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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Symposium - The U.S.-Iranian Relationship And The Future Of International Order Nov 2013

Symposium - The U.S.-Iranian Relationship And The Future Of International Order

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

No abstract provided.


2012-13 Jlia Masthead Nov 2013

2012-13 Jlia Masthead

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

No abstract provided.


Protecting Shareholders From Themselves: How The United Kingdom’S 2011 Takeover Code Amendments Hit Their Mark, Matthew Peetz Nov 2013

Protecting Shareholders From Themselves: How The United Kingdom’S 2011 Takeover Code Amendments Hit Their Mark, Matthew Peetz

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

Kraft’s takeover of Cadbury in 2011 caused considerable uproar in the United Kingdom. The political outcry caused significant amendments to the United Kingdom’s regulatory framework over mergers and acquisitions, the so-called, Takeover Code. These changes to the Takeover Code were made to help relieve pressure on target companies during takeover situations, and to correct the imbalance of power in favor of bidding companies that the political community had perceived during the Kraft-Cadbury takeover. After the changes were made, but before they were implemented, the business community expressed concern that these added regulations would be detrimental to the M ...


The Case Of Christmas Island: How International Law Affects The Australian-Malaysian Refugee Deal, Ria Pereira Nov 2013

The Case Of Christmas Island: How International Law Affects The Australian-Malaysian Refugee Deal, Ria Pereira

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

In July 2011, Australia and Malaysia entered into an arrangement in which Australian asylum seekers would be removed to neighboring Malaysia to have their asylum claims processed. Following widespread criticism in the media, Australia’s High Court ruled that such a deal violated Australia’s refuges protection laws. While this ruling should have put an end to the deal, Australia’s Immigration Minister indicated that the agreement might nevertheless be feasible. Policy makers proposed amending Australian domestic immigration laws to allow the deal to go forward unencumbered. A bill to amend Australia’s Migration Act was subsequently introduced. As it ...


The Cost Of Fear: An Analysis Of Sex Offender Registration, Community Notification, And Civil Commitment Laws In The United States And The United Kingdom, Kate Hynes Nov 2013

The Cost Of Fear: An Analysis Of Sex Offender Registration, Community Notification, And Civil Commitment Laws In The United States And The United Kingdom, Kate Hynes

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

Sex offenders are often seen as a notorious group in both the United States and the United Kingdom. The public opinion of the masses has often found its way into the laws which restrict the privacy and freedoms of many sex offenders. This comment will examine the often divergent trends in lawmaking and judicial authority in both countries in regard to sex offender registration, community notification, and civil commitment. Further, the comment will study the lasting effects on the sex offender population and potential civil rights implications.


How Precipitous A Decline? U.S.-Iranian Relations And The Transition From American Primacy, Hillary Mann Leverett Nov 2013

How Precipitous A Decline? U.S.-Iranian Relations And The Transition From American Primacy, Hillary Mann Leverett

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

This essay is grounded in two basic propositions. The first is that the greatest strategic challenge facing the United States is extricating its foreign policy from a well-worn but deeply counterproductive quest for hegemonic dominance in critical areas of the world, especially the Middle East. The second is that Washington’s handling of its relations with the Islamic Republic of Iran constitutes a crucial test of America’s capacity to put its foreign policy on a more productive and realistic trajectory. Since the Islamic Republic’s founding in 1979, Washington has refused to understand and accept the basic model underlying ...


The Prohibition On The Use Of Force For Arms Control: The Case Of Iran’S Nuclear Program, Mary Ellen O'Connell, Reyam El Molla Nov 2013

The Prohibition On The Use Of Force For Arms Control: The Case Of Iran’S Nuclear Program, Mary Ellen O'Connell, Reyam El Molla

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

International law does not permit the use of military force against Iran to attempt to end its nuclear program. The resort to military force in international relations is covered first and foremost by Article 2(4) of the United Nations Charter. Article 2(4) is a general prohibition on resort to force that includes resort to military force for arms control, including nuclear weapons control. The Charter has two express but limited exceptions to the ban on military force. A state that is the victim of a significant armed attack may use force in necessary and proportional self-defense; the United ...


Caroline Revisited: An Imagined Exchange Between John Kerry And Mohammad Javad Zarif, James W. Houck Nov 2013

Caroline Revisited: An Imagined Exchange Between John Kerry And Mohammad Javad Zarif, James W. Houck

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

In 1837, sailors of Great Britain's Royal Navy sank the American ship the Caroline over Niagra Falls. Great Britain justified the incident the preemptive strike as an act of self-defense. Diplomats of the two nations negotiated a legal framework to guide future preemptive uses of force. In the face of twenty-first century nuclear weapons, however, the Caroline framework seems outdated and impractical. To date, Iran continues to develop their nuclear program, while refusing international inspectors full access to their centrifuges. The United States is committed to keeping a nuclear weapon out of Iran's hands. The United States and ...


Iran's Nuclear Program And International Law, Daniel H. Joyner Nov 2013

Iran's Nuclear Program And International Law, Daniel H. Joyner

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

In this article, Professor Daniel Joyner analyzes the legal arguments on both sides of the Iran nuclear issue. The article address what the sides regard as the relevant sources of international nuclear law, and their respective interpretations of these sources law. Professor Joyner argues that Iran’s case illustrates warped and incorrect legal interpretations of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty and other sources of law, and a prejudicial and inconsistent application of the law by the West and by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The article posits that this warped interpretation of NPT obligations has led to a bleak future for ...


Npt: A Pillar Of Global Governance, Richard Butler Nov 2013

Npt: A Pillar Of Global Governance, Richard Butler

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

The NPT is regarded as the cornerstone of nuclear arms control. It is the sole, widely agreed commitment in international law, to a world free of nuclear weapons. This fact and its operational mechanisms, establish NPT as a pillar of global governance. Any breakout from it, such as the development of nuclear weapons by Iran, a non-nuclear weapons state party to NPT, would jeopardize the future of the treaty and deeply harm the structure of contemporary global governance. If it chooses to do so, Iran cannot be prevented from taking such action by threatening it with the use of force ...


The Iranian Nuclear Issue, The End Of The American Century, And The Future Of International Order, Flynt L. Leverett Nov 2013

The Iranian Nuclear Issue, The End Of The American Century, And The Future Of International Order, Flynt L. Leverett

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

How the U.S.-Iranian competition for influence in the Middle East plays out will have profound consequences not just for the Middle East, but also for the legal frameworks, rules-based regimes, and mechanisms of global governance that shape international order in the 21st century. This is particularly true with regard to U.S.-Iranian disagreements over the Islamic Republic’s nuclear activities. Strategic competition between America and Iran and its implications for international order play out against a backdrop of the progressive diminution of U.S. leadership in world affairs. Relative decline challenges the United States to share ...


Foreword, Amy C. Gaudion Nov 2013

Foreword, Amy C. Gaudion

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

No abstract provided.


Jlia 2:1 Apr 2013

Jlia 2:1

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

There is an ever widening gap between conflict resolution policy makers and scholars—a tragedy given practitioners’ dire need for new ideas to help resolve deadly conflicts and the growing knowledge researchers have to share. Research tends to swing like a pendulum between analytic and rigorous methods and accessible and relevant approaches. We reject this tradeoff. We believe that research can be simultaneously rigorous and relevant, and analytic and accessible. Given the devastating loss of life associated with armed conflict, the need for translating research results into policy prescriptions is especially strong in peacemaking. The goal of this issue of ...


“The Living Are Getting Rarer”: The Causes And Consequences Of The International Trade In White Rhinoceros Horns Under The Convention On International Trade In Endangered Species, Alisha Falberg Apr 2013

“The Living Are Getting Rarer”: The Causes And Consequences Of The International Trade In White Rhinoceros Horns Under The Convention On International Trade In Endangered Species, Alisha Falberg

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

In 2012, more than 400 South African white rhinoceros were poached and killed for their horns. The horns, used in ancient Asian medicines, are falsely believed to cure diseases. They are currently worth thousands of dollars on the black market because the white rhinoceros is an endangered species and the trade in its horns is strictly regulated under the United Nations Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).The two countries at the center of this crisis are South Africa, where the majority of the world’s white rhinoceros live and are being poached ...


Consequences Of The Arab Spring: How Shari’Ah Law And The Egyptian Revolution Will Impact Ip Protection And Enforcement, Stephen S. Zimowski Apr 2013

Consequences Of The Arab Spring: How Shari’Ah Law And The Egyptian Revolution Will Impact Ip Protection And Enforcement, Stephen S. Zimowski

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

Egypt’s recent revolution sent shockwaves through the international community, and almost immediately political pundits began to ponder its effect on Middle Eastern stability. To date, post-revolution Egypt has struggled to regain its political stability and implement the democratic government its citizens demand. The eventual nature of the new Egyptian government will have a substantial impact not only on the region’s stability but also on international trade. As such, this comment will examine the likely impact of a new Egyptian regime on intellectual property rights and protections in Egypt. The comment explores the role of Shari’ah Law in ...


We Can Work It Out: Putting Our Best Foot Forward In International Higher Education Initiatives, Julie Rowland Apr 2013

We Can Work It Out: Putting Our Best Foot Forward In International Higher Education Initiatives, Julie Rowland

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

A global economy requires globally competitive workers and global citizens.This need has generated supranational higher education initiatives through organizations such as the European Union and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. These initiatives promote student mobility across borders by harmonizing higher education systems between member nations. To demonstrate how the U.S. can become more involved in international higher education initiatives, this comment will first give an overview of the history of these initiatives globally. The comment explores the legal and soft governance mechanisms involved in international initiatives and the feasibility of their application to the U.S. A description of ...


2012-13 Jlia Masthead, Jlia Masthead Apr 2013

2012-13 Jlia Masthead, Jlia Masthead

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

No abstract provided.


Mediation – Its Potential And Its Limits: Developing An Effective Discourse On The Research And Practice Of Peacemaking, Dennis C. Jett Apr 2013

Mediation – Its Potential And Its Limits: Developing An Effective Discourse On The Research And Practice Of Peacemaking, Dennis C. Jett

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

This article looks at the various contributions to this issue of the Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs. The contributors have analyzed the potential and limits of mediation, but have focused on a number of different aspects of that process. The analytic research relevant to conflict situations will be most useful, however, if the recommendations offered for how to bring conflicts to an end can actually be of use to practitioners in the field. The approach of this article is therefore to consider how policymakers might employ these recommendations as they pursue the goal of peace. It also discusses ...


Ethnic Conflict: An Organizational Perspective, Victor Asal, Jonathan Wilkenfeld Apr 2013

Ethnic Conflict: An Organizational Perspective, Victor Asal, Jonathan Wilkenfeld

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

To talk about the behavior of others is to generalize especially if that behavior is perceived to be negative. As researchers who have studied ethnic discrimination and ethnic conflict for close to two decades, we have noticed, anecdotally at least, that this penchant for generalization is rampant in discussions of ethnic politics. Journalists and academics tend to talk about one or another ethnic group’s involvement in violence without specifying a political organizational agent. This kind of generalization is a serious obstacle to understanding conflicts and identifying solutions because it prevents policymakers and academics from getting at the messy reality ...


When States Mediate, Molly M. Melin Apr 2013

When States Mediate, Molly M. Melin

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

Militarized conflict is one of the most devastating of all human activities. The international community’s response to conflict occurrence can significantly affect the number of casualties, the extent of resulting devastation and even the outcome of the conflict. State responses range from conflict management, whereby third parties actively engage in resolving the conflict; joining, whereby states become an additional disputant; or remaining uninvolved. One of the most common active third-party responses is to act as a mediator, a role using consensual, nonbinding and nonviolent means of conflict management and resolution. This paper explores the policy of state-led mediation, its ...


The Politics Of International Arbitration And Adjudication, Stephen E. Gent Apr 2013

The Politics Of International Arbitration And Adjudication, Stephen E. Gent

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

Arbitration and adjudication have proven to be effective means of producing long-lasting settlements on contentious issues, but states are generally reluctant to use such legal forms of dispute resolution, especially in resolving issues of national security. To understand when policymakers can and should promote the use of legal mechanisms, they need to understand the political reasons behind the reluctance of states to use these forums. This essay identifies five factors that significantly influence the willingness of states to relinquish decision control and pursue arbitration or adjudication: third-party bias, salience, uncertainty, bargaining power, and armed conflict. To promote the use of ...


Using The Right Tool For The Job: Mediator Leverage And Conflict Resolution, Kyle Beardsley Apr 2013

Using The Right Tool For The Job: Mediator Leverage And Conflict Resolution, Kyle Beardsley

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

In international dispute mediation, a one-size-fits-all view of mediation may actually inhibit effective conflict resolution. Mediators must especially tailor the level of leverage to the needs of the situation. This essay first considers existing studies that have found both potential benefits and risks of heavy-handed third-party involvement as a conflict-management strategy. It then considers a few illustrative cases to demonstrate the importance of making sure that the tools of mediation fit the context. Finally, it concludes with a discussion of how sustained post-conflict peacekeeping and peacebuilding can reduce the risks of leverage in mediation.


Intractable Syria? Insights From The Scholarly Literature On The Failure Of Mediation, J. Michael Greig Apr 2013

Intractable Syria? Insights From The Scholarly Literature On The Failure Of Mediation, J. Michael Greig

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

The conflict in Syria has been ongoing since March 2011, but to date has resisted third-party diplomatic efforts. This failure of mediation is despite the fact that numerous actors in the international system have interests both in Syria and the Middle East at large. The human toll of the conflict, which has produced large numbers of civilian casualties and considerable human suffering, creates even deeper urgency for effective conflict management in Syria. In this paper, I apply insights drawn from the scholarly literature on conflict management and civil wars to the Syrian conflict to explain why mediation efforts have thus ...


Who Should Be At The Table?: Veto Players And Peace Processes In Civil War, David E. Cunningham Apr 2013

Who Should Be At The Table?: Veto Players And Peace Processes In Civil War, David E. Cunningham

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

Civil wars contain a set of actors that have the ability to block settlement and continue the war on their own. When they contain more “veto players,” conflicts are much longer and negotiations are more likely to break down. The rate of success of international efforts to resolve multi-party civil wars is much lower than when there is only one rebel group fighting the government. This article discusses implications for peacemakers designing responses to conflicts with multiple veto players. Negotiations in these conflicts are most likely to lead to a peace agreement that successfully ends the war if they include ...


Deceptive Results: Why Mediation Appears To Fail But Actually Succeeds, Scott Sigmund Gartner Apr 2013

Deceptive Results: Why Mediation Appears To Fail But Actually Succeeds, Scott Sigmund Gartner

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

International disputes receiving third-party mediation are less likely to result in peace treaties than those negotiated bilaterally between the disputants. When belligerents do settle, mediated agreements are more likely to fail. Is mediation detrimental to conflict resolution? No. Third-party mediation represents a highly effective, but costly, means of peacemaking. Disputants recognize its costs and only employ mediation when they are unable to resolve a conflict between themselves, creating a “selection effect.” As a result, mediators are selected for the toughest cases – those least likely to end peacefully and mostly likely to result in fragile agreements. When the difficulty of resolving ...


Research On Bias In Mediation: Policy Implications, Isak Svensson Apr 2013

Research On Bias In Mediation: Policy Implications, Isak Svensson

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

One of the most important and disputed questions within the field of international mediation concerns the issue of bias. The question of bias cuts to the core of what mediation is and the ways in which mediators can help the parties reach peace. Focusing on research on the role of neutrality and bias in international peace diplomacy in civil wars, this article draws out the policy implications of my own empirically-based work on the role of bias in the mediation of internal armed conflicts. This article suggests that neutrality should not be part of the definition of mediators, and that ...


The Lack Of Coordination In Diplomatic Peacemaking, Birger Heldt Apr 2013

The Lack Of Coordination In Diplomatic Peacemaking, Birger Heldt

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

The increased number of peacemaking actors during the past twenty years is accompanied by an increased amount of peacemaking, but also a low success rate. This article focuses on recent emerging conflicts. It finds that peacemaking is prevalent, but is often not coordinated with regard to choice of tools (mediation, arbitration, etc.), or the agenda or the issues of the talks. This lack of coordination has for many years been recognized as detrimental and may partly explain the low success rate. The article suggests that policymakers need to have a long-term strategy to address the coordination problem, part of which ...


Foreword, I. William Zartman Apr 2013

Foreword, I. William Zartman

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

No abstract provided.


Translating Scholarship Into Policy, Scott Sigmund Gartner, Amy C. Gaudion Apr 2013

Translating Scholarship Into Policy, Scott Sigmund Gartner, Amy C. Gaudion

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

There is an ever widening gap between conflict resolution policy makers and scholars—a tragedy given practitioners’ dire need for new ideas to help resolve deadly conflicts and the growing knowledge researchers have to share. Research tends to swing like a pendulum between analytic and rigorous methods and accessible and relevant approaches. We reject this tradeoff. We believe that research can be simultaneously rigorous and relevant, and analytic and accessible. Given the devastating loss of life associated with armed conflict, the need for translating research results into policy prescriptions is especially strong in peacemaking. The goal of this issue of ...