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2014

American Politics

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Articles 1 - 30 of 292

Full-Text Articles in Political Science

China's Triangle Diplomacy 中国の三角外交, Mel Gurtov Dec 2014

China's Triangle Diplomacy 中国の三角外交, Mel Gurtov

Political Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

Back in the days of Richard Nixon and Henry Kissinger, the "strategic triangle" with the Soviet Union and China was the great game. The idea was to play off the two communist powers against one another, relying on their ideological warfare under Mao, deep cultural differences, and open conflict in border regions to sustain their mutual suspicions and fears of attack. Now the shoe is on the other foot, so to speak: China seems to be in charge of the game, using US-Russia enmity and its own on-again, off-again competition with the US to keep both those countries cooperative with ...


Why You Should Care About The Threatened Middle Class, Jill Littrell, Fred Brooks, Jan Ivery, Mary Ohmer Dec 2014

Why You Should Care About The Threatened Middle Class, Jill Littrell, Fred Brooks, Jan Ivery, Mary Ohmer

jill l littrell Dr.

In the last two decades, the income and security of the individual middle class worker has declined and the gap between the middle class and the wealthy has widened. We explain how this is bad for democracy, the economy, and the aggregate health of the nation. We examine the governmental policies and interventions that increased the middle class following the depression and maintained its vigor through the post-World War II period. The impetus for these changes in governmental policies in the 1930s was to end the Great Depression. We pose the question of whether a nation can recover from a ...


Barack Obama, Implicit Bias, And The 2008 Election, Jeffrey J. Rachlinski, Gregory S. Parks Dec 2014

Barack Obama, Implicit Bias, And The 2008 Election, Jeffrey J. Rachlinski, Gregory S. Parks

Jeffrey J Rachlinski

The election of Barack Obama as the forty-fourth president of the United States suggests that the United States has made great strides with regard to race. The blogs and the pundits may laud Obama’s win as evidence that we now live in a “post-racial America.” But is it accurate to suggest that race no longer significantly influences how Americans evaluate each other? Does Obama’s victory suggest that affirmative action and antidiscrimination protections are no longer necessary? We think not. Ironically, rather than marking the dawn of a post-racial America, Obama’s candidacy reveals how deeply race affects judgment.


We Wear The Mask: Exploring The Talented Tenth And African American Political Philosophy In 21st Century Politics, Lauryn T. Minter Dec 2014

We Wear The Mask: Exploring The Talented Tenth And African American Political Philosophy In 21st Century Politics, Lauryn T. Minter

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Researchers have suggested that Blacks who express linked racial fate are ideologically liberal. Given the prominence of Black philosophical thought and salience of race, I suggest that linked racial fate results in conservative ideology, which exists on a separate ideological dimension than the traditional conservative ideological dimension. This new ideological dimension, referred to as conservatism among Blacks, is vital to understanding Black political thought in the 21st century. Using data from the 1996 National Black Election Study, 2008 National Annenberg Election Study, and focus group data I argue that the conservative ideas espoused by Blacks, specifically members of the ...


Has Adam Gadahn Forsaken The Lawful Jihad For Anti-Americanism? A Case Study Of Ideological Contradictions, Paul Kamolnick Dec 2014

Has Adam Gadahn Forsaken The Lawful Jihad For Anti-Americanism? A Case Study Of Ideological Contradictions, Paul Kamolnick

ETSU Faculty Works

Despite his importance as a senior Al-Qaeda spokesman, no detailed examination exists of Adam Yahiye Gadahn’s employment of fiqh al-jihad—that branch of Islamic jurisprudence regulating the lawful waging of jihad—to condemn or condone violence committed in the name of Al-Qaeda. This article first provides a detailed exposition of Gadahn’s sharia-based critique of affiliates’ conduct deemed by him in violation of Islamic law and involving the commission of major sins. Second, Gadahn’s conception of fiqh al-jihad is contextualized and contrasted with the comprehensive fiqh al-jihad-based critiques produced by respected militant Islamist scholars. A key finding here ...


Racial Politics Of American History And The United Nations: The Impact Of The Cold War On The Civil Rights Movement, Amy C. Cody Dec 2014

Racial Politics Of American History And The United Nations: The Impact Of The Cold War On The Civil Rights Movement, Amy C. Cody

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

Thesis research focuses around the Civil Rights Congress' 1951 United Nations Petition charging the United States with genocide against the African American race. This thesis also examines the complexities of global politics and the impact Communism had on the civil rights organization's ability to gain support for reform on the domestic and international level.


Absentee Voting & Expanding Electoral Participation, Alyse Marie Frederick Dec 2014

Absentee Voting & Expanding Electoral Participation, Alyse Marie Frederick

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

If liberalization of absentee voting has the ability to increase voter turnout, then it is significant to distinguish what demographics an absentee voter is most likely to be a part of. In the United States an individuals’ right to vote absentee is regulated by the state. Therefore, not every state in the United States grants their residents the choice to vote absentee. Initially, absentee voting was established as a means to allow soldiers displaced by war to participate in voting. Over time disabled citizens were granted the right to apply to vote absentee. Eventually, many states began to liberalize eligibility ...


Reforming The U.S. Intelligence Community: Successes, Failures And The Best Path Forward, Christopher John Sheehy Dec 2014

Reforming The U.S. Intelligence Community: Successes, Failures And The Best Path Forward, Christopher John Sheehy

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

In the wake of the 9/11 and Iraqi WMD catastrophes, an increased spotlight was placed upon the U.S. Intelligence Community (IC). The widespread criticism of the IC, from both government and public sources, ultimately culminated in the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act (IRTPA) in 2004. Today, with a wide array of transnational threats to the homeland, as well as the complex, globalized, high-tech world they thrive in, the role of intelligence remains essential to the national security apparatus.

A new shape for the intelligence reform debate is necessary, one that recognizes the unique role the IC plays ...


Transparency Rules In U.S. Elections Need Updating To Reflect 21st Century Realities, Rebecca Green Dec 2014

Transparency Rules In U.S. Elections Need Updating To Reflect 21st Century Realities, Rebecca Green

Popular Media

No abstract provided.


Boosting The Local Economy Of Ashland Ohio, Louise C. Fleming-Dufala Ph.D., Kimberly Field-Springer Ph.D. Dec 2014

Boosting The Local Economy Of Ashland Ohio, Louise C. Fleming-Dufala Ph.D., Kimberly Field-Springer Ph.D.

Journal of Public Deliberation

This article summarizes an initiative to engage citizens in issues of building and supporting a local economy. It includes reasons for engaging the public; steps that were taken; and results of deliberative efforts.


Reason-Giving In Deliberative Forums, Brian E. Adams Dec 2014

Reason-Giving In Deliberative Forums, Brian E. Adams

Journal of Public Deliberation

One aspect of deliberation is giving reasons to support a position. In this article, I explore how citizens engage in this activity by developing a framework that breaks down reason-giving into component parts, applying it to a set of eight National Issues Forums. Deliberators typically provided evidence (usually in the form of factual statements) to support their conclusions, but frequently did not tie them together with an infrastructure of logical and causal connections. Deliberators engaged in reason-giving by presenting evidence but did not explicate the underlying logic of their positions. This suggests that deliberative research should focus greater attention on ...


Public Deliberation And Co-Production In The Political And Electoral Arena: A Citizens’ Jury Approach, Greg Munno, Tina Nabatchi Dec 2014

Public Deliberation And Co-Production In The Political And Electoral Arena: A Citizens’ Jury Approach, Greg Munno, Tina Nabatchi

Journal of Public Deliberation

This study presents an empirical evaluation of the co-production of a “Statement to the Candidates” and a “Voters Guide” for a key U.S. Congressional race. Citizens produced these materials during an intensive process called “Reclaim November Ohio,” which used the Citizen Jury method of public deliberation. We use a series of pre- and post-test surveys to evaluate this unique application of co-production. Specifically, we assess whether this deliberative approach to co-production in the political and electoral arena improved participants’ perceptions of politics and government and made citizens more interested in and knowledgeable about policy issues. We also assess whether ...


Challenging Conventional Campaign Wisdom, Bradley Joyner Dec 2014

Challenging Conventional Campaign Wisdom, Bradley Joyner

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

The common wisdom in political campaigns is that the most effective way to get people to vote is by sending people out into neighborhoods and going to people’s doors, personally encouraging them to vote. This method, canvassing, is undoubtedly effective in getting people to feel like their vote matters, and then getting them to actually vote. It is also incredibly expensive. While other methods may be less effective by percentage, they maybe more cost-effective and allow campaigns to reach a broader base. Further, the ineffectiveness of these campaign strategies may be mitigated by multiple means of voter outreach, such ...


Duverger’S Law And Strategic Voting In Large Scale Elections, Caleb Sturges Dec 2014

Duverger’S Law And Strategic Voting In Large Scale Elections, Caleb Sturges

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

After Felsenthal DS, Rapoport A, Maoz Z (1988) experimental research on Duverger’s Law and Strategic Voting has become commonplace, but the research lacks saliency on one particular metric: Voter Number. We test both of these hypotheses in an environments with “large” numbers of simulated voting participants starting from the standard 24 human subject election and going to the average number of voters in the US 2014 election- 230,000. To protect against the effects of priming the subject’s strategies with the votes of the machine, the behavior of the simulated voters (represented by the voting behavior’s Sincere ...


The Effects Of Social Media And The Internet On Political Participation, Leslie Orozco Dec 2014

The Effects Of Social Media And The Internet On Political Participation, Leslie Orozco

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

The 21st century has been a century of many changes and technological advancements. Arguably the most important and influential technological advancement of this century has been the internet. With the internet came other branches of the internet such as social media that have now become extremely prominent in American daily life and culture. In the last few Presidential elections, candidates have used the internet and social media as an important part of their political campaigns.

This research project looks at the effects that social media and the internet has had on political participation during the most recent Presidential elections using ...


Gender, War, And Politics, Madeline Robinson Dec 2014

Gender, War, And Politics, Madeline Robinson

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

This research explores the gender gap amongst female and male voters and its correlation with the Democratic Party’s platform on foreign policy. The political orientation of women during the 1980’s reversed and shifted towards the left, and this research will investigate if this was caused by female voters’ opinions of the parties on their foreign policy platforms. The theory of conflict avoidance states females are more likely than males to avoid conflict, and this theory can be used to determine whether females feel more represented by the Democratic Party compared to the Republican Party. The foreign policy platform ...


Who Do You Trust?: An Analysis Of Public Perception Towards Government, Pilar Fabregas Dec 2014

Who Do You Trust?: An Analysis Of Public Perception Towards Government, Pilar Fabregas

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

This paper will discuss how the American people’s trust in their government can vary depending on different sociopolitical factors, and how the government could take advantage of this information. Through extensive research of literature reviews on previous findings as well as analysis of 2012 ANES data, I discover that the American public responds negatively to their government with an increased perception of corruption and overall disregard to the needs of the people. I will also add to the common literature by utilizing other scholarly works that demonstrate how these explanations behind distrust in government can be used to potentially ...


The Highly Political Supreme Court, Riley Lane Munks Dec 2014

The Highly Political Supreme Court, Riley Lane Munks

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

This paper investigates whether Republicans or Democrats support a strong Supreme Court and why. Furthermore, by analyzing data from the 2012 American National Election Survey, I will study support of the court based on gender, age, and race. Since the early 1980’s the court has taken a strong conservative direction, to the dismay of many liberals. Republicans feel comfortable sending a congressional dispute to the courts while Democrats may feel disenfranchised with the judicial process. I also believe that younger people believe the court is an outdated method of making laws and interpreting the constitution. Originally the Supreme Court ...


Why Youth Voters Have Lower Participation, Christine Lathrop, Shaia Araghi Dec 2014

Why Youth Voters Have Lower Participation, Christine Lathrop, Shaia Araghi

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

The turnout rate for young adults in elections succeeding 1964 has significantly diminished. This derives as a result of the methods that the candidates use to reach out to young voters, the agenda being debated or the political climate at the time accompanied by the feeling of political efficacy. This research project delves into the major reasons behind why there has been a low voter turnout rate, that being under fifty percent of those in this age category, for young adults, those being 18 – 24, in presidential elections. This particularly investigates the reasoning for the 2012 election being such a ...


American Identity And Party Affiliation, Erika Aranda Dec 2014

American Identity And Party Affiliation, Erika Aranda

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

The face of the United States is changing. In a nation where the majority of the population belongs to a minority group, defining the national American identify has become a complex task. This essay focuses on the correlation between the degree of attachment to the American identity and how it plays a large role in dictating party affiliation. Political culture (defined here as the shared beliefs and values as to how citizens and the government relate to one another) in the United States is extremely varied throughout the nation due to demographic diversity. A person’s identity is socially and ...


Obama 2008: An Origin For Post-Racial America?, Calah Vargas Dec 2014

Obama 2008: An Origin For Post-Racial America?, Calah Vargas

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

This study explores the effects of the Obama elections on personal discrimination, voter turnout, and opinions of media coverage. This election was seen as a starting point to a more progressive America in 2008. Many thought this was the beginning of a new era in which any racial/gender group could start to make their mark on politics, and that the huge issue regarding race was behind us.

With many racial debacles arising in the last couple years I wondered if America’s idea of progressiveness was truly progressive enough to promote the thought of a post-racial society and even ...


Factors That Shape U.S. Public Opinion On Foreign Policy, Julianne O'Connor Dec 2014

Factors That Shape U.S. Public Opinion On Foreign Policy, Julianne O'Connor

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Measuring public opinion is an undertaking requiring precise methods and a clear vision, and even then results can be inconclusive. Yet, understanding how and why a democratic public thinks the way it does, and to what extent those thoughts influence policymakers, is essential to a democracy. This paper will use data from the American National Election Survey to discuss the relationship between level of support for the war on terror and level of perceived effectiveness. Values, political sophistication, knowledge, and self-efficacy can each be used to predict the level of support an individual has for the war on terror, and ...


The Relationship Between The American Government And Society: Congressman John O’Connor And New York’S 16th District During The Great Depression, Kristine Avena Dec 2014

The Relationship Between The American Government And Society: Congressman John O’Connor And New York’S 16th District During The Great Depression, Kristine Avena

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

This research focuses on the interaction between a Congressman and his constituents and how this interaction reflects the larger conversation between the American government and its people. By examining the interrelationship between a political representative and New York’s 16th District between 1931 and 1951, I clarify the role and efforts policy makers made in response to urban societies’ concerns. The two decades studied in this dissertation consists of the post-Prohibition phase, Great Depression, and New Deal programming. The collection I analyze is the “John J. O’Connor Collection” from the Frank Mt. Pleasant Library of Special Collections at Chapman ...


Post Obama: Discrimination Toward African Americans Remains A Major Problem In America, Mackenzie Carl Dec 2014

Post Obama: Discrimination Toward African Americans Remains A Major Problem In America, Mackenzie Carl

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

This paper explores the issue of racial views within the United States, particularly after the election and reelection of Barack Obama in 2008 and 2012. The goal of this project is to determine if racial tension and resentment has either increased or decreased due to the election of a black President as well as determining if party identification is a predictor of racial resentment. By delving into the scholarly literature as well as looking into the public’s opinion, it is revealed that racial tension and resentment has actually increased within America, especially within the white population. Different forms of ...


Discovering A Gold Mine Of U.S. Government Information: Exploring The Hathitrust Catalog And Its Rich Veins, Bert Chapman Dec 2014

Discovering A Gold Mine Of U.S. Government Information: Exploring The Hathitrust Catalog And Its Rich Veins, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Presentations

The Hathitrust Catalog provides researchers at member institutions with exponentially expanded access to historical U.S. Government information resources. This presentation describes how researchers can use this resource to conduct substantive research using government information resources on public policy issues such as Internal Revenue Service program problems, infectious diseases such as Ebola, and U.S. foreign relations with the former Soviet Union/Russian Federation.


U.S. Space Policy: The Militarization Of Space, Donald M. Borock, Joel R. Hillison, Rutherford V. Platt, Emily K. Costley, Jessica R. Jozwik Dec 2014

U.S. Space Policy: The Militarization Of Space, Donald M. Borock, Joel R. Hillison, Rutherford V. Platt, Emily K. Costley, Jessica R. Jozwik

Joel R. Hillison

This year the Eisenhower Institute Undergraduate Fellowship Program in studying the past, present and future of United States Space Policy. Learn about the militarization of space, the space race, and origin of GPS, reconnaissance satellites, and how they impact your day-to-day life. The Militarization of Space faculty panel has been organized by EI Undergraduate Fellows, Emily Costley '14 & Jessica Jozwik '14. This event is co-sponsored by the Interfraternity Council. The EI Undergraduate Fellows program offers a select group of Gettysburg College students the chance to develop their leadership skills and grow in their knowledge and understanding of public policy. Fellows ...


Interest Groups, Political Party Control, Lobbying, And Science Funding: A Population Ecology Approach, Allyn Katherine Milojevich Dec 2014

Interest Groups, Political Party Control, Lobbying, And Science Funding: A Population Ecology Approach, Allyn Katherine Milojevich

Doctoral Dissertations

Science plays an increasingly important role in public policy in a range of issues from national security to public health. Thus, scientists will play an increasingly important role in society. This dissertation first examines how federal science funding changes with partisan control of key political institutions. Next, science-related interests groups, including their formation, specialization, and lobbying activities, are examined. Interest groups are a growing aspect of the American political system. However, they are an understudied aspect of political institutions. While much of their activity occurs within the legislative branch, they also work in the executive and judicial branches to advocate ...


Environmental Protection And U.S. Foreign Policy & Decision-Making In Multilateral Development Banks, Maui Cheska L. Orozco Dec 2014

Environmental Protection And U.S. Foreign Policy & Decision-Making In Multilateral Development Banks, Maui Cheska L. Orozco

Theses

In recent decades, the promotion of policies that are environmentally friendly has become an important goal in U.S. foreign policy. One way that the United States has influence over protecting the environment is through the policies attached to projects funded by the multilateral development banks (MDBs). This gives the U.S. the ability to indirectly fund projects in developing countries. Using data provided by the United States Treasury, I examined U.S. voting decisions on projects from 2004 to 2011. These votes come from multiple development banks including the World Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank (IADB), Asian Development Bank ...


It's All In A Meme: A Content Analysis Of Memes Posted To 2012 Presidential Election Facebook Pages, Bobbie Foster Dec 2014

It's All In A Meme: A Content Analysis Of Memes Posted To 2012 Presidential Election Facebook Pages, Bobbie Foster

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis was an exploratory study to understand how Democrats and Republicans design memes, use traditional media framing, and how memes fit into modern humor theories. The study explores the relationship between the traditional media frames of the ideal candidate, populist campaigner, and the sure loser (Grabe & Bucy, 2009) and the commentary added by Internet users to these images in the memes.

The study also applies the benign-violation theory (McGraw & Warren, 2010) to the analysis of memes to understand the design choices made by meme creators. The benign-violation theory states that a physical or psychological violation is benign if 1 ...


Republican Realignment: Building A Majority Coalition For Future Electoral Success, Anthony J. Del Signore Dec 2014

Republican Realignment: Building A Majority Coalition For Future Electoral Success, Anthony J. Del Signore

Honors College Theses

Since the election of President George H. W. Bush, Republican presidential candidates have had difficulty winning popular elections. Republican candidates lost five of the next six popular elections to their Democratic opponents. This paper investigates why. It outlines the growing demographic shift in electoral politics which is detrimental for future Republican success. The growing dissonance between non-white, non-male voters and the Republican Party hinders the Party’s success when its message does not resonate with a majority of voters.

Utilizing realignment theory as first espoused by political scientist V. O. Key, this paper analyzes nine essential battleground states and the ...