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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Two Political Worlds? The Relevance Of Language In California Politics, D. Xavier Medina Vidal, Antonio Ugues, Shaun Bowler, Todd Donovan Oct 2009

Two Political Worlds? The Relevance Of Language In California Politics, D. Xavier Medina Vidal, Antonio Ugues, Shaun Bowler, Todd Donovan

Political Science Faculty Publications

In this paper we examine how Spanish language marks a political divide within the Latino community. Spanish language use also provides an opportunity for political parties to send slightly different campaign messages. We illustrate this point with reference to California’s Democratic party


Explaining The Decision To Withdraw From A U.S. Presidential Nomination Campaign, David F. Damore, Thomas Hansford, A. Barghothi Sep 2009

Explaining The Decision To Withdraw From A U.S. Presidential Nomination Campaign, David F. Damore, Thomas Hansford, A. Barghothi

Political Science Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Presidents With Prime Ministers: Do Direct Elections Matter? - Book Review, Amir Abedi Sep 2009

Presidents With Prime Ministers: Do Direct Elections Matter? - Book Review, Amir Abedi

Political Science Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


U.S. Standing In The World: Causes, Consequences, And The Future, Jeffrey W. Legro, Peter J. Katzenstein Sep 2009

U.S. Standing In The World: Causes, Consequences, And The Future, Jeffrey W. Legro, Peter J. Katzenstein

Political Science Faculty Publications

America’s global standing has become a central concern of U.S. leaders and citizens. U.S. leaders, regardless of party, pledge to “restore U.S. standing” as a central goal of America’s foreign policy agenda. Standing has been the subject of widespread public discussion and intellectual debate.

Yet despite all this attention, three issues fundamental to standing have been relatively ignored:

-What is standing and how has it varied?
-What causes standing to rise and fall?
-What impact does standing have on U.S. foreign policy?

This task force answers these questions by synthesizing what we now know ...


The Other Forgotten War: Understanding Atrocities During The Malayan Emergency, Christi Siver Sep 2009

The Other Forgotten War: Understanding Atrocities During The Malayan Emergency, Christi Siver

Political Science Faculty Publications

In this chapter, I briefly outline the dependent variable in this case, the various units actively engaged in combat in Malaya between 1948 and 1952. I then explore the most common explanations for the Scots Guards’ actions and reveal why they are not helpful in explaining why other units did not similarly kill civilians. To better understand this variation, I explore three alternative explanations: Did the military socialize units in the laws of war and appropriate behavior toward civilians? Did government leaders encourage units to kill civilians? Finally, did different units’ subcultures make them more likely to kill civilians? I ...


Politics, Policies, And Poverty In Latin America, Jennifer Pribble, Evelyne Huber, John D. Stephens Jul 2009

Politics, Policies, And Poverty In Latin America, Jennifer Pribble, Evelyne Huber, John D. Stephens

Political Science Faculty Publications

Why do Latin American countries exhibit stark differences in their ability to protect citizens from falling into poverty? Analysis of poverty levels measured by ECLAC in eighteen countries shows that political factors-including the democratic record, long-term weight of left-of-center parties in the legislature, and investment in human capital-are significant and substantively important determinants of poverty. These findings contribute to the growing literature that emphasizes the importance of regime form, parties, and policies for a variety of outcomes in Latin America, despite the weaknesses of democracy and the pathologies of some parties and party systems in the region.


Riding Obama's Coattails: The Democrats Finally Take The Ohio 1st, Randall E. Adkins, Gregory A. Petrow Jul 2009

Riding Obama's Coattails: The Democrats Finally Take The Ohio 1st, Randall E. Adkins, Gregory A. Petrow

Political Science Faculty Publications

In 2006 the Democratic Party swept both houses of Congress. It was a tidal wave. For the first time since 1994, both branches of the legislature were under Democratic Party control. While many of his Republican colleagues lost in 2006, Steve Chabot survived by narrowly defeating Cin-cinnati City Council member John Cranley by roughly 9,000 votes. The political environment favored the Democrats again in 2008, and this year the Democrats believed that Steve Driehaus, the Minority Whip in the Ohio state legislature, was the person to unseat Chabot.


Climatic Cataclysm: The Foreign Policy And National Security Implications Of Climate Change – Edited By Kurt M. Campbell, Elizabeth L. Chalecki Jun 2009

Climatic Cataclysm: The Foreign Policy And National Security Implications Of Climate Change – Edited By Kurt M. Campbell, Elizabeth L. Chalecki

Political Science Faculty Publications

Climatic Cataclysm: The Foreign Policy and National Security Implications of Climate Change . Washington, DC : Brookings Institution Press . 237 pages. ISBN 978‐0‐8157‐1332‐6 , $28.95 cloth. Edited by Kurt M. Campbell . 2008 .

Awkward title notwithstanding, Climatic Cataclysm is the first attempt at a systematic generation of future climate scenarios and their possible security and foreign policy impacts, and as such is sorely overdue in the field of environmental security. Much of the scholarly literature in this field is devoted to statistical models and general theories; what is lacking is serious national security consideration of the best climate science ...


The Ties That Bind The United States: A Recount (Book Review), Jeffrey W. Legro May 2009

The Ties That Bind The United States: A Recount (Book Review), Jeffrey W. Legro

Political Science Faculty Publications

Review of the book, World Out of Balance: International Relations and the Challenge of American Primacy by Stephen G. Brooks and William C. Wohlworth. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008.


Why Urbanists Need Religion, Joshua D. Ambrosius Apr 2009

Why Urbanists Need Religion, Joshua D. Ambrosius

Political Science Faculty Publications

This essay summarizes a conference paper presented at the October 2008 Society for the Scientific Study of Religion meeting in Louisville, Kentucky. The paper was reviewed by several leading scholars.


Response To Book Review (To Lead The World: American Strategy After The Bush Doctrine, Melvyn P. Leffler, Jeffrey W. Legro Mar 2009

Response To Book Review (To Lead The World: American Strategy After The Bush Doctrine, Melvyn P. Leffler, Jeffrey W. Legro

Political Science Faculty Publications

Response to Book Review (To Lead the World: American Strategy after the Bush Doctrine)

We want to thank the commentators for their thoughtful and constructive remarks on our book. We think they highlight some of the key attributes of the volume and raise key issues for further reflection.

In order for readers of H-Diplo to understand the comments, we want to reiterate here what we stated in the introduction to the book. We tried to bring together some of the nation’s most renowned scholars and public intellectuals from all sides of the political spectrum to focus on what should ...


Reflections On The Cuban Revolution, Gary Prevost Mar 2009

Reflections On The Cuban Revolution, Gary Prevost

Political Science Faculty Publications

When I visited Cuba in the first few days of 1992, it was not clear that the revolution would survive. Food was in relatively short supply and electricity blackouts were common. Even long-time supporters of the revolution were pessimistic about the future. Everything that had been accomplished in its first 32 years seemed in jeopardy when the Soviet Union went out of existence at the end of 1991 and canceled most of its trade deals with Cuba. The country’s gross domestic product was in the process of shrinking by 50 percent. How did the Cuban Revolution survive that shock ...


Religious Freedom: Virginia Doesn't Need A New Statute, Ellis M. West Feb 2009

Religious Freedom: Virginia Doesn't Need A New Statute, Ellis M. West

Political Science Faculty Publications

One would think that Virginians would be united and steadfast in their devotion to the Statute for Religious Freedom, written by Thomas Jefferson, adopted by the General Assembly in 1786, and since then praised by liberty-loving persons throughout the world. Currently, however, a group spearheaded by a few professors at Christopher Newport University and by the editor of the Religious Herald, the newspaper of the largest association of Baptists in Virginia, wants to "update" Jefferson's statute so that it guarantees religious people a "right to participate in the public forum, and express their points of view." On Jan. 24 ...


Germany And Energy Security In The 2000s: Rise And Fall Of A Policy Issue?, John S. Duffield Jan 2009

Germany And Energy Security In The 2000s: Rise And Fall Of A Policy Issue?, John S. Duffield

Political Science Faculty Publications

After some two decades of inattention, the issue of energy security once again moved to the top of the policy agenda in Germany in the mid-2000s. After briefly achieving renewed prominence, however, it was eclipsed in German energy policy, at least temporarily, by heightened concerns about climate change. This paper explains the re-emergence of concerns about energy insecurity in recent years as well as the reasons for their subsequent overshadowing. It describes and explains the steps that have been taken during this period to promote German energy security and analyzes their adequacy. The paper identifies a number of reasons to ...


What Does It Mean, "Promoting Democratization"?, Sheila Carapico Jan 2009

What Does It Mean, "Promoting Democratization"?, Sheila Carapico

Political Science Faculty Publications

Political speeches and even policy analysis from Washington, Ottawa, and the capitals of Europe in the past two decades about promoting democratization tend towards generalities and platitudes. This research asks what Western and international agencies actually do, on the ground in the Middle East, by way of fomenting democracy. Taking my inspiration from the sociologist Albert Hirschman who decades ago observed that projects are “privileged particles”[i] of socio-economic development assistance, I’ve collected well over twelve hundred examples.[ii] This summary table illustrates the aggregate finding that most projects cluster around electoral representation, legal or judicial development, and support ...


Beyond Expectations: Effects Of Early Elections In Us Presidential Nomination Contests, Todd Donovan, Rob Hunsaker Jan 2009

Beyond Expectations: Effects Of Early Elections In Us Presidential Nomination Contests, Todd Donovan, Rob Hunsaker

Political Science Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Anabaptism And The State: An Uneasy Coexistence, Sandra F. Joireman Jan 2009

Anabaptism And The State: An Uneasy Coexistence, Sandra F. Joireman

Political Science Faculty Publications

In any compilation of Christian views of the state, the Anabaptist position stands out as unique or, if one wanted to be less complimentary, extreme. The Anabaptist view of the state is less focused on articulating the division between church and state responsibilities than the Reformed or Lutheran traditions. Indeed, Anabaptists have no assigned role for government beyond the creation of order, emphasizing scriptural interpretations that give primacy to the church in the life of a Christian. As a result, political theology distances Anabaptists from both the Catholic Church and the mainstream of the Reformation.


Still Hungry (Book Review), Sandra F. Joireman Jan 2009

Still Hungry (Book Review), Sandra F. Joireman

Political Science Faculty Publications

While I was conducting a research project on property rights in southern Ethiopia in 1994, I watched truck after truck roll into the community to distribute food aid. I asked a local farmer if the harvest had been bad. He assured me of his abundant harvest of tomatoes and onions—cash crops that he normally couldn't plant because he had to focus on feeding his family. However, he explained, with all the food aid they were now getting, he did not have to worry about feeding his family, so he could use his land to make some extra cash ...


Republicanism And Crime, Richard Dagger Jan 2009

Republicanism And Crime, Richard Dagger

Political Science Faculty Publications

These are but two of the difficult questions that arise when one examines the claim that crime is a public wrong. I take it, though, that their difficulty is an indication of the importance of thinking through the presuppositions and implications of this conception of crime, not a reason to abandon it. A thorough 'thinking through' is too large and complex a task for this chapter, but it is possible to make a case here for the right way to proceed with such an undertaking. That right way, in my view, is to look to the republican tradition of political ...


Entitlements, Daniel Palazzolo Jan 2009

Entitlements, Daniel Palazzolo

Political Science Faculty Publications

Entitlements are federal government programs that require payments to any individuals or organizations eligible to receive benefits defined by law. There are many different types of entitlements, though most of the entitlement expenditures of the federal government are distributed to the most vulnerable individuals in society--the poor, disabled, and elderly. Consequently, in addition to providing a legal right to payments for eligible beneficiaries, many entitlements carry a moral obligation to those in need. Moreover, some of the most costly entitlement programs, such as social security and Medicare, are supported in public opinion polls by large majorities of Americans and are ...


On The Edge Of The Law: Women’S Property Rights And Dispute Resolution In Kisii, Kenya, Sandra F. Joireman, Elin Henrysson Jan 2009

On The Edge Of The Law: Women’S Property Rights And Dispute Resolution In Kisii, Kenya, Sandra F. Joireman, Elin Henrysson

Political Science Faculty Publications

Scholars have argued that economic efficiency requires a clear definition of the rights of ownership, contract, and transfer of land. Ambiguity in the definition or enforcement of any of these rights leads to an increase in transaction costs in the exchange and transfer of land as well as a residual uncertainty after any land contract. In Kenya, government efforts at establishing clearly defined property rights and adjudication mechanisms have been plagued by the existence of alternative processes for the adjudication of disputes. Customary dispute resolution has been praised as an inexpensive alternative to official judicial processes in a legally pluralistic ...


Exceptionalism As Foreign Policy: U.S. Climate Change Policy And An Emerging Norm Of Compliance, Elizabeth L. Chalecki Jan 2009

Exceptionalism As Foreign Policy: U.S. Climate Change Policy And An Emerging Norm Of Compliance, Elizabeth L. Chalecki

Political Science Faculty Publications

Climate change is not only an environmental problem but a foreign policy problem, for the United States and indeed any country. Our best scientific knowledge about the effects of global warming predicts negative changes, from precipitation to agriculture to disease vectors. As such, it is axiomatic that nations would want to mitigate this phenomenon as early as possible. However, our current system of international law places no involuntary obligations, such as compliance with a climate mitigation treaty, on any state. In the past, if a state refused to become party to a treaty, this refusal was assumed to be without ...


The Dark Side Of The Band Of Brothers: Explaining Unit Participation In War Crimes, Christi L. Siver Jan 2009

The Dark Side Of The Band Of Brothers: Explaining Unit Participation In War Crimes, Christi L. Siver

Political Science Faculty Publications

On July 25, 1950, an American infantry unit killed a large number of refugees near the South Korean village of No Gun Ri. On December 12, 1948, a British patrol killed twenty-five civilians near the Malayan village of Batang Kali. On March 16, 1993, members of the Canadian Airborne Regiment beat a Somali teenager to death. While each of these events is horrific, they also represent only one side of the story; many units in these conflicts, facing similar threats, did not kill civilians. This variation raises a critical question: why do some units participate in war crimes while others ...


The Limits Of Self-Reliance: Emerson, Slavery, And Abolition, James Read Jan 2009

The Limits Of Self-Reliance: Emerson, Slavery, And Abolition, James Read

Political Science Faculty Publications

In the 1841 essay “Self-Reliance” Ralph Waldo Emerson presupposed a democratic society of free and equal individuals – an idealized America with a veil drawn over racial slavery. As his own commitment to the antislavery cause deepened over time Emerson sought to reconcile his ideal of self-reliance with organized political action necessary to fight slavery.

Recent scholarship has corrected the previously dominant image of Emerson as detached from politics and indifferent to abolitionism. But even as he participated in it, Emerson saw antislavery activism as a distraction from his own proper work of freeing “imprisoned spirits, imprisoned thoughts, far back in ...