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2014

University of Pennsylvania

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Articles 1 - 13 of 13

Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Religion And Realpolitik: Reflections On Sacrifice, Carolyn Marvin Nov 2014

Religion And Realpolitik: Reflections On Sacrifice, Carolyn Marvin

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Enduring groups that seek to preserve themselves, as sacred communities do, face a structural contradiction between the interests of individual group members and the survival interests of the group. In addressing existential threats, sacred communities rely on a spectrum of coercive and violent actions that resolve this contradiction in favor of solidarity. Despite different histories, this article argues, nationalism and religiosity are most powerfully organized as sacred communities in which sacred violence is extracted as sacrifice from community members. The exception is enduring groups that are able to rely on the protection of other violence practicing groups. The argument rejects ...


The Role Of The Common Core In The Gubernatorial Elections Of 2014, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Bobbi Newman, Ariel Smith Nov 2014

The Role Of The Common Core In The Gubernatorial Elections Of 2014, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Bobbi Newman, Ariel Smith

CPRE Policy Briefs

After the Spring 2014 primaries, the Common Core State Standards were viewed as a political hot potato. As former Arkansas Governor Mike Huckabee said, “the Common Core has become toxic, I think it’s radioactive…It has become an incredibly controversial topic on both the left and the right.” Even so, the Common Core turned out to play a role in some of the governor’s races in November 2014.

In this analysis of candidate positions and the role of the Common Core across the 36 gubernatorial races of 2014, CPRE researchers Bobbi Newman, Jonathan Supovitz and Arial Smith used ...


Why State Leadership Matters For Improving Access To Higher Education, Laura W. Perna, Joni E. Finney Jul 2014

Why State Leadership Matters For Improving Access To Higher Education, Laura W. Perna, Joni E. Finney

GSE Publications

No abstract provided.


Unlocking The Latino Vote: Civic Organizations As Tools For Latino Voter Mobilization And Participation, Elizabeth L. Thom Apr 2014

Unlocking The Latino Vote: Civic Organizations As Tools For Latino Voter Mobilization And Participation, Elizabeth L. Thom

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

For decades now, politicians, pollsters and pundits have tried to define, unite and persuade Latino voters. Presidential campaigns dating as far back as the 1960s have made efforts to appeal to the Latino electorate in order to win elections. In 1983 Ronald Reagan concerned himself with winning over Latinos voters during his reelection bid. Today, the diversifying electorate has placed Latinos at the center of twenty-first century American politics.

It is no secret that Latinos are the largest minority population in the United States. Their share of the electorate increases daily, along with their importance in winning national elections. Now ...


Accuracy Of Combined Forecasts For The 2012 Presidential Election: The Pollyvote, Andreas Graefe, J. Scott Armstrong, Randall J. Jones, Alfred G. Cuzán Apr 2014

Accuracy Of Combined Forecasts For The 2012 Presidential Election: The Pollyvote, Andreas Graefe, J. Scott Armstrong, Randall J. Jones, Alfred G. Cuzán

Marketing Papers

We review the performance of the PollyVote, which combined forecasts from polls, prediction markets, experts’ judgment, political economy models, and index models to predict the two-party popular vote in the 2012 US presidential election. Throughout the election year the PollyVote provided highly accurate forecasts, outperforming each of its component methods, as well as the forecasts from FiveThirtyEight.com. Gains in accuracy were particularly large early in the campaign, when uncertainty about the election outcome is typically high. The results confirm prior research showing that combining is one of the most effective approaches to generating accurate forecasts.


The Effect Of Entry Regulation In The Health Care Sector: The Case Of Home Health, Daniel Polsky, Guy David, Jianing Yang, Bruce Kinosian, Rachel M. Werner Feb 2014

The Effect Of Entry Regulation In The Health Care Sector: The Case Of Home Health, Daniel Polsky, Guy David, Jianing Yang, Bruce Kinosian, Rachel M. Werner

Health Care Management Papers

The consequences of government regulation in the post-acute care sector are not well understood. We examine the effect of entry regulation on quality of care in home health care by analyzing the universe of hospital discharges during 2006 for publicly insured beneficiaries (about 4.5 million) and subsequent home health admissions to determine whether there is a significant difference in home health utilization, hospital readmission rates, and health care expenditures in states with and without Certificate of Need laws (CON) regulating entry. We identify these effects by looking across regulated and nonregulated states within Hospital Referral Regions, which characterize well-defined ...


Advertising, Big Data, And The Clearance Of The Public Realm: Marketers’ New Approaches To The Content Subsidy, Nick Couldry, Joseph Turow Jan 2014

Advertising, Big Data, And The Clearance Of The Public Realm: Marketers’ New Approaches To The Content Subsidy, Nick Couldry, Joseph Turow

Departmental Papers (ASC)

This article addresses implications for democracy of two interconnected developments involving big data and the media. One is the targeting of consumers for advertising by marketers and the new data-capture industry that supports them. The other involves the transformation of advertisers’ approach to subsidizing media content production. We describe these developments and consider their consequences for democratic life, drawing on classical and recent democratic theory (Paine, Dahl, Mouffe, Rosanvallon). We conclude that big data’s embedding in personalized marketing and content production threatens the ecology of connections that link citizens and groups via information, argumentation, empathy, and celebration as members ...


Small Talk: The Socialities Of Speech In Modern Democratic Life, Chloã© Bakalar Jan 2014

Small Talk: The Socialities Of Speech In Modern Democratic Life, Chloã© Bakalar

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

While a substantial portion of political theory addresses the issue of public, formal communication&mdashparticularly in terms of its effects on democratic citizenship&mdashthere has been comparatively little scholarship that considers the political impact of informal, non-public speech. In this project, I present a theory of &ldquosocial speech&rdquo that fills in this gap, thereby providing a richer understanding of politics and the lived experience of liberal democratic citizenship. I develop this new theory in four stages. First, I begin by critiquing contemporary political theory's singular focus on public, political speech, as exemplified by deliberative democratic and Anglo-American legal theorists. Second, I look to the forefathers of liberal political speech theory (i.e. John Milton and John Stuart Mill) in order to rediscover a classical political theory of social speech. Third, building off of this foundation, I establish my own political theory of social speech, which identifies several mechanisms that explain how informal, everyday communication may affect liberal democratic citizenship and political outcomes in both positive and negative ways. Specifically, I argue that social speech: 1) develops the character traits that make for better or worse democratic citizens; 2) contributes to social capital and trust (based on mutual interests, hopes and objectives); 3) provides training for and information about one's unique political culture; and 4) forges the affective ties that determine the borders of imagined political communities. Finally, I test my theory of social speech through empirical observations and assessments of three common social speech situations: Internet speak, safe space speech and social hate speech. These case studies prove that social speech actually does affect democratic citizenship and political outcomes in accordance with ...


Rethinking Chinese Territorial Disputes: How The Value Of Contested Land Shapes Territorial Policies, Ke Wang Jan 2014

Rethinking Chinese Territorial Disputes: How The Value Of Contested Land Shapes Territorial Policies, Ke Wang

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

What explains the timing of when states abandon a delaying strategy to change the status quo of one territorial dispute? And when this does happen, why do states ultimately use military force rather than concessions, or vice versa? This dissertation answers these questions by examining four major Chinese territorial disputes - Chinese-Russian and Chinese-Indian frontier disputes and Chinese-Vietnamese and Chinese-Japanese offshore island disputes. I propose a new theory which focuses on the changeability of territorial values and its effects on territorial policies. I argue that territories have particular meaning and value for particular state in particular historical and international settings. The ...


Gay And Lesbian Rights In Confucian Asia: The Cases Of Hong Kong, Singapore, And Taiwan, John Cheo Jan 2014

Gay And Lesbian Rights In Confucian Asia: The Cases Of Hong Kong, Singapore, And Taiwan, John Cheo

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

From being a love that dared not speak its name to one that is legally recognized by many countries today, same-sex acts and relations have indeed undergone a remarkable transformation in terms of how they are perceived and, consequently, regulated. Yet, globally speaking, this transformation is taking place unevenly as many countries continue to criminalize homosexuality and the commission of same-sex acts.

In Asia, a region that has traditionally if misguidedly been seen as more sexually conservative than the so-called 'Wild West,' the debate over the acceptability of homosexuality rages on. As three of Asia’s most economically developed, cosmopolitan ...


Racial Bias And Interstate Highway Planning: A Mixed Methods Approach, Bradford P. Sherman Jan 2014

Racial Bias And Interstate Highway Planning: A Mixed Methods Approach, Bradford P. Sherman

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

This paper is an analysis of highway alignments based on the census tracts that surround them. First, I perform a quantitative analysis of the tracts with highways and the percentage of non-white and African-Americans in these tracts as opposed to in the state and region in general. In areas where the T-Tests noted a significant difference, a case study approach was employed to conjecture as to the reasoning for these suspect alignments.


Capitalism Democracy And Food Stamps: A Case For The Right To Food In The Land Of Freedom And Plenty, Emilie Abrams Jan 2014

Capitalism Democracy And Food Stamps: A Case For The Right To Food In The Land Of Freedom And Plenty, Emilie Abrams

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

14.5% of Americans do not have enough food, and over 1 in 3 Americans is obese. Yet adequate nutrition remains one of the only base human needs whose delivery to communities is not ensured by the government. The United States is one of five countries that has failed to ratify the U.N. covenant establishing a right to food. In the face of these pressing problems, most of the talk associated with movements seeking to make improvements in America’s food system has little grounding in the kind of rigorous debate about rights, and their central role in protecting ...


Not All Types Of Delay Are Equal: Postsecondary Delay In The U.S. And Taking A Gap Year, Nina Depena Hoe Jan 2014

Not All Types Of Delay Are Equal: Postsecondary Delay In The U.S. And Taking A Gap Year, Nina Depena Hoe

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Postsecondary delay in the U.S. is a topic that has generated interest in the field of higher education in recent decades. Seventeen percent of U.S. students under the age of 24 who began their postsecondary education in 2004 delayed their entrance for some period of time. At the national level, studies have indicated that students who delay are not only at a disadvantage in terms of their pre-college experiences, including lower socioeconomic status and lower levels of academic preparation and achievement, but also are less likely to enroll in a baccalaureate granting institution and complete a bachelor's ...