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2013

Peace and Conflict Studies

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Articles 1 - 30 of 56

Full-Text Articles in Political Science

How To Prevent Accidental Conflict In The East China Sea, Zheng Wang Dec 2013

How To Prevent Accidental Conflict In The East China Sea, Zheng Wang

Zheng Wang

No abstract provided.


To Empathize With An Enemy, Rashida Aluko-Roberts Nov 2013

To Empathize With An Enemy, Rashida Aluko-Roberts

SURGE

I do not like to talk about my time in Sierra Leone, but I think I’m ready to start.

Growing up in Sierra Leone was probably the best thing that ever happened to me. I carry with me fond memories of my childhood, growing up on 22 Thompson Street in the one-storey house with red doors and windows and zebra themed paint. Evenings were spent riding bikes with my best friend Fatmata. Weekend afternoons spent playing scrabble and watching our favorite Disney movies with my siblings and neighbors in our living room. Those memories I have kept, happily. [excerpt]


Propaganda Or Diplomacy? 'Selling' Brand Australia, Stuart Murray Sep 2013

Propaganda Or Diplomacy? 'Selling' Brand Australia, Stuart Murray

Stuart Murray

No abstract provided.


Rebranding China On The Olympic Stage, Stuart Murray Sep 2013

Rebranding China On The Olympic Stage, Stuart Murray

Stuart Murray

No abstract provided.


Who Should Uphold International Law, And Why Do Syrians Support The Regime?, Ahmed E. Souaiaia Sep 2013

Who Should Uphold International Law, And Why Do Syrians Support The Regime?, Ahmed E. Souaiaia

Ahmed E SOUAIAIA

Answering a reporter’s question if bombing Syria is needed in order to preserve his credibility since he was the one who set a red line, President Obama replied: “First of all, I didn't set a red line. The world set a red line. The world set a red line when governments representing 98 percent of the world's population said the use of chemical weapons are abhorrent and passed a treaty forbidding their use even when countries are engaged in war. Congress set a red line when it ratified that treaty..."

It is true that international law and ...


Campaigning For A Seat On The Un Security Council: A Middle Power Reflection On The Role Of Public Diplomacy, Caitlin Byrne Sep 2013

Campaigning For A Seat On The Un Security Council: A Middle Power Reflection On The Role Of Public Diplomacy, Caitlin Byrne

Caitlin Byrne

For active middle power states like Australia, securing a seat on the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is indeed a ‘prize to be pursued with vigour’.1 In today’s complex and interdependent world, pursuit of this prize requires more than just intense diplomatic lobbying within the corridors of the UN in New York. Successful election to the UNSC turns upon the broad notions of international reputation and image. The campaign itself is a significant exercise in the engagement and persuasion of wider international audiences who have interests in and expectations of the UNSC candidate nations. Drawing in particular upon ...


Realising Australia's International Education As Public Diplomacy, Caitlin Byrne, Rebecca Hall Sep 2013

Realising Australia's International Education As Public Diplomacy, Caitlin Byrne, Rebecca Hall

Caitlin Byrne

Australia’s international education serves as public diplomacy, essentially engaging and influencing public audiences in ways that progress Australian foreign policy priorities and national interests. The multidimensional and increasingly globalised nature of international education presents enormous opportunity for vital exchange and interactions between and with students, academics and communities via onshore and offshore modes of delivery. Positive experiences of student mobility and the development of intellectual, commercial and social relationships can build upon a nation’s reputation, and enhance the ability of that nation to participate in and influence regional or global outcomes. This is ultimately the essence of soft ...


Patterns Of Anti-Muslim Violence In Burma: A Call For Accountability And Prevention, Andrea Gittleman, Marissa Brodney, Holly G. Atkinson Aug 2013

Patterns Of Anti-Muslim Violence In Burma: A Call For Accountability And Prevention, Andrea Gittleman, Marissa Brodney, Holly G. Atkinson

Publications and Research

In this report, the authors documents how persecution of and violence against the Rohingya in Burma has spread to other Muslim communities throughout the country. Physicians for Human Rights conducted eight separate investigations in Burma and the surrounding region between 2004 and 2013. PHR’s most recent field research in early 2013 indicates a need for renewed attention to violence against minorities and impunity for such crimes. The findings presented in this report are based on investigations conducted in Burma over two separate visits for a combined 21-day period between March and May 2013.


Postwar Reconstruction In Liberia: The Participation And Recognition Of Women In Politics In Liberia, Roland Tuwea Clarke Jul 2013

Postwar Reconstruction In Liberia: The Participation And Recognition Of Women In Politics In Liberia, Roland Tuwea Clarke

Dissertations and Theses

Despite the remarkable contributions made by women to secure peace in Liberia, women's representation in politics is still low. The first female African President has been elected, as well as a few women to strategic government positions, but the vast majority of women remain invisible. The reliance on these few women in government is inadequate to produce the significant changes that will be required to bring equality for all women.

This study examines the recognition of women's relative participation and recognition in postwar reconstruction in Liberia. Differences between traditional and non-traditional women's participation in Liberia were found ...


心态决定国运 (Attitude Determines National Destiny), Shanghai, China: Oriental Morning Post, July 11, 2013., Zheng Wang Jul 2013

心态决定国运 (Attitude Determines National Destiny), Shanghai, China: Oriental Morning Post, July 11, 2013., Zheng Wang

Zheng Wang

No abstract provided.


Rhode Island Helps To Weaken Iranian Regime, Donna M. Hughes Dr. Jul 2013

Rhode Island Helps To Weaken Iranian Regime, Donna M. Hughes Dr.

Donna M. Hughes

No abstract provided.


The Complexity Of Armed Conflict In Mindanao: Beyond Economic Deprivation, Discrimination, And Inequality, Nasser Pendatun Lidasan Jul 2013

The Complexity Of Armed Conflict In Mindanao: Beyond Economic Deprivation, Discrimination, And Inequality, Nasser Pendatun Lidasan

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

Studies on internal conflict focus on bringing a violent conflict to non-violent. Economic development and good governance are most attractive since essential services are provided to people, regardless of ethnic affiliation. Autonomy for minority groups to maintain the integrity of a state is another option. Applied in Mindanao conflict, negotiated settlement, separation, and military victory did not create a lasting peace. This study applies the levels of analysis framework to investigate the conflict and considers the sub-state level as vital. It suggests the role of local actors as crucial in intrastate conflict. It examines the dynamics of conflict at the ...


The Diaoyu/Senkaku Dispute As An Identity-Based Conflict: Toward Sino-Japan Reconciliation, Zheng Wang Jun 2013

The Diaoyu/Senkaku Dispute As An Identity-Based Conflict: Toward Sino-Japan Reconciliation, Zheng Wang

Zheng Wang

No abstract provided.


Clash Of National Identities: China, Japan, And The East China Sea Territorial Dispute, Zheng Wang Jun 2013

Clash Of National Identities: China, Japan, And The East China Sea Territorial Dispute, Zheng Wang

Zheng Wang

No abstract provided.


Perception Gaps, Identity Clashes, Zheng Wang Jun 2013

Perception Gaps, Identity Clashes, Zheng Wang

Zheng Wang

No abstract provided.


Narratives Of War In Islamic Societies, Whose Side Is God On?, Ahmed Souaiaia Jun 2013

Narratives Of War In Islamic Societies, Whose Side Is God On?, Ahmed Souaiaia

Ahmed E SOUAIAIA

The so-called Arab Spring ushered in a new era of conflict that is transforming Islamic societies in unprecedented ways. In the past two years, peaceful protests ousted some of the most ruthless dictators of the Arab world. Then, violent rebellions destroyed communities in Libya and Syria, stifled the non-violent movement, and amplified sectarian tensions by interjecting God into some of the most gruesome conflicts. By looking at the Syrian crisis as a case study, in this article I explore the function of narratives in managing war and the nature and evolution of Islamism in Islamic societies.


Fourth Time's The Charm?: Modeling A Psychologically-Based Peace Iv Program In Northern Ireland, Cailin A. Rogers Jun 2013

Fourth Time's The Charm?: Modeling A Psychologically-Based Peace Iv Program In Northern Ireland, Cailin A. Rogers

The Macalester Review

Abstract: Social conflict has consumed Northern Ireland for centuries. The relationship between Catholic Nationalists and Protestant Loyalists has proved difficult to reconcile–current policy approaches have been unable to attain peace. This paper seeks to explore the gaps in policy created by ignoring the important distinction between the social identities Nationalists and Loyalists have created and which they continue to perpetuate. This paper examines Social identity theory in context of Northern Ireland and applies the psychology of disparate community identities to current policies and trends in Northern Ireland to suggest reasons for a lack of progress towards peace. Unfortunately, contemporary ...


A Turkish Spring Even If Different From The Arab Spring, Ahmed Souaiaia Jun 2013

A Turkish Spring Even If Different From The Arab Spring, Ahmed Souaiaia

Ahmed E SOUAIAIA

The wide-spreading protest movement in Turkey is bringing up the irresistible analogy: Taksim Square is for Turkey what Tahrir Square is for Egypt. Considering that Tahrir Square events were the extension of the protest movement that started it all from Tunisia, it follows that the turmoil in Turkey is similar to the so-called Arab Spring. But most observers and media analysts are dismissing Taksim Square movement arguing that Turkey’s uprising is not similar to the Arab Spring because Erdoğan and his party are democratically elected and that Erdoğan has governed over a period of unprecedented economic prosperity.


A False Start: The Role Of Ballistic Missile Defense In Us-Russian Relations, Matthew Elisha Dillon May 2013

A False Start: The Role Of Ballistic Missile Defense In Us-Russian Relations, Matthew Elisha Dillon

Senior Thesis Projects, 2013

In response to Iranian nuclear ambition the US and NATO have enacted a collective security initiative that will install Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) technology throughout Europe. However, during an otherwise cooperative period in US-Russian relations (e.g., the Obama administration’s “Reset” and the New Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty or START), NATO’s posture in Eastern Europe has compelled Russia to likewise reinforce its defenses and develop measures to incapacitate opposing BMD systems. This research analyzes the political impacts of BMD on US-Russian relations, focusing particularly on NATO’s European Phased Adaptive Approach (EPAA) program--described above.


Massacre In Central Burma: Muslim Students Terrorized And Killed In Meiktila, Richard Sollom, Holly G. Atkinson May 2013

Massacre In Central Burma: Muslim Students Terrorized And Killed In Meiktila, Richard Sollom, Holly G. Atkinson

Publications and Research

This report details the results of a Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) investigation into the March 20 and 21, 2013, attacks on Muslim students, teachers, and residents in the Mingalar Zayyone quarter of Meiktila, a small town in central Burma.

A two-person team, the authors of the report, from PHR conducted 33 interviews about the attacks, which resulted in the deaths of at least 20 children and four teachers. The report details the attacks by the Buddhist mobs, provides evidence that local police officers were complicit in the crimes, and lists policy recommendations for the Burmese government and the international ...


Making War And Securing Peace: The Viability Of Peace Enforcement As A Mechanism For Promoting And Securing Civil War Termination, Shawn H. Greene May 2013

Making War And Securing Peace: The Viability Of Peace Enforcement As A Mechanism For Promoting And Securing Civil War Termination, Shawn H. Greene

Political Science Honors Projects

Peace enforcement—the threat or use of military force to compel belligerent adherence to a civil war settlement—has become increasingly salient in the past decade. Using a hazards analysis of all civil wars and associated third party interventions between 1945 and 2013 in addition to three structured, focused case studies, I argue that peace enforcement operations that 1) utilize the appropriate typological spoiler management strategy and 2) maintain legitimacy and impartiality through close cooperation with UN peacekeepers, are the most successful at catalyzing civil war termination and securing durable peace. I also provide a theoretical framework through which to ...


The European Union In The Quartet: Acceptance And Influence In The Middle East Peace Process, Cassandra V. Emmons Apr 2013

The European Union In The Quartet: Acceptance And Influence In The Middle East Peace Process, Cassandra V. Emmons

Claremont-UC Undergraduate Research Conference on the European Union

No abstract provided.


Repurposed Narratives: The Battle Of Ṣiffīn And The Historical Memory Of The Umayyad Dynasty, Aaron M. Hagler Apr 2013

Repurposed Narratives: The Battle Of Ṣiffīn And The Historical Memory Of The Umayyad Dynasty, Aaron M. Hagler

Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Multidisciplinary Studies

The Battle of Ṣiffīn (36/657) is the flash point in the emergence of sects within Islam. The presentation of the Ṣiffīn story in Arabic historical writing therefore changed over time as the sectarian split among Sunnīs and Shīʿites became increasingly defined. This paper will trace the development of the presentation of the Ṣiffīn story in Arabic histories across developing Sunnī and Shīʿite identity crystallization and the region of origin of their authors, as well as literary and stylistic developments in the field of Arabic historical writing.

The specific historians examined have been chosen in part because they demonstrate a ...


Center For Peace, Democracy, And Development, Center For Peace, Democracy, And Development, University Of Massachusetts Boston Apr 2013

Center For Peace, Democracy, And Development, Center For Peace, Democracy, And Development, University Of Massachusetts Boston

Office of Community Partnerships Posters

The Center for Peace, Democracy, and Development is dedicated to advancing peace, democracy, rule of law, and economic and social development in developing areas abroad.


The Forum For Cities In Transition: An Initiative Of The Moakley Chair Of Peace And Reconciliation, Padraig O'Malley Apr 2013

The Forum For Cities In Transition: An Initiative Of The Moakley Chair Of Peace And Reconciliation, Padraig O'Malley

Office of Community Partnerships Posters

FCT is an international network of mayors, councilors, municipal officials, business people, and representatives of the voluntary and community sector. The Forum works on the principle that cities that are in conflict or have emerged from conflict (divided societies) are in the best position to help other cities in similar situations. The Forum for Cities in Transition was founded by Professor Padraig O’Malley as an initiative of the John Joseph Moakley Chair of Peace and Reconciliation at the University of Massachusetts Boston.


How To Know If You're An Extremist, Katherine M. White Apr 2013

How To Know If You're An Extremist, Katherine M. White

SURGE

I’m a serious West Wing fan. I love it because it not only gives me a little insight into what is obviously a totally accurate depiction of what life is like working in the White House (right?) but it also makes me think. Take this scene from season 3 as an example:

Josh Lyman, the Deputy White House Chief, is stuck in the White House cafeteria with a group of high school students while the White House is under emergency lockdown. Since the students have been promised the opportunity to speak to influential people in D.C. during their ...


From Cyber Terrorism To State Actors’ Covert Cyber Operations, Jan Kallberg, Bhavani Thuraisingham Mar 2013

From Cyber Terrorism To State Actors’ Covert Cyber Operations, Jan Kallberg, Bhavani Thuraisingham

Jan Kallberg

Historically, since the Internet started to become a common feature in our lives, hackers have been seen as a major threat. This view has repeatedly been entrenched and distributed by media coverage and commentaries through the years. Instead the first twenty year of the Internet was acceptably secure, due to the limited abilities of the attackers, compared to the threat generated from a militarized Internet with state actors conducting cyber operations. In reality, the Internet have a reversed trajectory for its security where it has become more unsafe over time and moved from a threat to the individual to a ...


Citizen Responsibility For War In Imperfect Democracies, Lisa Rivera Mar 2013

Citizen Responsibility For War In Imperfect Democracies, Lisa Rivera

Lisa Rivera

Are individual citizens of imperfect democracies morally responsible for unjust wars waged by their state? Moral responsibility for unjust wars involves both retrospective and social responsibility. Citizens of imperfect democracies are retrospectively responsible when they choose to vote for a leader they know will wage an unjust war. This situation may occur very rarely. For example, US citizens did not have this political option at the outset of the Vietnam and Iraq Wars. However, even when citizens are not retrospectively responsible they have the social responsibility to engage in collective action to address the harms unjust war causes.


Nuclear Deterrence In A Second Obama Term, Adam Lowther, Jan Kallberg Mar 2013

Nuclear Deterrence In A Second Obama Term, Adam Lowther, Jan Kallberg

Jan Kallberg

In the months prior to the 2012 presidential election in the United States, members of the Obama administration and sympathetic organizations inside the Beltway began floating the idea that the administration would pursue – after an Obama victory – further reductions in the US nuclear arsenal. With the ink still wet on the New ST ART Treaty, efforts to reduce the American arsenal to 1000 operationally deployed strategic nuclear weapons or, as some suggest, 500, is certainly premature. These efforts illustrate a poor understanding of nuclear deterrence theory and practice and the ramifications of a United States that lacks a credible nuclear ...


A New Nation, A Brighter Future? Strategic Norwegian Oil Development Assistance In South Sudan, Even Kvelland Mar 2013

A New Nation, A Brighter Future? Strategic Norwegian Oil Development Assistance In South Sudan, Even Kvelland

The Macalester Review

Post-independence South Sudan faces numerous development obstacles and many consider oil to be a redeeming factor for the new state. This paper discusses the resource curse related to the country’s oil industry and how with proper management, the oil can largely benefit the new state. It explores Norway’s history of oil development and examines ways in which Norway can assist South Sudan in managing their oil, making it the most effective for the people. Key elements of the assistance are the implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, technical support focusing on increased oil recovery, and building stronger state ...