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2014

International and Area Studies

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Articles 241 - 270 of 274

Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Going Mobile: Political Careers And Institutional Power In The European Commission, Zachary Arace Jan 2014

Going Mobile: Political Careers And Institutional Power In The European Commission, Zachary Arace

Claremont-UC Undergraduate Research Conference on the European Union

The European Commission is arguably the most powerful component of today’s European Union, yet little is understood about who actually comprises the Commission and how they get to Brussels. Scholars have thus far focused on piecemeal studies of backgrounds of Commissioners, legislative approaches to Commission recruitment, or spatial models of multilevel governance systems (among others). In contrast, this paper takes a comprehensive approach to understanding paths to the Commission. To support this approach, a large-N data set of both institutional and personal (i.e., biographies and career histories) data of all Commissioners appointed since 2010 is constructed. This data ...


The Political Hindrances In Solving The European Sovereign Debt Crisis, C. Cole Fairbanks Jan 2014

The Political Hindrances In Solving The European Sovereign Debt Crisis, C. Cole Fairbanks

Claremont-UC Undergraduate Research Conference on the European Union

Once revered as a progressive supranational success story, the European Union now faces excessive public debt, unemployment, and stagnation partly due to its flawed institutional design. This has become apparent in southern Eurozone countries like Portugal and Greece, which continue to suffer from strict austerity measures imposed by the International Monetary Fund, European Commission, and European Central Bank (Troika). This report examines the politics behind the European Sovereign Debt Crisis, including the rise of Eurosceptic populist parties. Furthermore, it analyzes austerity in southern Europe, the ‘moral hazard’ argument, and the German government’s reluctance to lead Europe out the crisis ...


Reconciliation And The Rule Of Law: The Changing Role Of International War Crimes Tribunals, Oriana Lavilla Jan 2014

Reconciliation And The Rule Of Law: The Changing Role Of International War Crimes Tribunals, Oriana Lavilla

Claremont-UC Undergraduate Research Conference on the European Union

This paper explores the relationship between international war crimes tribunals and reconciliation in post-conflict societies. The aim of the present study was to examine how the role of international war crimes tribunals has changed in the peacebuilding process since the early years after World War II. Due to the evolving nature of international law and the international criminal legal system, international tribunals have become increasingly recognized as an integral component of peacebuilding in post-conflict societies. The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) was the first international tribunal with a mandate to contribute to international peace and security. The ...


Explaining The Perseverance Of "Independence In Europe": Strategic Reinforcements Of Minority Nationalist Pro-Europeanism, Judith Sijstermans Jan 2014

Explaining The Perseverance Of "Independence In Europe": Strategic Reinforcements Of Minority Nationalist Pro-Europeanism, Judith Sijstermans

Claremont-UC Undergraduate Research Conference on the European Union

In the 1980’s minority nationalist parties adopted a policy of “independence in Europe.” Paradoxically, the policy simultaneously advocated conceding powers to a supranational body and taking back powers from the state. EU regional development programs initially spurred these pro-European policies, but these programs have since failed. Given the EU incentives, why do minority nationalist parties remain pro-European? I test a bottom-up, party political theory and use the British case studies of the Scottish National Party and the Welsh nationalist party, Plaid Cymru. I argue that these parties have remained pro-European because they are small oppositional parties. As small oppositional ...


Boycotts To Bombs: History, Causes, And Comparison Of The Palestinian Intifadas, Leah Wilson Jan 2014

Boycotts To Bombs: History, Causes, And Comparison Of The Palestinian Intifadas, Leah Wilson

Lewis Honors College Capstone Collection

One of the foremost geopolitical issues of the twenty first century, the conflict between Israel and Palestine has a complicated, ominous history, and limited signs of hope for resolution. Darkened by particularly bloody and significant events such as the 1948 Arab-Israeli dispute, the 1967 Six Day War, and the continuously violent acts of both sides nearing the turn of the century. Particularly significant to the strenuous peace process is the first Intifada of 1987, which not only signified a unity of Palestinian voice and action, but also left a resounding impact on the sociopolitical mentality of both peoples. After the ...


Rebuilding Communities After Violent Conflict: Informal Justice Systems And Resource Access, Sandra F. Joireman Jan 2014

Rebuilding Communities After Violent Conflict: Informal Justice Systems And Resource Access, Sandra F. Joireman

Political Science Faculty Publications

A community recovering from war or ethnic conflict has to find ways of reweaving the fabric of economic and social life with new patterns of interaction and changed demographics.2 In post-­‐‑conflict settings customary law has a particular attraction because of the moral authority it brings to the establishment of order. Customary law is familiar, tied to the identity and history of a community, and operates independently of outside resources. Although the term evokes images of a universal acceptance and ancient origin, customary law has always been dynamic, defined by those in power, and subject to political interests.3 ...


Great Powers, The Persian Gulf, And Global Oil: A Comparative Analysis, Katerina Oskarsson Jan 2014

Great Powers, The Persian Gulf, And Global Oil: A Comparative Analysis, Katerina Oskarsson

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

Using original data, this study explores the changing capabilities of the United States, China, and Russia in the conflict-ridden Persian Gulf since 1980. It reveals what such shifts mean for American hegemony, the international distribution of capabilities in the region, relations among the great powers, and global oil security.


How Civil Society Represents Women: Feminists, Catholics, And Mobilization Strategies In Africa, Alice Kang Jan 2014

How Civil Society Represents Women: Feminists, Catholics, And Mobilization Strategies In Africa, Alice Kang

Faculty Publications: Political Science

In recent years, civil society has risen to speak on behalf of underrepresented groups in Africa. In particular, civil society has advocated for the representation of women’s interests (Tripp et al. 2008). Yet, relatively little is known about the full range of actors who seek the representation of women’s interests, mobilize around women’s issues, and articulate specific preferences.1 Some of these actors include not only feminists, but also religious activists who may clash over women’s issues. This gap in knowledge, moreover, extends to non-democratic countries. Who in civil society seeks to influence the representation of ...


The Columbia River Treaty Review: A Synopsis, David L. (David Lindsay) Davidson, Jaymes Mcclain Jan 2014

The Columbia River Treaty Review: A Synopsis, David L. (David Lindsay) Davidson, Jaymes Mcclain

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

The Columbia River watershed comprises 258,500 square miles (about the size of Texas), with 15 percent of the watershed located in Canada. Tributaries in the upper watershed drain a substantial portion of the Canadian and American Rocky Mountains; precipitation and snowmelt from the Rockies are main flow components. The river then crosses the arid Columbia Plateau and reaches the Pacific via the Columbia River Gorge. In an average year, the river disgorges 198 million acre-feet (MAF) of water, with 25 percent of the runoff (a disproportionately large amount) originating in Canada. With snowmelt a large component of runoff, the ...


The Fatal Attraction Of Suicide Terrorism: An Empirical Analysis Of Suicide Terrorist Attacks In The Middle East And South Asia, Burcu Pinar Alakoc Jan 2014

The Fatal Attraction Of Suicide Terrorism: An Empirical Analysis Of Suicide Terrorist Attacks In The Middle East And South Asia, Burcu Pinar Alakoc

Political Science Graduate Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation examines and explains three distinct aspects of suicide terrorism in the Middle East and South Asia: lethality, perpetrators and strategy selection. While suicide terrorism is a mechanically simple tactic of blowing one’s self up, it terrorizes indiscriminately by generating high numbers of fatalities. I first argue that the lethality of suicide terrorism is driven by its tactical characteristics, namely the amount of control that perpetrators have over the location and targets of the attack. Using original data, I show that where the unique tactical advantages of suicide terrorism are properly utilized, suicide attacks are likely to be ...


Happiness In Public Policy, Laura Musikanski Jan 2014

Happiness In Public Policy, Laura Musikanski

Journal of Social Change

The happiness movement represents a new paradigm where social, economic, and environmental systems are structured to encourage human well-being in a sustainable environment. Bhutan has adopted Gross National Happiness (GNH) as a way of determining its society’s success in contrast to purely economic goals and the singular use of the gross domestic product indicator. Bhutanese policy promulgation includes use of a GNH screening tool. In the United Kingdom, happiness indicators are being used to collect data and the government is starting to explore their application to policy. The Bhutanese GNH policy screening tool has been adapted for the grassroots ...


Cooperative Security: The American Strategy For A Rising China, Ethan Landau Jan 2014

Cooperative Security: The American Strategy For A Rising China, Ethan Landau

CMC Senior Theses

This paper analyzes the theoretical underpinnings and strategic goals of US security strategy with respect to China. It argues that the language used in statements and publications of US strategy demonstrate the development of a strategy of cooperative security. This strategy is dependent on the security environment the United States cultivates with allies and partners in the region. The paper uses evidence from the two largest PACOM military operations--RIMPAC and Cobra Gold-to demonstrate this developing strategy.


Moscow, We Have A Problem: Russia's Inconsistent Approach To The Evolving Concept Of Sovereignty In The 21st Century, Hillary E. Lundberg Jan 2014

Moscow, We Have A Problem: Russia's Inconsistent Approach To The Evolving Concept Of Sovereignty In The 21st Century, Hillary E. Lundberg

CMC Senior Theses

The 1648 Peace of Westphalia created an understanding of state sovereignty free from external interference that remained largely unaltered until the last century. The horrors of the Holocaust and the significant humanitarian crises of the 20th century have presented the international community with a new type of threat to international peace and security and have sparked an ongoing conversation about the limitations of traditional sovereignty. Russia has positioned itself as a firm supporter of a strict adherence to the Westphalian concept of sovereignty, but my thesis argues that Russians do not value this interpretation as much as they claim ...


The Right To Choose: Women's Political Activity In Islamic States, Emily A. Gibson Jan 2014

The Right To Choose: Women's Political Activity In Islamic States, Emily A. Gibson

Global Tides

The past fifteen to twenty years have seen a significant shift in focus to the Middle East-North Africa (MENA) region as well as other primarily Islamic regions and countries, including Indonesia. Much of Western foreign policy has been allocated to tracking and stopping trans-national Islamic terrorist networks such as Al-Qaeda and Al-Shabaab, and working with the governments of the countries throughout which these groups operate. Despite what popular culture may portray, those who study Islam and its adherents have come to recognize that these terrorist groups represent a severe minority of what is often a thoughtful and peaceful faith. However ...


Yemen Between Revolution And Counter-Terrorism, Sheila Carapico Jan 2014

Yemen Between Revolution And Counter-Terrorism, Sheila Carapico

Political Science Faculty Publications

This chapter juxtaposes these seemingly two quite different storylines - one about Yemeni aspirations for social justice and better governance and the other about American and Saudi operations undertaken in the name of combating terrorism. The so-called GCC Initiative, and in particular the National Dialogue Conference process playing out as this book goes to press, provides the link between them. From the perspective of domestic politics, the Dialogue can be read as the outcome of agitation by the new generation of 'peaceful youth', as well as an outgrowth of Yemen's tradition of dialogue - an historic effort to resolve crisis through ...


Aiming For Certainty: The Kanun, Blood Feuds And The Ascertainment Of Customary Law, Sandra F. Joireman Jan 2014

Aiming For Certainty: The Kanun, Blood Feuds And The Ascertainment Of Customary Law, Sandra F. Joireman

Political Science Faculty Publications

Customary law is an alternative legal framework to statute or public law. In the past the existence of customary law was viewed as problematic due to the uncertainty which accompanies legal pluralism. Increasingly, scholars are recognizing legal pluralism as simply a reality to be negotiated, rather than a problem. One frequently proposed solution to the difficulties posed by the existence of customary law is to write it down, or ascertain it, in order to provide for legal certainty. This article addresses this goal in three parts. The first part describes customary law and how it functions in its uncodified form ...


Transnational Marriage: Modern Imaginings, Relational Realignments, And Persistent Inequalities, Coralynn V. Davis Jan 2014

Transnational Marriage: Modern Imaginings, Relational Realignments, And Persistent Inequalities, Coralynn V. Davis

Faculty Journal Articles

In the context of shifting cultural anchors as well as unstable global economic conditions, new practices of intimacy and sexuality may become tactics in an individual’s negotiation of conflicting desires and potentials. This article offers reflection on the interface between global forces, powerful transcultural narratives, and state policies, on the one hand, and local, even individual, constructions and tactics in regard to sexuality, marriage, migration, and work, on the other. The article focuses on the life trajectory of Gudiya, an ambitious young Hindu woman who started out life with little social capital and few economic resources in a dusty ...


Crimea And The International Legal Order, William W. Burke-White Jan 2014

Crimea And The International Legal Order, William W. Burke-White

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

A key balance between two of the most fundamental principles of the post-World War II international legal and political order is at stake today in Ukraine. Particularly in its annexation of Crimea, Russia has exploited the tension between a fundamental principle that prohibits the acquisition of territory through the use of force and an equally fundamental right of self-determination. Russia’s reinterpretation of these two principles could well destabilize the tenuous balance between the protection of individual rights and the preservation of states’ territorial integrity that undergirds the post World War II order. In determining the precedent that will be ...


2013/14 Imtc Passenger Vehicle Survey: Project Organization & Report Of Findings, Border Policy Research Institute Jan 2014

2013/14 Imtc Passenger Vehicle Survey: Project Organization & Report Of Findings, Border Policy Research Institute

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

For the IMTC passenger vehicle survey, the notion of a "cross-border trip" is not as rigid a definition of "trip" as typically used in traffic modeling. While basic origin and destination data was collected here, our purpose was not to obtain a trip diary from our respondents that would account for intermediary stops. Our interests were in the primary destination a traveler had when they left their residence and headed across the border.


Suggestions For Improving Cross-Border Mobility And North American Competitiveness, Border Policy Research Institute Jan 2014

Suggestions For Improving Cross-Border Mobility And North American Competitiveness, Border Policy Research Institute

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

On May 15, 2014, the BPRI hosted a conference titled “Beyond NAFTA: Streamlining the Border to Strengthen North American Competitiveness.” With two decades of NAFTA behind us, and with the U.S.-Canada “Beyond the Border” (BtB) agenda near the end of its phase-one timeline, speakers were asked to produce ideas about what should next be done in order to foster crossborder mobility


Canadian Indians, Inuit, Métis, And Métis: An Exploration Of The Unparalleled Rights Enjoyed By American Indians Born In Canada To Freely Access The United States, Greg Boos, Greg Mclawsen, Heather Fathali Jan 2014

Canadian Indians, Inuit, Métis, And Métis: An Exploration Of The Unparalleled Rights Enjoyed By American Indians Born In Canada To Freely Access The United States, Greg Boos, Greg Mclawsen, Heather Fathali

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

Certain American Indians born in Canada (ABCs) enjoy access to the United States unrestricted by the Immigration and Nationality (INA), a right stemming from the Jay Treaty (1794). An examination of this right, reflected by codification as § 289 of the INA, reveals qualifying ABCs are entitled to privileges unparalleled by all but United States citizens to enter and remain in the U.S. “for the purpose of employment, study, retirement, investing, and/or immigration”4 or any other reason.


An Assessment Of Future Bilateral Trade Flows And Their Implications For U.S. Border Infrastructure Investment, Steven Globerman, Paul Storer Jan 2014

An Assessment Of Future Bilateral Trade Flows And Their Implications For U.S. Border Infrastructure Investment, Steven Globerman, Paul Storer

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

There are frequent calls for investment in border infrastructure given security-related delays and transportation bottlenecks associated with physical infrastructure described as outdated and inadequate. Given the potentially large investment expenditures needed to expand inspection and transportation infrastructure at border crossing sites, as well as the irreversibility of many of the investments that might need to be made, it is important that government decision-makers base spending choices on highly-informed forward-looking projections of capacity demands on traffic corridors through which bilateral commercial shipments are likely to travel.


Pilot Project: Using Rfid To Reduce Border Queues, David L. (David Lindsay) Davidson Jan 2014

Pilot Project: Using Rfid To Reduce Border Queues, David L. (David Lindsay) Davidson

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

Since 9/11, about $500 million has been spent on border infrastructure in the Cascade Gateway region, including new port facilities, improvements to approaching highways, and deployments of technologies such as wait-time systems. Yet there frequently are queues in excess of 60 minutes for the many travelers who are not enrolled in NEXUS (a program that provides trusted travelers with access to a dedicated highway lane). While regional stakeholders know that queues would be far worse in the absence of past investments, efforts are continually underway to improve border mobility. Greater usage of RFID-enabled documents is a proven method of ...


Comparing Us And Canadian Foreign Worker Policies, Laurie Trautman Jan 2014

Comparing Us And Canadian Foreign Worker Policies, Laurie Trautman

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

In both the U.S. and Canada, immigration reform is a politically, economically and emotionally contentious issue. One component of immigration policy in particular – the use of temporary foreign labor – is an important aspect of policy reform in both countries. This Border Policy Brief explores the policies used by Canada and the U.S. to import temporary foreign workers, often referred to as "guest workers,‟ particularly in lower-skilled occupations such as agriculture, hospitality and caregiving. Although both countries are increasingly relying on foreign workers to fill lower-skilled labor needs, they are doing so in very different ways.


Implications Of Trade Trends Upon Canada-Us Border Infrastructure, Border Policy Research Institute Jan 2014

Implications Of Trade Trends Upon Canada-Us Border Infrastructure, Border Policy Research Institute

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

The transportation and inspection agencies that build and operate border infrastructure are engaged in a constant process of facility planning, wrestling with decisions about where to invest limited resources. The existing situation at a facility is obviously influential—e.g., traffic volumes in excess of a facility’s capacity; subpar workplace conditions; excessive maintenance costs for a decrepit facility. But equally important is the need to consider future conditions, such as the traffic forecast. This article discusses the volume of trade forecasted to occur at eight major ports-of-entry (POEs) along the Canada – U.S. border.


Sex (Still) Sells: How Sex Trafficking In The United States And Thailand Perpetuates Minority Repression, Emily B. Hulsey Jan 2014

Sex (Still) Sells: How Sex Trafficking In The United States And Thailand Perpetuates Minority Repression, Emily B. Hulsey

University Honors Program Theses

Human trafficking is the third most profitable illegal international trade behind drug and arms trafficking. Sex trafficking is the second largest subset of this illegal enterprise and soon may equal or surpass labor trafficking as the prominent subset. This research aims to address four integral components of the sex trafficking and forced prostitution trade: (1) to show how sex trafficking in Thailand is being used perpetually to repress minority women and their communities; (2) to show how sex trafficking of minors (ranging in age from 8-17) in Atlanta, Georgia is shockingly similar to sex trafficking practices in Thailand; (3) to ...


“Eisenhower Doctrine”, Imperialism And Expansionism In American History: A Social, Political, And Cultural Encyclopedia, Abc-Clio (2014). Print & Online., Kevin Brown Dec 2013

“Eisenhower Doctrine”, Imperialism And Expansionism In American History: A Social, Political, And Cultural Encyclopedia, Abc-Clio (2014). Print & Online., Kevin Brown

Kevin P Brown

No abstract provided.


Paradoxes Of Democratisation: Environmental Politics In East Asia, Mary Alice Haddad Dec 2013

Paradoxes Of Democratisation: Environmental Politics In East Asia, Mary Alice Haddad

Mary Alice Haddad

This chapter examines environmental politics in four polities that run the full spectrum of political regimes: mainland China (authoritarian), South Korea and Taiwan (newly democratic), and Japan (mature democracy). The chapter argues that variation in environmental politics in each place resulted primarily from the timing of their environmental movements, with subsequent movements learning from predecessors and gaining increasing access to global NGO networks. Paradoxically, when environmental movements became linked to democratization movements (in South Korea and Taiwan), they also became linked to political parties, which hindered access to government policymaking when non-allied parties were in power.


Against Epistemic Totalitarianism: The Insurrectional Politics Of Bessie Head, Shiera S. Malik Dec 2013

Against Epistemic Totalitarianism: The Insurrectional Politics Of Bessie Head, Shiera S. Malik

Shiera S el-Malik

This paper argues that South African writer, Bessie Head, crafted art that refuses discursive closure, or epistemic totalitarianism. The essay demonstrates this by examining Head’s commitment to analysing power in the context of people’s daily lives and her attention to the insurrectionary role of imagination in intervening in established dynamics of power. The first section draws connections between Head’s practice of writing about ordinary people to her own experience and observations of living under South African apartheid. The second section focuses on the analytical links that Head makes between poverty, white privilege and institutional economic structures in ...


Interruptive Discourses: Léopold Senghor, African Emotion And The Poetry Of Politics, Shiera S. El-Malik Dec 2013

Interruptive Discourses: Léopold Senghor, African Emotion And The Poetry Of Politics, Shiera S. El-Malik

Shiera S el-Malik

This paper suggests that Senghor’s political and poetic work can be understood as connected to his position as a sophisticated critical thinker. In order to move past a hasty rejection of his work, one might analyse Senghor’s work as part of the more serious anti- colonial, epistemological activism that emerges in the mid-twentieth century. I argue that, for Senghor, politics is an art of interrupting discursive closures. I characterize Senghor’s thinking as focused on epistemological questions, a recognition of the embeddedness of these questions in everyday political decision-making, and an awareness of the way his own thinking ...