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2011

Political Science Faculty Publications

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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Accentuating The Negative: Reply To Hertel And Arat, Rhoda E. Howard-Hassmann Dec 2011

Accentuating The Negative: Reply To Hertel And Arat, Rhoda E. Howard-Hassmann

Political Science Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Universal Women's Rights Since 1970: The Centrality Of Autonomy And Agency, Rhoda E. Howard-Hassmann Dec 2011

Universal Women's Rights Since 1970: The Centrality Of Autonomy And Agency, Rhoda E. Howard-Hassmann

Political Science Faculty Publications

This article reviews the development of universal women’s human rights since 1970. It begins by discussing how the international feminist movement influenced the development of women’s legal human rights, and continues by reviewing three debates in the literature on women’s rights. The first debate is whether human rights as originally formulated were actually men’s rights; the second debate is about the relationship between culture and women’s rights; and the third considers the effects of globalization on women’s rights. The author defends a liberal approach to human rights via the principles of equality and autonomy ...


Reconsidering Accountability For Environmental Inspectors: Trading 'Compliance By Computer' For Relationship Building, Michelle C. Pautz Oct 2011

Reconsidering Accountability For Environmental Inspectors: Trading 'Compliance By Computer' For Relationship Building, Michelle C. Pautz

Political Science Faculty Publications

Demands for government accountability extend into all the aspects of government service and the environmental realm is no different. Environmental inspectors — the front-line workers in environmental protection agencies — are among the many civil servants who face demands for accountability. Unfortunately, although accountability is desirable normatively speaking, in practice it is not so simple. Accountability for environmental inspectors frequently involves measures such as the number of inspections completed, the efficiency of data entry in agency databases, and the turnaround time on inspection reports. Such measures leave environmental inspectors, who ideally want — and practically need — to be in the field, stuck in ...


Islam And Roman Catholicism As Transnational Political Phenomena: Notes For A Comparative Research Agenda, Ted G. Jelen, Mehran Tamadonfar Sep 2011

Islam And Roman Catholicism As Transnational Political Phenomena: Notes For A Comparative Research Agenda, Ted G. Jelen, Mehran Tamadonfar

Political Science Faculty Publications

In this paper, we offer some preliminary insights into a comparison of Islam and Roman Catholicism as transnational or “transcivilizational” political phenomena. We note that both traditions are monotheistic, offer universalist theologies, and have played important political roles both historically and in contemporary national and international politics. The comparison provides some additional insights into the role of „the sacred‟ in politics at various levels, and presents the possibility of an intermediate level of analysis in comparative politics.


Global Environmental Change And Human Security – Edited By Richard A. Matthew, Jon Barnett, Bryan Mcdonald, And Karen L. O'Brien, Elizabeth L. Chalecki Sep 2011

Global Environmental Change And Human Security – Edited By Richard A. Matthew, Jon Barnett, Bryan Mcdonald, And Karen L. O'Brien, Elizabeth L. Chalecki

Political Science Faculty Publications

Global Environmental Change and Human Security . Cambridge, MA : MIT Press . 327 pages . ISBN 978‐026251308‐1 , $25.00 paperback . Richard A. Matthew, Jon Barnett, Bryan McDonald, and Karen L. O'Brien ( Eds .). 2010 .

Environmental security is no longer a fringe field. It is a research domain “effectively established,” as the editors of this volume admit (p. 307). So it's time to stop turning out these same vague and overly theoretical “concept” books, and get cracking on how to actually solve some of the interrelated problems of global environmental change and human security. The Global Environmental Change and Human Security ...


Sell Unipolarity? The Future Of An Overvalued Concept, Jeffrey W. Legro Sep 2011

Sell Unipolarity? The Future Of An Overvalued Concept, Jeffrey W. Legro

Political Science Faculty Publications

For at least the past thirty years, scholarship on international relations has been bewitched by a simple proposition: the polarity of the international system is a central cause of great power strategies and politics. The number of "poles" (dominant countries) in the system is like an invisible fence that shapes states as if they were dogs with electronic collars or a Skinner box that conditions national "rats." States can choose to ignore the fence or box, but if they do, they must pay the consequences. The polarity of the international system as defined by the number of great powers - involving ...


In The Eye Of The Beholder? Motivated Reasoning In Disputed Elections, Kyle C. Kopko, Sarah Mckinnon Bryner, Jeffrey Budziak, Christopher J. Devine, Steven P. Nawara Jun 2011

In The Eye Of The Beholder? Motivated Reasoning In Disputed Elections, Kyle C. Kopko, Sarah Mckinnon Bryner, Jeffrey Budziak, Christopher J. Devine, Steven P. Nawara

Political Science Faculty Publications

This study uses an experimental design to simulate the ballot counting process during a hand-recount after a disputed election. Applying psychological theories of motivated reasoning to the political process, we find that ballot counters’ party identification conditionally influences their ballot counting decisions. Party identification’s effect on motivated reasoning is greater when ballot counters are given ambiguous, versus specific, instructions for determining voter intent. This study’s findings have major implications for ballot counting procedures throughout the United States and for the use of motivated reasoning in the political science literature.


No Exit: Yemen's Existential Crisis, Sheila Carapico May 2011

No Exit: Yemen's Existential Crisis, Sheila Carapico

Political Science Faculty Publications

A venal dictatorship three decades old, mutinous army officers, dissident tribal sheikhs, a parliamentary opposition coalition, youthful pro-democracy activists, gray-haired Socialists, gun-toting cowboys, veiled women protesters, northern carpetbaggers, Shi‘i insurgents, tear gas canisters, leaked State Department cables, foreign-born jihadis -- Yemen’s demi-revolutionary spring has it all. The mass uprising in southern Arabia blends features of the peaceful popular revolutions in Egypt and Tunisia with elements of the state repression in Libya and Syria in a gaudy, fast-paced, multi-layered theater of revolt verging on the absurd.


Network Legitimacy And Accountability In A Developmental Perspective, Richard K. Ghere Apr 2011

Network Legitimacy And Accountability In A Developmental Perspective, Richard K. Ghere

Political Science Faculty Publications

Public networks typically function beyond the lines of the hierarchical authorities that hold bureaucracies accountable, as is shown here in the case of a business-dominant network that exhibited ethically questionable behaviors at the expense of its community credibility. Public networks can build external legitimacy by engaging in critical organization learning processes, much the way some nongovernmental organizations respond to a diversity of stakeholders.


Legal Mobilization On The Terrain Of The State: Immigrant Rights Practice In Two National Legal Fields, Leila Kawar Apr 2011

Legal Mobilization On The Terrain Of The State: Immigrant Rights Practice In Two National Legal Fields, Leila Kawar

Political Science Faculty Publications

Scholarship on law and social movements has focused attention primarily on the United States, and secondarily on countries that share the Anglo-American legal tradition. The politics of law and social movements in other national legal contexts remains under-examined. The analysis in this article contrasts legal mobilizations for immigrant rights in France and the United States and explores the relations between national fields of power and legal practices. I trace the institutionalization of immigrant rights legal organizations in each country, and argue that the divergent organizational forms and litigation strategies adopted by “professionalized” movement organizations reflect the dynamics of the nationally-distinct ...


Conclusion: Strategy In A Murky World, Melvyn P. Leffler, Jeffrey W. Legro Apr 2011

Conclusion: Strategy In A Murky World, Melvyn P. Leffler, Jeffrey W. Legro

Political Science Faculty Publications

Making national strategy is a byzantine business in the best of times. When dramatic events happen, when the international arena is complex and changing, when threats and opportunities are uncertain, leaders struggle to understand and react effectively. The fall of the Berlin Wall and the attacks of 9/11 opened vistas that were unfamiliar and complicated. How did U.S. leaders manage those transitions?


Introduction: Navigating The Unknown, Melvyn P. Leffler, Jeffrey W. Legro Apr 2011

Introduction: Navigating The Unknown, Melvyn P. Leffler, Jeffrey W. Legro

Political Science Faculty Publications

On November 9, 1989, the Berlin Wall came down. Hardly anyone had foreseen this event. When President Ronald Reagan had challenged Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev in June 1987 “to tear down this wall,” he never anticipated that Berliners themselves would have the opportunity and courage to bring about such dramatic change. We now know that the Wall came down as a result of accidental circumstances, a series of mistaken statements and understandings among officials of the German Democratic Republic. No one had planned for this to happen, and no one had plans to deal with a new landscape that might ...


How Our Life Experiences Affect Our Politics: The Roles Of Vested Interest And Affect In Shaping Policy Preferences, Gregory A. Petrow, Timothy Vercellotti Apr 2011

How Our Life Experiences Affect Our Politics: The Roles Of Vested Interest And Affect In Shaping Policy Preferences, Gregory A. Petrow, Timothy Vercellotti

Political Science Faculty Publications

Scholars investigating the role of self-interest in determining policy preferences find that self-interest has weak effects. However, researchers have refined their concepts of self-interest and are now finding a greater role for it (e.g., Crano 1995). We continue along this line of research, considering different mechanisms by which self-interest may come to be important. We argue that measuring people’s perceived self-interest in a policy (which we call vested interest) is important for understanding how people pursue their self-interest. We find that while life circumstances can cause people to endorse vested interest, emotion is an important mediator of this ...


The Vice Presidential Home State Advantage Reconsidered: Analyzing The Interactive Effect Of Home State Population And Political Experience, 1884-2008, Christopher J. Devine, Kyle C. Kopko Mar 2011

The Vice Presidential Home State Advantage Reconsidered: Analyzing The Interactive Effect Of Home State Population And Political Experience, 1884-2008, Christopher J. Devine, Kyle C. Kopko

Political Science Faculty Publications

Previous research has found that presidential tickets perform particularly well in a vice presidential candidate's home state when that state is relatively low in population. In this article, we argue that selecting a vice presidential candidate from a small state is not sufficient to produce a large vice presidential home state advantage; rather, state population should matter only insofar as the vice presidential candidate has extensive experience within that state's political system. Analysis of presidential election returns from 1884 through 2008 demonstrates the statistically significant interactive effect of home state population and political experience on the size of ...


Data Management Plan For Ncrn-Sn: Controlling Costs And Maintaining Survey Quality: Measuring The Impact Of Response Mode On Survey Response, Lonna Atkeson, Paul Zandbergen, Philip Stark Feb 2011

Data Management Plan For Ncrn-Sn: Controlling Costs And Maintaining Survey Quality: Measuring The Impact Of Response Mode On Survey Response, Lonna Atkeson, Paul Zandbergen, Philip Stark

Political Science Faculty Publications

Data management plan for grant application "NCRN-SN: Controlling Costs and Maintaining Survey Quality: Measuring the Impact of Response Mode on Survey Response"


The Cost Of Going For The Gavel: Individual Candidate Spending In Intermediate Appellate Court Elections, Brian Frederick, Matthew J. Streb Jan 2011

The Cost Of Going For The Gavel: Individual Candidate Spending In Intermediate Appellate Court Elections, Brian Frederick, Matthew J. Streb

Political Science Faculty Publications

Substantial research in recent years has studied judicial campaign spending. Most of this research has concentrated on state supreme court elections. Less is known about candidate spending in lower-level judicial elections. Moreover, research has focused on the costs of campaigns with the race as the unit of analysis. This study probes patterns of spending by 470 candidates in all contested races for state immediate appellate court seats from 2000 to 2009. It makes the first comprehensive evaluation of the systematic factors that drive spending in lower-level judicial elections with the individual candidate as the unit of analysis. It explores several ...


The Efficiency Of Institutions: Political Determinants Of Oil Consumption In Democracies, John S. Duffield, Charles R. Hankla Jan 2011

The Efficiency Of Institutions: Political Determinants Of Oil Consumption In Democracies, John S. Duffield, Charles R. Hankla

Political Science Faculty Publications

Oil consumption has varied significantly among democracies, but scholars have not systematically studied the political determinants of this variation. We examine the effects of political institutions on a democratic country’s propensity to consume oil. We argue that, other things being equal, more centralized national political institutions facilitate the adoption of policies that lower oil intensity. Our primary focus is on the impact of veto players, but we also consider electoral systems, party organization, and legislative-executive relations separately. We evaluate our hypotheses with a TSCS analysis of all democracies since the first oil shock in 1973 (contingent on data availability ...


Japan’S New Basic Energy Plan, John S. Duffield, Brian Woodall Jan 2011

Japan’S New Basic Energy Plan, John S. Duffield, Brian Woodall

Political Science Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Germany And Eu Energy Policy: Conflicted Champion Of Integration?, John S. Duffield, Kirsten Westphal Jan 2011

Germany And Eu Energy Policy: Conflicted Champion Of Integration?, John S. Duffield, Kirsten Westphal

Political Science Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


The Upheaval In Eu Energy Policy, John S. Duffield, Vicki Birchfield Jan 2011

The Upheaval In Eu Energy Policy, John S. Duffield, Vicki Birchfield

Political Science Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Taking Stock Of Eu Energy Policy, Vicki Birchfield, John S. Duffield Jan 2011

Taking Stock Of Eu Energy Policy, Vicki Birchfield, John S. Duffield

Political Science Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Religion, Politics, And Polity Replication: Religious Differences In Preferences For Institutional Design, Joshua D. Ambrosius Jan 2011

Religion, Politics, And Polity Replication: Religious Differences In Preferences For Institutional Design, Joshua D. Ambrosius

Political Science Faculty Publications

This article presents a theory of polity replication in which religious congregants prefer institutions in other realms of society, including the state, to be structured like their church. Polities, or systems of church governance and administration, generally take one of three forms: episcopal (hierarchical/centralized), presbyterian (collegial/regional), or congregational (autonomous/decentralized). When asked to cast a vote to shape institutions in a centralizing or decentralizing manner, voters are influenced by organizational values shaped by their respective religious traditions‘ polity structures. Past social scientific scholarship has neglected to explicitly connect religious affiliation, defined by polity, with members‘ stances on institutional ...


Mujeres Y Bienestar: Un Estudio Comparativo De Chile Y Uruguay, Jennifer Pribble Jan 2011

Mujeres Y Bienestar: Un Estudio Comparativo De Chile Y Uruguay, Jennifer Pribble

Political Science Faculty Publications

Es ampliamente reconocido por economistas, cientistas políticos y sociólogos que las mujeres constituyen una proporción muy alta de la pobreza mundial. A pesar de las marcadas diferencias de género entre los pobres latinoamericanos, los análisis de los Estados de bienestar de Ia región se han concentrado primordialmente en explicar las diferencias en los niveles del gasto socialo total. Este enfoque ha dejado de lado una variable importante en los regímenes de bienestar latinoamericanos: el carácter de género en las políticas sociales. Este trabajo pretende cubrir esa brecha. Mediante un análisis comparativo de Chile y Uruguay, las páginas que siguen exploran ...


Finding A Place For Marginal Migrants In The International Human Rights System, Leila Kawar Jan 2011

Finding A Place For Marginal Migrants In The International Human Rights System, Leila Kawar

Political Science Faculty Publications

This article examines how international human rights law is shaping the politics of immigration. It argues that migrant human rights are neither conceptually nor practically incompatible with an international order premised upon state territorial sovereignty, and that the specific aesthetics of the contemporary international human rights system, namely its formalistic and legalistic tendencies, has facilitated its integration with a realm of policymaking traditionally reserved to state discretion. An exploration of two areas in the emerging field of migrant human rights traces the multi-scalar transnational legal processes through which these norms are formulated and internalized.


Entrapment Or Freedom: Enforcing Customary Property Rights Regimes In Common-Law Africa, Sandra F. Joireman Jan 2011

Entrapment Or Freedom: Enforcing Customary Property Rights Regimes In Common-Law Africa, Sandra F. Joireman

Political Science Faculty Publications

This chapter examines customary property rights and the role of customary leaders in enforcing those property rights from an institutionalist perspective. The issue of societal benefit is at the forefront of this chapter, which proceeds in three parts. Subchapter 13.2 discusses the pervasiveness of customary tenure and customary authority structures throughout Sub-Saharan Africa and their genesis in the colonial era. Subchapter 13.3 notes the lack of consistency between statutory law and customary law, which leads to a pluralistic legal setting. This part also identifies the winners and losers within customary legal systems. Subchapter 13.4 discusses how we ...


Republicanism, Richard Dagger Jan 2011

Republicanism, Richard Dagger

Political Science Faculty Publications

Republicanism is an ancient tradition of political thought that has enjoyed a remarkable revival in recent years. As with liberalism, conservatism, and other enduring political traditions, there is considerable disagreement as to exactly what republicanism is and who counts as a republican, whether in the ancient world or contemporary times. Scholars agree, however, that republicanism rests on the conviction that government is not the domain of some ruler or small set of rulers, but is instead a public matter - the res publica - to be directed by self-governing citizens.


Social Contracts, Fair Play, And The Justification Of Punishment, Richard Dagger Jan 2011

Social Contracts, Fair Play, And The Justification Of Punishment, Richard Dagger

Political Science Faculty Publications

In recent years, the counterintuitive claim that criminals consent to their own punishment has been revived by philosophers who attempt to ground the justification of punishment in some version of the social contract. In this paper, I examine three such attempts—“contractarian” essays by Christopher Morris and Claire Finkelstein and an essay by Corey Brettschneider from the rival “contractualist” camp—and I find all three unconvincing. Each attempt is plausible, I argue, but its plausibility derives not from the appeal to a social contract but from considerations of fair play. Rather than look to the social contract for a justification ...


Jurisdiction‐Granting: Legislative Capacity And Ideological Distance, Seth W. Greenfest Jan 2011

Jurisdiction‐Granting: Legislative Capacity And Ideological Distance, Seth W. Greenfest

Political Science Faculty Publications

This paper examines the conditions under which Congress passes jurisdiction-granting legislation, legislation that expands the discretion of the federal district courts by designating them as venues in which policy questions are to be heard. This project extends existing research that has demonstrated that Congress manipulates the parameters of jurisdiction by examining the manner in which Congress routinely engages in this activity. I construct and evaluate a comprehensive dataset of laws in which Congress grants jurisdiction to the district courts for the period between 1949 and 2000 with the goal of explaining conditions under which Congress grants jurisdiction Two explanations are ...