Development Of Northern Australia: Implications For Governance, Anne Stephens Dr, Elspeth Oppermann Dr, Jim Turnour Mr, Tom Brewer Dr, Chris O'Brien Dr, Tom Rayner Dr, Gemma Blackwood Dr, Allan P. Dale Prof Jan 2015

Identifying Tensions In The Development Of Northern Australia: Implications For Governance, Anne Stephens Dr, Elspeth Oppermann Dr, Jim Turnour Mr, Tom Brewer Dr, Chris O'Brien Dr, Tom Rayner Dr, Gemma Blackwood Dr, Allan P. Dale Prof

Journal of Economic and Social Policy

Northern Australia has a population of 1.2 million people across nearly half the continental landmass. It is home to many diverse communities of people, including Aboriginal nations, descendants of European, Melanesian and Asian settlers and more recent arrivals. It is an area of globally significant natural beauty with unique ecologies. It also has strategic and economic importance to Australia. A contentious debate over the future of the region can be observed within three themes: Big development, big conservation and policies seeking Indigenous wellbeing. We argue that if the agendas associated with each of these themes and their associated agents ...


Creative Economy As A Path To Economic Development For Africa: Cases Of Nollywood In Nigeria And Women's Gold In Bukina Faso, Rebecca Moudio Jan 2015

Creative Economy As A Path To Economic Development For Africa: Cases Of Nollywood In Nigeria And Women's Gold In Bukina Faso, Rebecca Moudio

Dissertations and Theses

No abstract provided.


'You Are Who We Say You Are': The Politics Of Ethnicity In Post-Genocidal Rwanda And Bosnia-Herzegovina, Stephanie A. Sugars Jan 2015

'You Are Who We Say You Are': The Politics Of Ethnicity In Post-Genocidal Rwanda And Bosnia-Herzegovina, Stephanie A. Sugars

Senior Independent Study Theses

The establishment of peace in post-genocidal states is vital, as the experience of extreme division and violence can scar a population, contributing to violence and inequality moving forward. Existing literature on post-conflict transition and governance argues that two main systems are typically used: consociationalism and assimilationism. While consociationalism argues for heterogeneity in the state and assimilationism for homogeneity, both of these systems use the institutionalization of identity as a step in post-conflict recovery, through such means as proscribing or privileging particular identities. This study posits that this is inherently flawed, as attempts to institutionalize identity ignore its contextually fluid or ...


Ngos V. State: A Case Study Of The Effectiveness Of Women’S Development Programs In Tanzania, Sara M. Eliason Jan 2015

Ngos V. State: A Case Study Of The Effectiveness Of Women’S Development Programs In Tanzania, Sara M. Eliason

Scripps Senior Theses

This paper compares the effectiveness of an NGO and a government branch at promoting development through gender equality in Tanzania, in an attempt to determine whether one actor is more suited to this sector of development. Due to the nature of the actors, their approaches impact different parts of the population of Tanzania and are complementary in their impact. Both NGO and government efforts can help to empower women and in turn promote economic development in Tanzania.


What Will The Neighbors Say? How Differences In Planning Culture Yield Distinctive Outcomes In Urban Redevelopment: The Example Of The Community Benefits Agreement Trend, Ralph Rosado Jan 2015

What Will The Neighbors Say? How Differences In Planning Culture Yield Distinctive Outcomes In Urban Redevelopment: The Example Of The Community Benefits Agreement Trend, Ralph Rosado

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Although taxpayer dollars often subsidize economic development projects, they sometimes produce mixed results for existing neighbors. Since 2001, in select localities, civic organizations have assumed the role of negotiator on behalf of local constituencies, espousing the view that economic development efforts should significantly improve residentsâ?? lives. Various organizations are entering into community benefits agreements (CBAs) with developers and/or governmental bodies in order to meet community needs. In return, the groups agree to support the projectsâ?? requests for governmental approvals and/or subsidies. Yet CBAs continue to emerge in relatively few communities. More importantly, they have taken markedly different forms ...


The Positive Effects Of Aid On Health Development Outcomes, Bensley Pearson Jan 2015

The Positive Effects Of Aid On Health Development Outcomes, Bensley Pearson

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This study uses a combination of foreign aid data and development proxies to assess the value of health related foreign aid and the achievements of the global community during times of increased aid focus. It uses regression models to present a statistically significant relationship between aid and health outcomes, and then utilizes three case studies comparing similar countries in order to reinforce the argument, and account for any inconsistencies within the models. Both the models and the case studies support aid as an asset in the health development of a state, and the implication is that, if this is indeed ...


Factors Affecting Developing Planning In Africa: The Need For Local Input, Ismael Sow Jan 2015

Factors Affecting Developing Planning In Africa: The Need For Local Input, Ismael Sow

Dissertations and Theses

Africa has become synonymous with poverty, diseases, and despair. The continent is home to the highest number of extremely poor people in the world. Throughout the world, especially in the last few decades, many countries in the so-called South have succeeded in lifting their people out of poverty. The continent, with the exception of a few African countries, has failed to design and implement sound economic plans to bring prosperity to a billion Africans. This thesis proposes that for African countries to develop, ways should be found to include indigenous input into development planning. This assumption is based on both ...


Food Imports As A Hindrance To Food Security And Sustainable Development: The Cases Of Nigeria And Senegal, Dioume Astou Jan 2015

Food Imports As A Hindrance To Food Security And Sustainable Development: The Cases Of Nigeria And Senegal, Dioume Astou

Dissertations and Theses

Despite the growing global acceptance of an individual’s right to adequate food and nutrition, and the state’s obligation to ensure that all its citizens are free from hunger, 805 million or one in nine people around the world today are still chronically malnourished; the majority live in developing countries. African states have had a particular problem with food insecurity. Food security on the continent has worsened since the 1970s and by the end of the century, the population in Africa is

expected to be three times its current level. Hence, food insecurity in Africa will be much more ...