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2014

Political Science Faculty Publications

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Articles 1 - 23 of 23

Full-Text Articles in Political Science

The Problem Of State Intervention In Post-Abolition Slavery: A Critique Of Consensus, Anthony Talbott, David Watkins Oct 2014

The Problem Of State Intervention In Post-Abolition Slavery: A Critique Of Consensus, Anthony Talbott, David Watkins

Political Science Faculty Publications

Slavery is now illegal by all states and under international law. Contrary to the hopes of abolitionists, this state of affairs has transformed rather than eradicated slavery as an institution. Furthermore, responses by states to post-abolition forms of slavery have often been less than ideal. This paper begins by comparing two state responses to slavery in the early 20th century: the federal peonage trials in Montgomery, Alabama from 1903-1905, and the federal response to an alleged epidemic of “white slavery” from 1909-1910, culminating in the passage of the White Slave-Traffic Act. Taken together, these responses engender pessimism about the state ...


Police Reform, Civil Society And Everyday Legitimacy: A Lesson From Northern Ireland, Branka Marijan, Dejan Guzina Oct 2014

Police Reform, Civil Society And Everyday Legitimacy: A Lesson From Northern Ireland, Branka Marijan, Dejan Guzina

Political Science Faculty Publications

In post-conflict zones, there is a need to better understand the role of civil society in building the legitimacy of reformed police institutions. Northern Ireland provides an instructive case in this regard, as community involvement and civilian oversight of policing structures were prominent in the reform process. While much has been achieved since the 1999 Independent Commission on Policing, the question of police legitimation is still largely unresolved. In order for police reform to be fully realized, and to ensure that everyday legitimacy is established, more attention must be paid to building relationships between the police and local communities.


La Guerra Como Una Labor Política: Cómo Usar Las Ciencias Sociales Para Lograr El Éxito Estratégico, Matthew J. Schmidt Sep 2014

La Guerra Como Una Labor Política: Cómo Usar Las Ciencias Sociales Para Lograr El Éxito Estratégico, Matthew J. Schmidt

Political Science Faculty Publications

En las ciencias sociales contemporáneas, se estudian los fenómenos sociales en términos de variables interdependientes —en lugar de dependientes. Aún para los científicos sociales acostumbrados a ese tipo de investigación, resulta frustrante establecer claras teorías de causa-efecto para los fenómenos que constan de variables interdependientes —fenómenos tales como la guerra. De hecho, los variables interdependientes hacen imposibles las predicciones tipo ciencias duras. Sin embargo, esto no significa que los planteamientos cualitativos deben ser descartados. Más bien, una comprensión del valor y limitaciones de los métodos cualitativos es crucial para una profesión que tiene la tarea de usar la fuerza para ...


Developments In Transnational Research Linkages: Evidence From U.S. Higher-Education Activity, Peter Koehn Jul 2014

Developments In Transnational Research Linkages: Evidence From U.S. Higher-Education Activity, Peter Koehn

Political Science Faculty Publications

In our knowledge-driven era, multiple and mutual benefits accrue from transnational research linkages. The article identifies important directions in transnational research collaborations involving U.S. universities revealed by key dimensions of 369 projects profiled on a U.S. higher-education association’s database. Project initiators, principal research fields, regional and country distributions, and the sources and amounts of funding for different types of transnational research activity are selected for analysis. The balanced total portfolio of reported current research projects by region suggests that U.S. university principal investigators increasingly recognize the value of collaborative knowledge generation in the Global South as ...


Making The Machine Work: Technocratic Engineering Of Rights For Domestic Workers At The International Labour Organization, Leila Kawar Jul 2014

Making The Machine Work: Technocratic Engineering Of Rights For Domestic Workers At The International Labour Organization, Leila Kawar

Political Science Faculty Publications

In September 2013, the International Labour Organization (ILO) Convention concerning decent work for domestic workers entered into force, thereby bringing domestic workers into the mainstream of labor law. This article explores how the interests of the ILO’s constituents were shaken up and reconfigured to build support for new labor protections amidst the shifting global context of deregulation. I argue that technocratic devices—charts, questionnaires, and paragraph formatting—wielded by ILO insiders contributed to this development by creating epistemic space for this new category of employees to be recognized and for consensus to be secured on appropriate labor standards for ...


Nation-State Crises In The Absence And Presence Of Segment States: The Case Of Nicaragua, Caroline A. Hartzell Jun 2014

Nation-State Crises In The Absence And Presence Of Segment States: The Case Of Nicaragua, Caroline A. Hartzell

Political Science Faculty Publications

This study provides a critical examination of the relationship between segment states and nationalist crises through a consideration of Nicaragua's recent history. Nicaragua experienced a nationalist crisis from 1981 to the mid-1980s. That crisis ended with the creation of two autonomous regions on the Atlantic Coast. Although relations between the common state and the new segment state proved difficult over the next few years, the new arrangement held for two decades. Roughly around 2007, however, a new nation-state crisis emerged in Nicaragua. Taking advantage of the fact that Nicaragua provides an opportunity to compare two nation-state crises across time ...


Slavery In Europe: Part 2, Testing A Predictive Model, Monti Narayan Datta, Kevin Bales May 2014

Slavery In Europe: Part 2, Testing A Predictive Model, Monti Narayan Datta, Kevin Bales

Political Science Faculty Publications

Since the passage of the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act and the United Nations Palermo Protocols of 2000, there has been an increased focus on the magnitude and complexity of modern day slavery. Yet, surprisingly, little empirical work exists. A comprehensive review of the literature by Elzbieta Gozdziak and Micah Bump in 2008 found that quantitative methodologies were noticeably scarce and that the dominant anti-trafficking discourse was not evidence based. One reason for this scarcity has been the difficulty in obtaining reliable representative data. In this paper, we utilize a novel measure of contemporary slavery in Europe that ...


Mixed Motives? Explaining The Decision To Integrate Militaries At Civil War's End, Caroline A. Hartzell Apr 2014

Mixed Motives? Explaining The Decision To Integrate Militaries At Civil War's End, Caroline A. Hartzell

Political Science Faculty Publications

Book Summary: Negotiating a peaceful end to civil wars, which often includes an attempt to bring together former rival military or insurgent factions into a new national army, has been a frequent goal of conflict resolution practitioners since the Cold War. In practice, however, very little is known about what works, and what doesn't work, in bringing together former opponents to build a lasting peace.

Contributors to this volume assess why some civil wars result in successful military integration while others dissolve into further strife, factionalism, and even renewed civil war. Eleven cases are studied in detail—Sudan, Zimbabwe ...


Commanding Legality: The Juridification Of Immigration Policymaking In France, Leila Kawar Apr 2014

Commanding Legality: The Juridification Of Immigration Policymaking In France, Leila Kawar

Political Science Faculty Publications

The emergence of constitutional review in France has attracted substantial attention from scholars of public law. Yet little has been written about the political implications of the expansion of rights-based review on the part of France's highest administrative jurisdiction, the Conseil d'Etat. The argument is made in this paper that repeat litigation by French lawyers defending the cause of immigrants is an important site for observing the symbolic power of legal forms. The analysis focuses on cases challenging immigration-related administrative regulations and shows how the process of repeatedly adjudicating these issues has focused attention away from litigants and ...


Peacebuilding After Civil War, Caroline A. Hartzell Feb 2014

Peacebuilding After Civil War, Caroline A. Hartzell

Political Science Faculty Publications

Book Summary: This comprehensive new Handbook explores the significance and nature of armed intrastate conflict and civil war in the modern world. Civil wars and intrastate conflict represent the principal form of organised violence since the end of World War II, and certainly in the contemporary era. These conflicts have a huge impact and drive major political change within the societies in which they occur, as well as on an international scale. The global importance of recent intrastate and regional conflicts in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iraq, Somalia, Nepal, Cote d'Ivoire, Syria and Libya – amongst others – has served to refocus academic ...


Religion, Partisanship, And Attitudes Toward Science Policy, Ted G. Jelen, Linda A. Lockett Jan 2014

Religion, Partisanship, And Attitudes Toward Science Policy, Ted G. Jelen, Linda A. Lockett

Political Science Faculty Publications

We examine issues involving science which have been contested in recent public debate. These “contested science” issues include human evolution, stem-cell research, and climate change. We find that few respondents evince consistently skeptical attitudes toward science issues, and that religious variables are generally strong predictors of attitudes toward individual issues. Furthermore, and contrary to analyses of elite discourse, partisan identification is not generally predictive of attitudes toward contested scientific issues.


War As Political Work: Using Social Science For Strategic Success, Matthew J. Schmidt Jan 2014

War As Political Work: Using Social Science For Strategic Success, Matthew J. Schmidt

Political Science Faculty Publications

Army culture favors a quantitative/predictive approach to analyze problems. The author argues, however, that strategic thinking requires the relative subjectivity of a qualitative approach to problem solving.


South Korea’S National Energy Plan Six Years On, John S. Duffield Jan 2014

South Korea’S National Energy Plan Six Years On, John S. Duffield

Political Science Faculty Publications

In 2008, South Korea adopted ambitious targets for reducing its dependence on energy imports and its carbon emissions simultaneously. The first National Energy Plan called for cutting energy intensity by nearly half and reducing the country’s dependence on imported fossil fuels by more than one quarter by 2030. Fossil fuels would be replaced by nuclear power and renewable sources of energy, which together would meet nearly 40 percent of South Korea’s energy needs. The achievement of these targets has been impeded by a number of obstacles, however. In response, the government has adjusted its goals, most recently with ...


Environmental Regulation, Michelle C. Pautz Jan 2014

Environmental Regulation, Michelle C. Pautz

Political Science Faculty Publications

The terms environment and regulation are commonplace in political and policy debates about the natural environment, the role of science, and the behavior of government. Indeed, these terms reference a very contentious area of public policy and are emblematic of the growing tensions between science and politics. This chapter overviews the definition, types, and history of environmental regulation before turning to the intersection of science and politics in environmental policy and considering current and future challenges for this aspect of governmental activity.


Article I, Section 4, Clause 1, Anthony A. Peacock Jan 2014

Article I, Section 4, Clause 1, Anthony A. Peacock

Political Science Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Cedaw And Gender Violence: An Empirical Assessment, Neil A. Englehart Jan 2014

Cedaw And Gender Violence: An Empirical Assessment, Neil A. Englehart

Political Science Faculty Publications

Does the Convention for the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) reduce violence against women? CEDAW has the distinction of being an unusually effective human rights treaty: promoting women’s political rights in particular, having a modest effect on women’s social rights, but showing little or no effect on economic rights.1 However, unlike these other rights, the CEDAW Treaty does not explicitly mention violence. The CEDAW Committee interpreted the Treaty as covering gender violence after the fact. It issued General Recommendations in 1989 and 1992 mandating states to collect information and take action on the ...


Yemen Between Revolution And Counter-Terrorism, Sheila Carapico Jan 2014

Yemen Between Revolution And Counter-Terrorism, Sheila Carapico

Political Science Faculty Publications

This chapter juxtaposes these seemingly two quite different storylines - one about Yemeni aspirations for social justice and better governance and the other about American and Saudi operations undertaken in the name of combating terrorism. The so-called GCC Initiative, and in particular the National Dialogue Conference process playing out as this book goes to press, provides the link between them. From the perspective of domestic politics, the Dialogue can be read as the outcome of agitation by the new generation of 'peaceful youth', as well as an outgrowth of Yemen's tradition of dialogue - an historic effort to resolve crisis through ...


Rebuilding Communities After Violent Conflict: Informal Justice Systems And Resource Access, Sandra F. Joireman Jan 2014

Rebuilding Communities After Violent Conflict: Informal Justice Systems And Resource Access, Sandra F. Joireman

Political Science Faculty Publications

A community recovering from war or ethnic conflict has to find ways of reweaving the fabric of economic and social life with new patterns of interaction and changed demographics.2 In post-­‐‑conflict settings customary law has a particular attraction because of the moral authority it brings to the establishment of order. Customary law is familiar, tied to the identity and history of a community, and operates independently of outside resources. Although the term evokes images of a universal acceptance and ancient origin, customary law has always been dynamic, defined by those in power, and subject to political interests.3 ...


Using Big Data And Quantitative Methods To Estimate And Fight Modern Day Slavery, Monti Narayan Datta Jan 2014

Using Big Data And Quantitative Methods To Estimate And Fight Modern Day Slavery, Monti Narayan Datta

Political Science Faculty Publications

Given the hidden, criminal nature of contemporary slavery, empirically estimating the proportion of the population enslaved at the national and global level is a challenge. At the same time, little is understood about what happens to the lives of the survivors of slavery once they are free. I discuss some data collection methods from two nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) I have worked with that shed light on these issues. The first NGO, the Walk Free Foundation, estimates that there are about 30 million enslaved in the world today. The second NGO, Free the Slaves, employs a longitudinal analysis to chronicle the ...


Aiming For Certainty: The Kanun, Blood Feuds And The Ascertainment Of Customary Law, Sandra F. Joireman Jan 2014

Aiming For Certainty: The Kanun, Blood Feuds And The Ascertainment Of Customary Law, Sandra F. Joireman

Political Science Faculty Publications

Customary law is an alternative legal framework to statute or public law. In the past the existence of customary law was viewed as problematic due to the uncertainty which accompanies legal pluralism. Increasingly, scholars are recognizing legal pluralism as simply a reality to be negotiated, rather than a problem. One frequently proposed solution to the difficulties posed by the existence of customary law is to write it down, or ascertain it, in order to provide for legal certainty. This article addresses this goal in three parts. The first part describes customary law and how it functions in its uncodified form ...


Snapshots From The Margins: Transgressive Cosmopolitanisms In Europe, Feyzi Baban, Kim Rygiel Jan 2014

Snapshots From The Margins: Transgressive Cosmopolitanisms In Europe, Feyzi Baban, Kim Rygiel

Political Science Faculty Publications

Right-wing parties and governments in Europe have recently expressed greater hostility towards cultural pluralism, at times officially denunciating multiculturalism, and calling for the closure of borders and denial of rights to non-European nationals. Within this context, this article argues for rethinking Europe through radically transgressive and transnational understandings of cosmopolitanism as articulated by growing transnational populations within Europe such as immigrants, refugees, and irregular migrants. Transgressive forms of cosmopolitanism disrupt European notions of borders and identities in ways that challenge both liberal multiculturalism and assimilationist positions. This article explores the limits of traditional cosmopolitan thinking while offering a vision of ...


The Jpe Commission Toward A More Transparent And Informative Evaluation, Rebecca D. Gill, Kenneth Retzl Jan 2014

The Jpe Commission Toward A More Transparent And Informative Evaluation, Rebecca D. Gill, Kenneth Retzl

Political Science Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Implicit Bias In Judicial Performance Evaluations: We Must Do Better Than This, Rebecca D. Gill Jan 2014

Implicit Bias In Judicial Performance Evaluations: We Must Do Better Than This, Rebecca D. Gill

Political Science Faculty Publications

Judicial performance evaluations (JPEs) are a critical part of selecting judges, especially in states using merit-based selection systems. This article shows empirical evidence that gender and race bias still exist in attorney surveys conducted in accordance with the ABA’s Guidelines. This systematic bias is related to a more general problem with the design and implementation of JPE surveys, which results in predictable problems with the reliability and validity of the information obtained through these survey instruments. This analysis raises questions about the validity and reliability of the JPE. This is a particularly poor outcome, as it means that we ...