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2013

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Articles 1 - 19 of 19

Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Breakaway States: Understanding When The International Community Recognizes The Legitimacy Of Separatist States, Brian Zachary Mund Dec 2013

Breakaway States: Understanding When The International Community Recognizes The Legitimacy Of Separatist States, Brian Zachary Mund

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

This essay focuses on these conditions that result in the extension of international legitimacy, asking the question; “which factors lead external actors to recognize separatist regions as legitimate states?” In particular, the essay hones in on the factors that lead the international community to recognize separatist states despite the seemingly dominant norm of sovereign territorial integrity. In the subsequent analysis, the essay finds that concerns for international stability and systemic order best explain the variation of international recognition among cases. These concerns are manifested through two distinct mechanisms by which secessionists may undermine the international order. First, separatist behavior that ...


Presentation At Penn Urban Studies Colloquium: Delhi, The Invisible City, Kushanava Choudhury, Durba Chattaraj, Moulshri Joshi Oct 2013

Presentation At Penn Urban Studies Colloquium: Delhi, The Invisible City, Kushanava Choudhury, Durba Chattaraj, Moulshri Joshi

Presentations (Social Science Studio)

New Delhi is the capital of India, and a master-planned metropolis. Its unplanned spaces such as Urban Villages, Unauthorized Colonies and Jhuggi Jhopri Clusters tend to be seen as the margins of the planned city. Yet a majority of citizens live and work in these unplanned areas of the city.

For millions of Delhi-ites, the non-planned areas are sources of affordable rental housing as well as employment, as locations for thousands of small businesses and workshops. These spaces and the economies and communities they contain, are connected to the planned city through complex political and economic arrangements. These spaces and ...


The Effects Of Private Walls On Relationships Across Class And Race In The New South Africa, Daniel Torrington May 2013

The Effects Of Private Walls On Relationships Across Class And Race In The New South Africa, Daniel Torrington

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

This thesis seeks to understand the intended and unintended effects of the proliferation of private walls around homes in South Africa, specifically in the context of apartheid and post-apartheid history. I argue that walls around private homes produce a variety of effects. Firstly, they visually, physically, and mentally separate individuals, resulting in decreased interactions between residents and passersby as well as between neighbors and greater ignorance between these groups. Secondly, walls preclude the formation of positive relationships between strangers of different classes and races, and they catalyze the formation of unequal relationships of power. This imbalance is compounded by existing ...


Consensus Democracy And State Performance: Evaluating The Impact Of Coalition Government On Indian States, Vandit D. Shah May 2013

Consensus Democracy And State Performance: Evaluating The Impact Of Coalition Government On Indian States, Vandit D. Shah

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

The question of whether a majoritarian setup is optimal in terms of broad representation takes up on paramount importance in the context of power-sharing in deeply divided places, whereby unqualified exclusion of segment(s) of the population from government can have potentially disastrous consequences. Governance in deeply-divided places presents a rather intriguing question --- who governs the people, how are they elected, what mandates do they have? What form of government works best - a single-party majoritarian system that by popular belief leads to more effective governance or a consensus-based government that allows for better protection of minority interests? More broadly then ...


Turkic Identity And The Depoliticization Of Culture: A Case Study Of The International Organization Of Turkic Culture (Türksoy), James Sawyer Apr 2013

Turkic Identity And The Depoliticization Of Culture: A Case Study Of The International Organization Of Turkic Culture (Türksoy), James Sawyer

Undergraduate Humanities Forum 2012-2013: Peripheries

Since its installation as the new capital of Kazakhstan in 1997, Astana has served as an urban synecdoche for the country's post-Soviet nation-building project. Boasting a futuristic architectural landscape punctuated with abstract references to the past, the city melds universalizing aesthetics with a mythological historical narrative. My paper explores Kazakhstan's nation-building project through the activities of TÜRKSOY, a multinational cultural organization self-styled as the "UNESCO of the Turkic World," which declared Astana the first capital of the Turkic world in 2012. I argue that as a counterpoint to the city's narrative of the future projected through architecture ...


In Defense Of Sovereignty: An Analysis Of Russian Voting Behavior In The United Nations Security Council (1995-2012), Brian Zachary Mund Apr 2013

In Defense Of Sovereignty: An Analysis Of Russian Voting Behavior In The United Nations Security Council (1995-2012), Brian Zachary Mund

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

This paper explores the motivations for Russian voting behavior in the United Nations Security Council from 1995-2012. Specifically, why does Russia vote with the West in many situations, but not in others? What motivated Russia to veto three Western-backed resolutions in the ongoing Syrian conflict? These are not arbitrary votes—Russia invests considerable energy in both explaining and justifying its voting decisions in the Security Council. Thus, even if one believes that Security Council resolutions do not significantly affect state behavior (a claim that international relations research increasingly disputes), such voting decisions still matter because Russia deems them important.

I ...


The Other Pro-Israel Lobby: The Mearsheimer And Walt Controversy And The Rise Of J Street, Maya Spitzer Apr 2013

The Other Pro-Israel Lobby: The Mearsheimer And Walt Controversy And The Rise Of J Street, Maya Spitzer

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

In this thesis, I investigate the influence of the pro-Israel lobby, as a means of assessing more generally the role of interest groups in shaping American public policy, and whether the so-called “lobbies that can’t be beat” are truly unassailable. First, I probe the prevailing treatise on pro-Israel lobby influence, which portrays the American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC) as the nerve center of a pro-Israel lobbying network that almost never fails to coerce policymakers to bow to its will. I ask two distinct but related questions: do AIPAC and the other groups depicted as the “Israel lobby” wield ...


From Beijing To Baghdad: Stability And Decision-Making In Sino-Iraqi Relations, 1958-2012, Scott J. Lee Apr 2013

From Beijing To Baghdad: Stability And Decision-Making In Sino-Iraqi Relations, 1958-2012, Scott J. Lee

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

As the People’s Republic of China has modernized, it has become increasingly reliant on Middle Eastern oil to fuel its economy. But economics did not always play a primary role in China’s Middle East policy. This thesis seeks to answer the questions: what have been the drivers of the PRC’s foreign policy in the Persian Gulf region – and what historical, political, and economic circumstances caused them to evolve at such a rapid pace? In analyzing Chinese foreign policy in Iraq over three chronological periods – the Cold War Period (1958-1979), the Transition Period (1980-1988), and the Post-Cold War ...


The People's Liberation Army Navy: The Motivations Behind Beijing's Naval Modernization, Binh Nguyen Apr 2013

The People's Liberation Army Navy: The Motivations Behind Beijing's Naval Modernization, Binh Nguyen

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

Throughout its history, China has always been a land power with strong continental traditions. As a result, the navy was rarely the subject of attention for the People’s Liberation Army (PLA). Starting in the mid-1990s, however, Beijing started to devote considerable resources to improve the People’s Liberation Army Navy (PLAN). This modernization has been enthusiastically pursued until today and China’s improved maritime capabilities have been catching the attention of the United States and China’s neighbors in East Asia. Countries are wary of Beijing’s intentions in acquiring new fleets, questioning the implications this buildup may have ...


Genetically Modified Organisms And Southern African Food Policy, Andrew J. Leahey Apr 2013

Genetically Modified Organisms And Southern African Food Policy, Andrew J. Leahey

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

This paper examines why it is that Zambia and Zimbabwe, two states with similar background conditions and initial positions, arrived at differing policy decisions with regards to genetically modified organisms (GMO). The two neighboring Southern African states are economically dependent on their agricultural sector, share a common colonial legacy, rely heavily on maize as a subsistence crop and have struggled with issues of food security. Their decisions were shaped by their post-colonial legacy and differing conceptions of modernity. In the years following independence, Zambia sought to subsidize their agricultural sector through inputs and credit. Zimbabwe instead focused on land reform ...


No School Left Uncorrupted: How Cheating, High-Stakes Testing, And Declining Budgets Affected Student Achievement In Philadelphia, James R. Sadler Apr 2013

No School Left Uncorrupted: How Cheating, High-Stakes Testing, And Declining Budgets Affected Student Achievement In Philadelphia, James R. Sadler

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

The No Child Left Behind education act, signed by President Bush in 2002, imposed high-stakes testing standards on all schools in the nation. A decade later, amidst a cheating scandal and a budget crisis, the School District of Philadelphia experienced dramatic standardized test score declines after nine years of increases. This study aims to place these declines in the context of national, state, and local education policy and provide statistical evidence for the cause of the declines. School climate among schools flagged for cheating and budget decreases experienced by all Philadelphia schools significantly contributed to the declines. Nevertheless, the major ...


Revolutions In Military Affairs: A Theory On First-Mover Advantage, Andrew Bernard Silverstein Apr 2013

Revolutions In Military Affairs: A Theory On First-Mover Advantage, Andrew Bernard Silverstein

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

What determines the length of first-mover advantage in military innovation? In adopting revolutions in military affairs, some first movers benefit from a lengthy advantage while others suffer from a brief advantage. In this paper, I argue that that two factors, leadership and doctrinal congruence, relate to the two relevant actors, a first mover and a secondary actor, to explain the length of a first mover’s strategic edge. The theory is tested on the aircraft carrier, submarine, and intercontinental ballistic missile revolutions.


Virtual Pakistan 2013: An Agent-Based Modeling Analysis, Quratul-Ann Malik Apr 2013

Virtual Pakistan 2013: An Agent-Based Modeling Analysis, Quratul-Ann Malik

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

This thesis suggests that agent-based modeling provides an effective way to understand and analyze the internal political dynamics of Pakistan. The first section describes Pakistan’s current situation and introduces a study published by the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) outlining five possible futures the nation could experience. After stating the five futures, I hypothesize that agent-based modeling could enhance this study and provide arguments that social scientists use to justify this quantitative approach. The next portion of the thesis intricately describes all aspects of the model-building process. The experimentation process and metrics are then discussed and finally, the experiment ...


Review Of Brian J. Gareau, From Precaution To Profit: Contemporary Challenges To Environmental Protection In The Montreal Protocol, Daniel Aldana Cohen Jan 2013

Review Of Brian J. Gareau, From Precaution To Profit: Contemporary Challenges To Environmental Protection In The Montreal Protocol, Daniel Aldana Cohen

Departmental Papers (Sociology)

No abstract provided.


2013 European Think Tank Summit Report: Think Tanks In A Time Of Crisis And Paralysis: On The Sidelines Or Catalysts For Ideas And Action?, Sydney Baloue, Cécile Moore, James G. Mcgann Jan 2013

2013 European Think Tank Summit Report: Think Tanks In A Time Of Crisis And Paralysis: On The Sidelines Or Catalysts For Ideas And Action?, Sydney Baloue, Cécile Moore, James G. Mcgann

TTCSP Global and Regional Think Tank Summit Reports

No abstract provided.


Black Sophists: A Critique Of Demagoguery, Garry Bertholf Jan 2013

Black Sophists: A Critique Of Demagoguery, Garry Bertholf

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation investigates the narrative strategies and performative devices of African-American politics in the post-civil rights era. My inquiry focuses on demagoguery--a term dating from classical antiquity--in order to implicate it in African-American political discourses, in particular those of Tavis Smiley's former State of the Black Union, 2000-2010. Indeed, I posit that Smiley's former annual event is an important site for thinking about modern black demagoguery and the aestheticization of black politics. Through close readings and original transcriptions of Louis Farrakhan (b. 1933), Cornel West (b. 1953), and Michael Eric Dyson (b. 1958), I show that the inevitable ...


Trapped And Untrapped: Mubarak's Opponents On The Eve Of His Ouster, Eric Robert Trager Jan 2013

Trapped And Untrapped: Mubarak's Opponents On The Eve Of His Ouster, Eric Robert Trager

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Why did Hosni Mubarak's rule in Egypt last thirty years, and why did it fall in a mere eighteen days? This dissertation uses Mubarak's Egypt as a case study for understanding how autocratic regimes can use formally democratic institutions, such as multiparty elections, to "trap" their opponents and thereby enhance their durability, and also investigates the extent to which this strategy may undermine regime durability. Through over 200 interviews conducted in the months preceding and following the 2011 Egyptian uprising, I find that autocratic regimes can manipulate legal opposition parties to coopt their opponents and thereby prevent them ...


Belief Echoes: The Persistent Effects Of Corrected Misinformation, Emily Thorson Jan 2013

Belief Echoes: The Persistent Effects Of Corrected Misinformation, Emily Thorson

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The omnipresence of political misinformation in the today's media environment raises serious concerns about citizens' ability make fully informed decisions. In response to these concerns, the last few years have seen a renewed commitment to journalistic and institutional fact-checking. The assumption of these efforts is that successfully correcting misinformation will prevent it from affecting citizens' attitudes. However, through a series of experiments, I find that exposure to a piece of negative political information persists in shaping attitudes even after the information has been successfully discredited. A correction--even when it is fully believed--does not eliminate the effects of misinformation on ...


Democratic Exclusion: The Right To Vote In The United States, United Kingdom, And France, David Alexander Bateman Jan 2013

Democratic Exclusion: The Right To Vote In The United States, United Kingdom, And France, David Alexander Bateman

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This research focuses on the forms of exclusion that democratizing processes have historically facilitated. The dynamics of democratization often lead political coalitions to change electoral rules to simultaneously extend and constrict the right to vote across different categories of persons, as well as to reinforce existing exclusions. This pattern occurred in all the 'exemplary models' of early democratization, and yet the historical narratives relied on by the comparative democratization literature neglect its exclusionary dimension, and thereby misinform comparative theory building. The dissertation

empirically documents the "dark side of democratization" in the three paradigmatic cases of the United States, the United ...