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2013

Politics and Social Change

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Articles 1 - 30 of 82

Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Anatomy Of Dissent In Islamic Societies, Ahmed Souaiaia Dec 2013

Anatomy Of Dissent In Islamic Societies, Ahmed Souaiaia

Ahmed E SOUAIAIA

The 'Arab Spring' that began in 2011 has placed a spotlight on the transfer of political power in Islamic societies, reviving old questions about the place of political dissent and rebellion in Islamic civilization and raising new ones about the place of religion in modern Islamic societies.

In Anatomy of Dissent in Islamic Societies, Ahmed E. Souaiaia examines the complex historical evolution of Islamic civilization in an effort to trace the roots of the paradigms and principles of Islamic political and legal theories. This study is one of the first attempts at providing a fuller picture of the place of ...


The United Nations And The Magna Carta For Children, Winston E. Langley Dec 2013

The United Nations And The Magna Carta For Children, Winston E. Langley

Winston E. Langley

The impulse that invited the preparation of this book is one which is linked to the convergence of a number of factors bearing on my interest in human rights. First, the brutality visited on children during World War II has had an abiding negative effect on my sense of what is possible in human conduct. Second, I am persuaded that children are not simply the means by which human societies are continued, but, as well, the potential source of moral revitalization and transformation for those societies. Third, I recognize that the human rights movement, which followed World War II, holds ...


Discerning For Peace In Africa: The Sudan Civil Wars And Peace Processes 1955-2013, Conrad John Masabo Mr. Dec 2013

Discerning For Peace In Africa: The Sudan Civil Wars And Peace Processes 1955-2013, Conrad John Masabo Mr.

Conrad John Masabo Mr.

Separation of the Sudan into the Republic of Sudan (North) and the Republic of Southern Sudan (South) was globally extolled as the long-lasting solution to one of the longest civil wars in post-Colonial Africa. However, recent developments in Sudan: continued clashes between north and south, crises in the contested areas and tribal civil wars have uncovered that: separation without addressing the principal root causes of the conflicts is not the panacea to prone and protracted civil wars. Taking a historical analysis framework, the paper attempts to tackle issues of causes, opportunities and challenges for peace in Sudan.


Jim Crow 2.0?: Why States Consider And Adopt Restrictive Voter Access Policies, Keith Gunnar Bentele, Erin E. O'Brien Dec 2013

Jim Crow 2.0?: Why States Consider And Adopt Restrictive Voter Access Policies, Keith Gunnar Bentele, Erin E. O'Brien

Sociology Faculty Publication Series

In recent years there has been a dramatic increase in state legislation likely to reduce access for some voters, including photo identification and proof of citizenship requirements, registration restrictions, absentee ballot voting restrictions, and reductions in early voting. Political operatives often ascribe malicious motives when their opponents either endorse or oppose such legislation. In an effort to bring empirical clarity and epistemological standards to what has been a deeply charged, partisan and frequently anecdotal debate, this paper uses multiple specialized regression approaches to examine factors associated with both the proposal and adoption of restrictive voter access legislation from 2006-11. Our ...


Reflections On The Metamorphosis At Robben Island: The Role Of Institutional Work And Positive Psychological Capital, Wayne F. Cascio, Fred Luthans Dec 2013

Reflections On The Metamorphosis At Robben Island: The Role Of Institutional Work And Positive Psychological Capital, Wayne F. Cascio, Fred Luthans

Management Department Faculty Publications

Nelson Mandela and other political prisoners from South Africa were imprisoned on notorious Robben Island from the mid-1960s until the end of the apartheid regime in 1991. The stark conditions and abusive treatment of these prisoners has been widely publicized. However, upon reflection and in retrospect, over the years, a type of metamorphosis occurred. Primarily drawing from firsthand accounts of the former prisoners and guards, it seems that Robben Island morphed from the traditional oppressive prison paradigm to one where the positively oriented prisoners disrupted the institution with a resulting climate of learning and transformation that eventually led to freedom ...


How (And Why) Nclb Failed To Close The Achievement Gap:Evidence From North Carolina, 1998-2004, Roslyn Mickelson, Jason Giersch, Elizabeth Stearns, Stephanie Moller Nov 2013

How (And Why) Nclb Failed To Close The Achievement Gap:Evidence From North Carolina, 1998-2004, Roslyn Mickelson, Jason Giersch, Elizabeth Stearns, Stephanie Moller

The Bridge: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Legal & Social Policy

Recent state and national policy changes for public education are premised upon the idea that high-stakes tests can improve student outcomes and close achievement gaps. Opponents maintain that such policies fail on both counts. Using a unique longitudinal dataset from North Carolina, we find that high-stakes tests have failed to close achievement gaps associated with social class and race, and that the persistence of these gaps is related, at least in part, to academic tracking. Such findings add to the questions being raised about such policies as No Child Left Behind.


The Primacy Of Context: An Exploration Into The Causes Of Food Insecurity In Kitere, Kenya., William O. Aludo Nov 2013

The Primacy Of Context: An Exploration Into The Causes Of Food Insecurity In Kitere, Kenya., William O. Aludo

Capstone Collection

The purpose of this study was to explore the specific reasons why households in Kitere village, Kenya experience persistent food insecurity every year while the region enjoys the advantage of two planting/harvest seasons in a year. Kitere village lies within the lakeside region of Nyanza Province in Kenya, generally considered to be one of the more agriculturally productive parts of the country. The Participatory Rural Appraisal method was employed to gather qualitative data on the causes of food insecurity in Kitere village. The data sources were focus groups and a self-administered, one-time survey of random and non-random samples of ...


Courting Power, Anil Kalhan Oct 2013

Courting Power, Anil Kalhan

Anil Kalhan

No abstract provided.


Manufacturing Legitimacy: A Critical Theory Of Election News Coverage, Gabriel N. Elias Oct 2013

Manufacturing Legitimacy: A Critical Theory Of Election News Coverage, Gabriel N. Elias

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

To what degree does instrumental reason influence election news coverage? Using Habermas's understanding of system/life-world as a heuristic, I map the rationalization process of political communication. This illuminates the institutional logics at play in the field of politics and the field of journalism, and the way the social dynamics between them enable the framing of political life as a strategic game. This understanding is then contextualized within an analysis of the media frames that informed the Canadian federal election of 2011. I find that news coverage does tend to focus on political strategy; but this is not wholly ...


Of Sweatshops And Human Subsistence: Habermas On Human Rights, David Ingram Oct 2013

Of Sweatshops And Human Subsistence: Habermas On Human Rights, David Ingram

David Ingram

In this paper I argue that the discourse theoretic account of human rights defended by Jürgen Habermas contains a fruitful tension that is obscured by its dominant tendency to identify rights with legal claims. This weakness in Habermas’s account becomes manifest when we examine how sweatshops diminish the secure enjoyment of subsistence, which Habermas himself (in recognition of the UDHR) recognizes as a human right. Discourse theories of human rights are unique in tying the legitimacy of human rights to democratic deliberation and consensus. So construed, their specific meaning and force is the outcome of historical political struggle. However ...


Foucault And Habermas, David Ingram Oct 2013

Foucault And Habermas, David Ingram

David Ingram

The article is a comprehensive comparison of Foucault and Habermas which focuses on their distinctive styles of critical theory. The article maintains that Foucault's virtue ethical understanding of aesthetic self-realization as a form of resistance to normalizing practices provides counterpoint to Habermas's more juridical approach to institutional justice and the critique of ideology. The article contains an extensive discussion of their respective treatments of speech action, both strategic and communicative, and concludes by addressing Foucault's understanding of parrhesia as a non-discursive form of truth-telling.


With An Eye On A Set Of New Eyes: Beasts Of The Southern Wild, Kette Thomas Oct 2013

With An Eye On A Set Of New Eyes: Beasts Of The Southern Wild, Kette Thomas

Journal of Religion & Film

This article focuses on how, Beasts of the Southern Wild, represents both divergence and transgression from paradigmatic structures that determine how certain visual representations are to be used. Specifically, the cinematic detours taken by the filmmakers, Lucy Alibar and Behn Zeitlin, do not lead to alien places for most viewers; on the contrary, ancient myths, legends, heroes and prehistoric references are recalled in total isolation from current social and political discourse. In this way, Beasts of the Southern Wild, effectively, highlights mythological structures operating in contemporary American society. Mircea Eliade, Roger Caillois and G.S. Kirk define mythology as a ...


Farm To Preschool Harvest Of The Month Curriculum, Year 2, Zoe Phillips, Rosa Romero, Victor Hernandez Oct 2013

Farm To Preschool Harvest Of The Month Curriculum, Year 2, Zoe Phillips, Rosa Romero, Victor Hernandez

UEP Faculty & UEPI Staff Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Assessing The Senate: Political Opinion Among Cameroonian Youth, Rebeccah Rendall Oct 2013

Assessing The Senate: Political Opinion Among Cameroonian Youth, Rebeccah Rendall

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This paper seeks to examine the political opinions of Cameroon youth in regards to the newly-introduced Senate. Research was conducted with students at the University of Yaoundé I and the University of Yaoundé II over the course of a four-week period. This paper discusses the potential and stated purposes of the Senate within the Cameroonian context. It will also discuss the various particular reasons that the Senate was implemented in 2013. Finally, it will convey the opinions of and the hopes for the Senate as stated by university students. First, I conclude that the Senate’s main role is to ...


Why Putin Would Be Happy With Or Without War In Syria?, Ahmed E. Souaiaia Sep 2013

Why Putin Would Be Happy With Or Without War In Syria?, Ahmed E. Souaiaia

Ahmed E SOUAIAIA

Talking to reporters after the conclusion of the G20 meeting, the president of Russia, Vladimir Putin, declared that any military intervention in Syria without UNSC authorization is an illegal act of aggression. He also said that his country will supply (sell, that is) the Syrian government with weapons to defend itself. This statement, in a sense, clarifies an earlier declaration by his foreign minister, Sergei Lavrov, when he said that if the U.S. starts a war in Syria, Russia will not be part of it. Some analysts thought that Lavrov’s statement signaled Russia’s readiness to abandon Assad ...


What It's Like To Be A Radical Conservative, Stephanie K. Adamczak Sep 2013

What It's Like To Be A Radical Conservative, Stephanie K. Adamczak

SURGE

“What is your major?”

“Environmental Science.”

The snarky retort, “Don’t go joining GreenPeace now, you’re becoming a radical.”

I know there are many uses of the word “radical,” but in this context, I know that it is not meant as a compliment. Because I study environmental science and global climate change, this person associates me with radicals – those utilizing extreme methods to bring about extreme changes. [excerpt]


Voice Without Say: Why Capital-Managed Firms Aren’T (Genuinely) Participatory, Justin Schwartz Aug 2013

Voice Without Say: Why Capital-Managed Firms Aren’T (Genuinely) Participatory, Justin Schwartz

Justin Schwartz

Why are most capitalist enterprises of any size organized as authoritarian bureaucracies rather than incorporating genuine employee participation that would give the workers real authority? Even firms with employee participation programs leave virtually all decision-making power in the hands of management. The standard answer is that hierarchy is more economically efficient than any sort of genuine participation, so that participatory firms would be less productive and lose out to more traditional competitors. This answer is indefensible. After surveying the history, legal status, and varieties of employee participation, I examine and reject as question-begging the argument that the rarity of genuine ...


How Left A Turn? Legacies Of The Neoliberal State In Latin America, Aaron Thomas Rowland Aug 2013

How Left A Turn? Legacies Of The Neoliberal State In Latin America, Aaron Thomas Rowland

Doctoral Dissertations

In the 1980s and 1990s, the Latin American region experienced a profound shift in development ideologies that resulted in the creation of a new type of state: the Latin American neoliberal state. This state emerged in three stages: the stabilization stage—focused on balance of payments and austerity; the structural adjustment stage—which was more broadly and deeply focused on changing the structure and culture of society; and the institutional turn—which was an acknowledgment that the neoliberal state had not effectively dealt with poverty, inequality, or the quality of institutions that integrated market, society, and polity. Beginning in the ...


Economic Inequality's Correlation With Political Inequality And Inequality Of Opportunity And The Implications For Social Justice Theory, Staci Leigh Schoff Jul 2013

Economic Inequality's Correlation With Political Inequality And Inequality Of Opportunity And The Implications For Social Justice Theory, Staci Leigh Schoff

Dissertations and Theses

In 2004 the American Political Science Association ("APSA") published research exploring whether the rising income inequality in the United States had an effect on political equality. Although the APSA found tremendous evidence of a correlation between income and political power, the APSA nonetheless concluded that the issue could not be conclusively determined without further analysis.

The intent of this thesis is to argue the position that economic inequality is heavily implicated in both political equality and equality of opportunity, and to propose a political theory that directly addresses - rather than evades - this issue. A conclusion drawn in this paper is ...


Contesting The New Populisms: The Rise And Fall Of Occupy Wall Street And The Tea Party As Counter-Hegemonic Forces, Jake Angelastro Jul 2013

Contesting The New Populisms: The Rise And Fall Of Occupy Wall Street And The Tea Party As Counter-Hegemonic Forces, Jake Angelastro

Maxwell School – Distinction Theses (Undergraduate)

The economic crisis of 2008 triggered a broad cultural, social, and political upheaval that incited both conservative and progressive movements composed of people who felt politically powerless and marginalized. The dominant institutions, these groups believed, could offer neither material benefits, nor an attractive ideological vision. Thus, these movements posited their own alternative political visions and mobilized their reform efforts under the banner of populism, often hinging on an interpretation of the producerist ethic. The central claim of my thesis is that while both the Tea Party and Occupy movements rose out of the economic crisis of 2008 and reflected widespread ...


The Respectability Trap: Gender Conventions In 20th Century Movements For Social Change, Georgina Hickey Jul 2013

The Respectability Trap: Gender Conventions In 20th Century Movements For Social Change, Georgina Hickey

Journal of Interdisciplinary Feminist Thought

An analysis of how a variety of women in 19th and 20th century movements for social change in the United States negotiated normative gender expectations in both their activism and their personal lives. While challenging norms or using traditional norms as a part of a movement tactic are both common in social movements, women leaders still sometimes found themselves in a ‘respectability trap’ when they reflexively applied the dictates of respectable behavior. In these moments, the often invisible privileges attached to the social recognition of a woman’s respectability – and implied morality – become visible. Women who eschewed traditional norms of ...


Narratives Of War In Islamic Societies, Whose Side Is God On?, Ahmed Souaiaia Jun 2013

Narratives Of War In Islamic Societies, Whose Side Is God On?, Ahmed Souaiaia

Ahmed E SOUAIAIA

The so-called Arab Spring ushered in a new era of conflict that is transforming Islamic societies in unprecedented ways. In the past two years, peaceful protests ousted some of the most ruthless dictators of the Arab world. Then, violent rebellions destroyed communities in Libya and Syria, stifled the non-violent movement, and amplified sectarian tensions by interjecting God into some of the most gruesome conflicts. By looking at the Syrian crisis as a case study, in this article I explore the function of narratives in managing war and the nature and evolution of Islamism in Islamic societies.


World Religious Leaders' Reflexivity In Dialogue With 'Others' About Global Governance, Sherrie Steiner Jun 2013

World Religious Leaders' Reflexivity In Dialogue With 'Others' About Global Governance, Sherrie Steiner

Sherrie M Steiner

No abstract provided.


A Theory Without A Movement, A Hope Without A Name: The Future Of Marxism In A Post-Marxist World, Justin Schwartz Jun 2013

A Theory Without A Movement, A Hope Without A Name: The Future Of Marxism In A Post-Marxist World, Justin Schwartz

Justin Schwartz

Just as Marx's insights into capitalism have been most strikingly vindicated by the rise of neoliberalism and the near-collapse of the world economy, Marxism as social movement has become bereft of support. Is there any point in people who find Marx's analysis useful in clinging to the term "Marxism" - which Marx himself rejected -- at time when self-identified Marxist organizations and societies have collapsed or renounced the identification, and Marxism own working class constituency rejects the term? I set aside bad reasons to give on "Marxism," such as that the theory is purportedly refuted, that its adoption leads necessarily ...


Básico Manual De Jardinería Preescolar En El Sur De California, Urban & Environmental Policy Institute Jun 2013

Básico Manual De Jardinería Preescolar En El Sur De California, Urban & Environmental Policy Institute

UEP Faculty & UEPI Staff Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Civically Engaged Mothers Of Color And The Challenges Of Political Leadership, Sheneal Parker Jun 2013

Civically Engaged Mothers Of Color And The Challenges Of Political Leadership, Sheneal Parker

Civically Engaged Mothers of Color and the Challenges of Political Leadership

While the ranks of women serving in public office and other political leadership positions are growing, women of color continue to represent a relatively small proportion of elected and other public officials in the United States. Sheneal centered her study on civically engaged mothers of color given that there is limited scholarship available on women of color who are mothers and politically active in their communities. Sheneal wanted to deepen our understanding of the barriers mothers of color face in entering and sustaining a political career.

Her study sought to better understand and analyze:

  • How civically engaged mothers of color ...


Political Motivations Of Women Of Color Leaders: Existing Challenges [Presentation], Martina Cruz Jun 2013

Political Motivations Of Women Of Color Leaders: Existing Challenges [Presentation], Martina Cruz

Political Motivations of Women of Color Leaders: Existing Challenges

Women of color are underrepresented in political office at multiple levels of government, from school committees to governorships nationwide. Women of color who are active in their communities have important qualities, perspectives, and experiences that are necessary in public policymaking settings that affect their communities. Yet many women of color who are well-known and respected in their communities do not seek elective office.

Martina sought to better understand factors that discourage women of color leaders from running for political office. Her project is important as it seeks to inform strategies to encourage more women of color in Massachusetts to run ...


Latina Pathways To Political Leadership, Elizabeth Cardona Jun 2013

Latina Pathways To Political Leadership, Elizabeth Cardona

Latina Pathways to Political Leadership

Elizabeth’s research aimed to explore pathways to leadership for Latinas who are change agents residing in Western Massachusetts. Recognizing the significance of culture, family and community in her own personal journey, Elizabeth wanted to document and analyze key factors that helped Latina leaders find a voice and play a political role in their communities.


Support Strategies For Asian American Women Leaders In Massachusetts, Lisa Wong Jun 2013

Support Strategies For Asian American Women Leaders In Massachusetts, Lisa Wong

Support Strategies for Asian American Women Leaders in Massachusetts

The election and appointment of Asian American women to positions in Massachusetts and on the federal level suggest that the face of public leadership is changing. Recent successes for Asian American women in electoral politics provide a unique opportunity to build the pipeline of Asian American women in Massachusetts politics. This research project aimed to identify strategies to increase the number of Asian American women elected to political office in Massachusetts.


Western Massachusetts And Campaigns: Women Of Color Running For Office, Gladys Lebrón-Martínez Jun 2013

Western Massachusetts And Campaigns: Women Of Color Running For Office, Gladys Lebrón-Martínez

Western Massachusetts and Campaigns: Women of Color Running for Office

While attending a Women’s Pipeline for Change event in Boston during the summer of 2011, Gladys was inspired by the large number of women of color who came out to support other women of color in politics. This prompted her to document and analyze the resources that exist and are utilized by women of color, especially Latinas, running for elected office in Western Massachusetts.